Anisakis simplex products impair intestinal epithelial barrier function and occludin and zonula occludens-1 localisation in differentiated Caco-2 cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Anisakis spp. are nematode parasites found in a wide range of marine organisms. Human beings may accidentally become infected, showing the symptoms of anisakiasis and allergic responses. There has been evidence of increased intestinal permeability in A. simplex-sensitized subjects and that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients when fishery products are re-introduced into their diet. The aims of this work were to study the effect of A. simplex crude extract on the intestinal integrity and permeability by using Caco-2 cell monolayer. To analyse the capacity of Ani s 4 allergen to cross the epithelial barrier. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Cellular bioenergetics, transepithelial electrical resistance, viability, permeability, reactive oxygen species generation and immunofluorescent staining of tight junction proteins were analysed. A. simplex crude extract compromises the Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is detected at 1 hour of culture and integrity is recovered after 24 hours of culture. The epithelial barrier disruption is accompanied by an increase in paracellular permeability and reactive oxygen species production and by a delocalization of occludin and zonula occludens-1. Finally, Ani s 4, a thermostable and resistant to digestion allergen with cystatin activity, is able to cross the epithelial barrier in Caco-2 monolayer and reach a cumulative mean percentage of 22.7% of total concentration in the basolateral side after 24 hours of culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our results demonstrate that A. simplex induces an early and reversible alteration of integrity and permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayer and that an underlying mechanism of this effect would involve the oxidative stress and disruption of epithelial tight junctions. Additionally, it has been shown that Ani s 4 allergen is able to cross the epithelial barrier. These findings could explain the increased intestinal permeability observed in Anisakis-sensitized patients, the changes over time in IgE sensitization to A. simplex allergens, and the specific IgE persistence in Anisakis allergy.
Project description:The high frequency of infection by Anisakis simplex (A. simplex) has led to an increase in IgE sensitization, turning allergy to this parasite a relevant contemporary health problem. Improving the lack of conventional diagnosis test specificity is crucial to better understand these clinical scenarios. Specific IgE (sIgE) to A. simplex extract by ImmunoCAP (Anisakis-sIgE) was determined in sera from 403 blood donors (BD) from Cantabria (North of Spain) of which 51 subjects resulted sensitized. Among these latter, 47 were asymptomatic (sABD). The values of total IgE, prick-test, Anisakis-sIgE, and sIgE to Ani s 1 (anti-rAni s 1) and Ani s 7 (anti-rAni s 7) were compared between 46 sABD and 49 A. simplex allergic patients. The IgE seroprevalence by ImmunoCAP among BD was 12.65%. Allergic patients and sABD showed significant differences in all serum biomarkers evaluated. The area under the curve was assessed for Anisakis-sIgE (0.892), sIgE-rAni s 1 (0.672) and sIgE-rAni s 7 (0.668). After a severe reaction, significantly higher levels of Anisakis-sIgE and sIgE anti-rAni s 1 were detected. Determinations of sIgE by ImmunoCAP, Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 presented different sensitization patterns between allergic and asymptomatic individuals. The Ani s 1 allergen arises as a possible biomarker to detect patients at risk of suffering severe allergic reactions.
Project description:Anisakis simplex third-stage larvae are the main source of hidden allergens in marine fish products. Some Anisakis allergens are thermostable and, even highly processed, could cause hypersensitivity reactions. However, Anisakis proteome has not been studied under autoclaving conditions of 121 °C for 60 min, which is an important process in the food industry. The aim of the study was the identification and characterization of allergens, potential allergens, and other proteins of heat-treated A. simplex larvae. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify 470 proteins, including allergens-Ani s 1, Ani s 2, Ani s 3, Ani s 4, Ani s 5-and 13 potential allergens that were mainly homologs of Anisakis spp., Ascaris spp., and Acari allergens. Ani s 2, Ani s 3, Ani s 5, and three possible allergens were found among the top 25 most abundant proteins. The computational analysis allowed us to detect allergen epitopes, assign protein families, and domains as well as to annotate the localization of proteins. The predicted 3D models of proteins revealed similarities between potential allergens and homologous allergens. Despite the partial degradation of heated A. simplex antigens, their immunoreactivity with anti-A. simplex IgG antibodies was confirmed using a Western blot. In conclusion, identified epitopes of allergenic peptides highlighted that the occurrence of Anisakis proteins in thermally processed fish products could be a potential allergic hazard. Further studies are necessary to confirm the IgE immunoreactivity and thermostability of identified proteins.
