NO-Dependent Mechanisms of Myosin Heavy Chain Transcription Regulation in Rat Soleus Muscle After 7-Days Hindlimb Unloading.
ABSTRACT: It is known that nitric oxide (NO) may affect myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform mRNA transcription in skeletal muscles. The content of NO in soleus muscles decreases during rat hindlimb unloading as well as slow MyHC mRNA transcription. We aimed to detect which signaling pathways are involved in NO-dependent prevention of hindlimb-suspension (HS)-induced changes in MyHCs' expression pattern. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: cage control group (C), hindlimb suspended for 7 days (7HS), hindlimb suspended for 7 days with L-arginine administration (7HS+A) (500 mg/kg body mass), and hindlimb suspended for 7 days with both L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME administration (50 mg/kg) (7HS+A+N). L-arginine treatment during 7 days of rat HS prevented HS-induced NO content decrease and slow MyHC mRNA transcription decrease and attenuated fast MyHC IIb mRNA transcription increase; it also prevented NFATc1 nuclear content decrease, calsarcin-2 expression increase, and GSK-3? Ser 9 phosphorylation decrease. Moreover, L-arginine administration prevented the HS-induced myh7b and PGC1? mRNAs content decreases and slow-type genes repressor SOX6 mRNA transcription increase. All these slow fiber-type protective effects of L-arginine were blocked in HS+A+N group, indicating that these effects were NO-dependent. Thus, NO decrease prevention during HS restores calcineurin/NFATc1 and myh7b/SOX6 signaling.
Project description:Background:Immunohistochemical studies of hearts from the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes) revealed that the pan-myosin heavy chain (pan-MyHC) antibody MF20 homogeneously labels all the myocardium, while the pan-MyHC antibody A4.1025 labels the myocardium of the inflow (sinus venosus and atrium) but not the outflow (ventricle and conus arteriosus) cardiac segments, as opposed to other vertebrates. We hypothesized that the conventional pattern of cardiac MyHC isoform distribution present in most vertebrates, i.e. MYH6 in the inflow and MYH7 in the outflow segments, has evolved from a primitive pattern that persists in Chondrichthyes. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted protein detection techniques to identify the MyHC isoforms expressed in adult dogfish cardiac segments and to assess the pan-MyHC antibodies reactivity against the cardiac segments of representative species from different vertebrate groups. Results:Western and slot blot results confirmed the specificity of MF20 and A4.1025 for MyHC in dogfish and their differential reactivity against distinct myocardial segments. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-Quadrupole-Orbitrap revealed abundance of MYH6 and MYH2 in the inflow and of MYH7 and MYH7B in the outflow segments. Immunoprecipitation showed higher affinity of A4.1025 for MYH2 and MYH6 than for MYH7 and almost no affinity for MYH7B. Immunohistochemistry showed that A4.1025 signals are restricted to the inflow myocardial segments of elasmobranchs, homogeneous in all myocardial segments of teleosts and acipenseriforms, and low in the ventricle of polypteriforms. Conclusions:The cardiac inflow and outflow segments of the dogfish show predominance of fast- and slow-twitch MyHC isoforms respectively, what can be considered a synapomorphy of gnathostomes. The myocardium of the dogfish contains two isomyosins (MYH2 and MYH7B) not expressed in the adult heart of other vertebrates. We propose that these isomyosins lost their function in cardiac contraction during the evolution of gnathostomes, the later acquiring a regulatory role in myogenesis through its intronic miRNA. Loss of MYH2 and MYH7B expression in the heart possibly occurred before the origin of Osteichthyes, being the latter reacquired in polypteriforms. We raise the hypothesis that the slow tonic MYH7B facilitates the peristaltic contraction of the conus arteriosus of fish with a primitive cardiac anatomical design and of the vertebrate embryo.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO-synthases via L-arginine oxidation, is an essential trigger for signaling processes involved in structural and metabolic changes in muscle fibers. Recently, it was shown that L-arginine administration prevented the decrease in levels of the muscle cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, in rat soleus muscle after 14 days of hindlimb unloading. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of L-arginine administration on the degree of atrophy changes in the rat soleus muscles under unloading conditions, and on the content, gene expression, and phosphorylation level of titin, the giant protein of striated muscles, able to form a third type of myofilaments-elastic filaments. A 7-day gravitational unloading [hindlimb suspension (HS) group] resulted in a decrease in the soleus weight:body weight ratio (by 31.8%, p < 0.05), indicating muscle atrophy development. The content of intact titin (T1) decreased (by 22.4%, p < 0.05) and the content of proteolytic fragments of titin (T2) increased (by 66.7%, p < 0.05) in the soleus muscle of HS rats, compared to control rats. The titin gene expression and phosphorylation level of titin between these two groups were not significantly different. L-Arginine administration under 7-day gravitational unloading decreased the degree of atrophy changes and also prevented the decrease in levels of T1 in the soleus muscle as compared to HS group. Furthermore, L-arginine administration under unloading resulted in increased titin mRNA level (by 76%, p < 0.05) and decreased phosphorylation level of T2 (by 28%, p < 0.05), compared to those in the HS group. These results suggest that administration of L-arginine, the NO precursor, under unloading decreased the degree of atrophy changes, increased gene expression of titin and prevented the decrease in levels of T1 in the rat soleus muscle. The results can be used to search for approaches to reduce the development of negative changes caused by gravitational unloading in the muscle.
Project description:We have previously reported the identification of a distinct myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform in a major subpopulation of rat skeletal muscle fibers, referred to as 2X fibers (Schiaffino, S., L. Gorza, S. Sartore, L. Saggin, M. Vianello, K. Gundersen, and T. Lømo. 1989. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 10:197-205). However, it was not known whether 2X-MyHC is the product of posttranslational modification of other MyHCs or is coded by a distinct mRNA. We report here the isolation and characterization of cDNAs coding a MyHC isoform that is expressed in type 2X skeletal muscle fibers. 2X-MyHC transcripts differ from other MyHC transcripts in their restriction map and 3' end sequence and are thus derived from a distinct gene. In situ hybridization analyses show that 2X-MyHC transcripts are expressed at high levels in the diaphragm and fast hindlimb muscles and can be coexpressed either with 2B- or 2A-MyHC transcripts in a number of fibers. At the single fiber level the distribution of each MyHC mRNA closely matches that of the corresponding protein, determined by specific antibodies on serial sections. In hindlimb muscles 2X-, 2A-, and 2B-MyHC transcripts are first detected by postnatal day 2-5 and display from the earliest stages a distinct pattern of distribution in different muscles and different fibers. The emergence of type 2 MyHC isoforms thus defines a distinct neonatal phase of fiber type differentiation during muscle development. The functional significance of MyHC isoforms is discussed with particular reference to the velocity of shortening of skeletal muscle fibers.
Project description:?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling.
Project description:The objective of the study was to identify microRNAs expressed in the rat soleus muscle and determine if their expression was changed in response to hindlimb suspension. The microRNA expression profile (Sanger miRBase 9.0) of the rat soleus muscle was determined in the following three groups: control (C), hindlimb suspended for 2 days (HS-2) or 7 days (HS-7). Three replicates were performed for each group.
Project description:The objective of the study was to identify microRNAs expressed in the rat soleus muscle and determine if their expression was changed in response to hindlimb suspension. Overall design: The microRNA expression profile (Sanger miRBase 9.0) of the rat soleus muscle was determined in the following three groups: control (C), hindlimb suspended for 2 days (HS-2) or 7 days (HS-7). Three replicates were performed for each group.