Project description:Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown.To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization.Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients.Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level.IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level.Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can increase the specific IgE level in some sensitized patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a re-emerging global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis larvae. This zoonotic disease is characterized by severe gastrointestinal and/or allergic symptoms which may misdiagnosed as appendicitis, gastric ulcer or other food allergies. The Anisakis allergen Ani s 5 is a protein belonging to the SXP/RAL-2 family; it is detected exclusively in nematodes. Previous studies showed that SXP/RAL-2 proteins are active antigens; however, their structure and function remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of Ani s 5 and its main IgE and IgG4 binding regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tertiary structure of recombinant Ani s 5 in solution was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mg2+, but not Ca2+, binding was determined by band shift using SDS-PAGE. IgE and IgG4 epitopes were elucidated by microarray immunoassay and SPOTs membranes using sera from nine Anisakis allergic patients. The tertiary structure of Ani s 5 is composed of six alpha helices (H), with a Calmodulin like fold. H3 is a long, central helix that organizes the structure, with H1 and H2 packing at its N-terminus and H4 and H5 packing at its C-terminus. The orientation of H6 is undefined. Regarding epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 immunoglobulins, the same eleven peptides derived from Ani s 5 were bound by both IgE and IgG4. Peptides 14 (L40-K59), 26 (A76-A95) and 35 (I103-D122) were recognized by three out of nine sera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first reported 3D structure of an Anisakis allergen. Magnesium ion binding and structural resemblance to Calmodulin, suggest some putative functions for SXP/RAL-2 proteins. Furthermore, the IgE/IgG4 binding regions of Ani s 5 were identified as segments localized on its surface. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the interactions that occur between immunoglobulins and allergens and, in turn, facilitate the design of novel diagnostic tests and immunotherapeutic strategies.
Project description:Urticaria remains a major problem in terms of aetiology, investigation, and management, and although parasitic diseases are considered potential causes, the absence of a consistent link between parasitic infections and skin allergy symptoms leads to the need for a deeper study of parameters that support this association. The objectives of this study were to analyse a possible relationship between parasitism by Ascarididae (Toxocara canis and Anisakis simplex) and the clinical expression of urticaria and to identify possible parasitic molecular markers for improving the diagnosis of unknown urticaria aetiology. The prevalence of Toxocara and Anisakis infestations was evaluated by measuring the levels of specific IgG (sIgG) and IgE (sIgE) antibodies against crude extracts and isolated components from whole larvae of Anisakis simplex (Ani s 1, Ani s 3 and Ani s 7) and Toxocara canis (TES-120, TES-70, TES-32 and TES-26) using immunologic and molecular diagnostic methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in a group of 400 individuals. The study group consisted of 95 patients diagnosed with urticaria (55 with chronic urticaria and 40 with acute urticaria). A control group consisted of 305 subjects without urticaria (182 diagnosed with respiratory allergy and 123 without allergy). Statistically significant differences were demonstrated in the seroprevalence of specific IgG and IgE antibodies between the urticaria patients and the healthy general population when isolated ascarid antigens were evaluated. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against Ani s 1, IgE antibodies against TES-120 and IgE antibodies against TES-70 were significantly different between the control individuals (healthy general population) and patients with urticaria. Moreover, the urticaria patient group demonstrated a higher seroprevalence of antibodies (sIgE and sIgG) against Anisakis simplex larva whole extract than the control group but just with statistically diferences when sIgE was evaluated. The presence of IgE and/or IgG antibodies against Ani s 3 (tropomyosin) can help to discriminate between patients with and without urticaria. Both ascarids seem to be associated with urticaria, although in our region, Anisakis seems to have greater involvement than Toxocara in this relationship. Molecular diagnostics can be used to associate urticaria with parasite infestations. Tropomyosin and Ani s 1 were the most relevant markers to demonstrate the association between urticaria and the most relevant Ascarididae parasites in our region.
Project description:The total proteomes of Anisakis simplex s.s., A. pegreffii and their hybrid genotype have been compared by quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ approach), which considers the level of expressed proteins. Comparison was made by means of two independent experiments considering four biological replicates of A. simplex and two each for A. pegreffii and hybrid between both species. A total of 1811 and 1976 proteins have been respectively identified in the experiments using public databases. One hundred ninety-six proteins were found significantly differentially expressed, and their relationships with the nematodes' biological replicates were estimated by a multidimensional statistical approach. Results of pairwise Log2 ratio comparisons among them were statistically treated and supported in order to convert them into discrete character states. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirms the validity of the method. This comparison selected thirty seven proteins as discriminant taxonomic biomarkers among A. simplex, A. pegreffii and their hybrid genotype; 19 of these biomarkers, encoded by ten loci, are specific allergens of Anisakis (Ani s7, Ani s8, Ani s12, and Ani s14) and other (Ancylostoma secreted) is a common nematodes venom allergen. The rest of the markers comprise four unknown or non-characterized proteins; five different proteins (leucine) related to innate immunity, four proteolytic proteins (metalloendopeptidases), a lipase, a mitochondrial translocase protein, a neurotransmitter, a thyroxine transporter, and a structural collagen protein. The proposed methodology (proteomics and statistical) solidly characterize a set of proteins that are susceptible to take advantage of the new targeted proteomics.