Project description:Skeletal muscles, especially weight-bearing muscles, are very sensitive to changes in loading state. The aim of this paper was to characterize the dynamic changes in the unloaded soleus muscle in vivo following a short bout of hindlimb suspension (HS), testing the hypothesis that transcriptional events respond early to the atrophic stimulus. In fact, we observed that after only 1 day of HS, primary transcript levels of skeletal alpha-actin and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes were significantly reduced by more than 50% compared with ground control levels. The degree of the decline for the mRNA expression of actin and type I MHC lagged behind that of the pre-mRNA levels after 1 day of HS, but by 2 and 7 days of HS, large decreases were observed. Although the faster MHC isoforms, IIx and IIb, began to be expressed in soleus after 1 day of HS, a relatively significant shift in mRNA expression from the slow MHC isoform type I toward these fast MHC isoforms did not emerge until 7 days of HS. One day of HS was sufficient to show significant decreases in mRNA levels of putative signaling factors serum response factor (SRF), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), and striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), although transcription factors yin-yang-1 (YY1) and transcriptional enhancing factor-1 (TEF-1) were not significantly affected by HS. The protein levels of actin and type I MHC were significantly decreased after 2 days of HS, and SRF protein was significantly decreased after 7 days HS. Our results show that after only 1 day of unloading, pre-mRNA and mRNA expression of muscle proteins and muscle-specific signaling factors are significantly reduced, suggesting that the downregulation of the synthesis side of the protein balance equation that occurs in atrophying muscle is initiated rapidly.
Project description:Myostatin is involved in an inhibitor of muscular growth and differentiation. Myoblasts derived from double-muscled Japanese shorthorn cattle (DM myoblasts) with absence of functional myostatin had higher abilities to proliferate and differentiate than myoblasts derived from normal-muscled cattle (NM myoblasts). In DM myoblasts, mRNA expressions of fetal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in growth medium and of fast 2a and 2x MyHC in fusion medium were significantly greater than that in NM myoblasts. No significant difference existed in expressions of embryonic and slow MyHC mRNA between DM and NM myoblasts. The expression of MyoD mRNA was suppressed in myoblasts by administration of myostatin. Two cloned DM myoblast strains (DMc) were established. Addition of myostatin for DMc resulted in less myotube formation and suppression of mRNA expression of fast 2x MyHC. These findings suggest that the endogenous myostatin preferentially down-regulates the expression of the fast 2x MyHC and participates in differentiation of myofiber types during early bovine myogenesis.
Project description:Lipid raft disruption is an early event during skeletal muscle unloading. Ceramide (Cer) serves as a signaling lipid that can contribute to lipid raft disturbance and muscle atrophy. Using biochemical and fluorescent approaches, the distribution of Cer and related molecules in the rat soleus muscle subjected to 12 h of hindlimb suspension (HS) was studied. HS led to upregulation of TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1), Cer-producing enzymes, and acid and neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) in detergent-resistant membranes (lipid rafts), which was accompanied by an increase in Cer and a decrease in sphingomyelin in this membrane fraction. Fluorescent labeling indicated increased Cer in the sarcoplasm as well as the junctional (synaptic) and extrajunctional compartments of the suspended muscles. Also, a loss of membrane asymmetry (a hallmark of membrane disturbance) was induced by HS. Pretreatment with clomipramine, a functional inhibitor of acid SMase, counteracted HS-mediated changes in the Cer/sphingomyelin ratio and acid SMase abundance as well as suppressed Cer accumulation in the intracellular membranes of junctional and extrajunctional regions. However, the elevation of plasma membrane Cer and disturbance of the membrane asymmetry were suppressed only in the junctional compartment. We suggest that acute HS leads to TNFR1 and SMase upregulation in the lipid raft fraction and deposition of Cer throughout the sarcolemma and intracellularly. Clomipramine-mediated downregulation of acid SMase can suppress Cer accumulation in all compartments, excluding the extrajunctional plasma membrane.
Project description:The effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) supplementation to hindlimb suspended rats has been analyzed in order to test whether this would promote the differentiation towards an oxidative phenotype of muscle fibers in soleus muscle and prevent the transformation of this slow tonic muscle towards a glycolytic, low-oxidative phenotype due to unloading condition. 3 month-old rats were daily supplemented with ALCAR concomitantly with hindlimb suspension. Validated microarray analysis for a broad range of muscle-relevant processes delineated an ALCAR-induced adjustment of the expression profile. In particular, transcript elevations of factors underlying oxidative metabolism in mitochondria and protein turnover by ribosomal and proteasomal components as well as an adaptation of voltage-gated ion channel expression were identified as an ALCAR response in soleus muscle. Keywords: ALCAR effect Overall design: 21 samples total, 7 each of: 14 days age control 14-day hindlimb suspended rats 14 day hindlimb suspended rats treated with ALCAR