Project description:The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.
Project description:The total proteomes of Anisakis simplex s.s., A. pegreffii and their hybrid genotype have been compared by quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ approach), which considers the level of expressed proteins. A total of 1,976 proteins have been identified using public databases. One hundred ninety six proteins were found significantly differentially expressed; results of pairwise Log2 ratio comparisons among them were statistically treated and supported in order to convert them into discrete character states. This comparison selected thirty six proteins as discriminant biomarkers among A. simplex, A. pegreffii and their hybrid genotype; eighteen of these biomarkers, encoded by nine loci, are specific allergens of Anisakis (Ani s7, Ani s8, Ani s12 and Ani s14) and other (Ancylostoma secreted) is a common nematodes venom allergen.
Project description:Commercially available serological methods for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis either are poorly specific or do not include some of the most relevant Anisakis allergens. The use of selected recombinant allergens may improve serodiagnosis. To compare the diagnostic and clinical values of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods based on Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 recombinant allergens and of the UniCAP 100 fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (CAP FEIA) system, we tested sera from 495 allergic and 25 non-food-related allergic patients. The decay in specific IgE antibodies in serum was also investigated in 15 positive patients over a period of 6 to 38 months. Considering sera that tested positive by either Ani s 1 or Ani s 7 ELISA, the CAP FEIA classified 25% of sera as falsely positive, mainly in the group of patients with the lowest levels of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies, and 1.28% of positive sera as falsely negative. Considering allergens individually, the overall sensitivities of Ani s 7 ELISA and Ani s 1 ELISA were 94% and 61%, respectively. The results also showed that anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies can be detected in serum for longer with Ani s 1 ELISA than with Ani s 7 ELISA and CAP FEIA (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that ELISA methods with Ani s 7 and Ani s 1 allergens as targets of IgE antibodies are currently the best option for serodiagnosis of human anisakiasis, combining specificity and sensitivity. The different persistence of anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 7 antibodies in serum may help clinicians to distinguish between recent and old Anisakis infections.
Project description:We undertook the first study systematically evaluating the risk of Anisakis-sensitization in Croatian fish-processing workers and potential genetic susceptibility to anisakiasis. Anti-Anisakis IgE seroprevalence and risk factors for 600 employees of Croatian fish processing facilities and 466 blood donor controls, were assessed by indirect ELISA targeted with: recombinant Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 allergens, an Anisakis crude extract, the commercial ImmunoCAP kit, and questionnaires. Genetic susceptibility to anisakiasis was evaluated by genotypisation of human leukocytes alleles (HLA). Anti-Anisakis seropositive and a fraction of negative subjects were also assessed by ELISA and Western Blot (WB) for IgG seroprevalence to Trichinella spp. Overall, the observed anti-Anisakis seroprevalence inferred by indirect ELISA was significantly higher in fish processing workers (1.8%, 95% CI 0.9-3.3%) compared to the controls (0%, 0-0.8%). Seven out of 11 Ani s 1 and Ani s 7-positives and none of selected 65 negative sera, tested positive on whole-Anisakis extract (ImmunoCAP), whereas Anisakis crude extract ELISA detected 3.9% (2.4-6.0%) seropositives in fish processing workers, three (14%) of which showed IgE reactivity to milk proteins. The highest risk associated with Anisakis-sensitization among workers was fishing in the free time, rather than any of attributes related to the occupational exposure. Although no association was observed between anti-Anisakis seropositivity and wearing gloves or protective goggles, the majority of workers (92%) wore protective gloves, minimizing the risk for Anisakis sensitization via skin contact. Six HLA alleles within DRB1 gene were significantly associated with seropositivity under dominant, allelic or recessive models. All sera confirmed negative for anti-Trichinella spp. IgG. The study exhaustively covered almost all marine fish processing workers in Croatia, reflecting real-time Anisakis sensitization status within the industry, already under the influence of wide array of allergens.