P-dipping of rice seedlings increases applied P use efficiency in high P-fixing soils.
ABSTRACT: Applied phosphorus (P) use efficiency is generally low due to the low mobility of P in soil and its affinity to form insoluble complexes. Localized P application nearby the root zone is a potential approach to overcome this issue in crop production. However, the interaction with soil conditions is little understood, which results in less effective application of this approach. Using root-box experiments and changing P-retention capacity of soils, we revealed that applied P use efficiency of rice can be substantially improved by dipping seedlings in P-enriched slurry at transplanting (P-dipping) even in highly P-fixing soils. Spatial analysis of soluble P in soils indicated that P-dipping creates a P hotspot because the P-enriched slurry is transferred with seedling roots. The P hotspot could have induced vigorous surface root and facilitated further P uptake from the spot. In contrast, the effect of conventional P incorporation depended on P-retention capacity of soils; no increases in soluble P content in soils or plant P uptakes were observed when P-retention capacity was high. Our finding of significant interaction between localized P application and a specific soil property should help improving applied P use efficiency and achieving sustainable rice production against depleting P fertilizer resources.
Project description:The current data article presents a set of fluxes of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) measured from two different soils under a Mediterranean double-cropping system (oat in autumn/winter followed by maize in spring/summer). The two soils were fertilized using four different treatments: (i) Injection of raw cattle slurry (100?mm depth), (ii) application of raw cattle slurry followed by soil incorporation (20?mm depth), (iii) band application of acidified (pH=5.5) cattle slurry followed by soil incorporation (20?mm depth), and (iv) band application of acidified (pH=5.5) cattle slurry without soil incorporation. A non-amended soil was also considered as control treatment. The data presented here were obtained over a three years experiment between 2012 and 2015. Fluxes were measured in a period between slurry applications to soil (before plant seeding) till crop harvest. The data presented here are supporting the research article "Band application of acidified slurry as an alternative to slurry injection in a Mediterranean double-cropping system: Agronomic effect and gaseous emissions" (Fangueiro et al., 2018).
Project description:Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700?°C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.
Project description:Camellia oleifera Abel (C. oleifera) absorb nutrients from surrounding soils and its yield is highly influenced by these nutrients and by fertilizer application. Thus, the soil nutrients play a central role in C. oleifera production. This study investigated the effects of biogas slurry applications on soil nutrients and economic traits of C. oleifera fruits. Five different amounts of biogas slurry (0, 10, 20, 30, or 40 kg/plant/year, three applications per year) were used as fertilizer for C. oleifera plants in 2015 and 2016. The nutrients of rhizosphere soil and the economic traits, including fruit yield, seed rate, and oil yield of C. oleifera fruit, were measured each year. The results showed that fertilization with biogas slurry significantly increased soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) both in 2015 and 2016. Increases in soil available N, P, and K were maximal in the highest slurry application group followed by the second highest application group. The oil yield correlated with the content of soil available P in both 2015 and 2016, and with soil organic matter in 2015. Fertilization with biogas slurry decreased the saturated fatty acid content in fruit but had no effect on the unsaturated fatty acid content. In conclusion, fertilization with biogas slurry increased rhizosphere soil nutrients and fruit economic traits of C. oleifera and rates of at least30 kg/plant/year had the most positive effects. This study expands the knowledge of fertilization with biogas slurry in C. oleifera production.
Project description:Globally only ?50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer is captured by crops, and the remainder can cause pollution via runoff and gaseous emissions. Synchronizing soil N supply and crop demand will address this problem, however current soil analysis methods provide little insight into delivery and acquisition of N forms by roots. We used microdialysis, a novel technique for in situ quantification of soil nutrient fluxes, to measure N fluxes in sugarcane cropping soils receiving different fertilizer regimes, and compare these with N uptake capacities of sugarcane roots. We show that in fertilized sugarcane soils, fluxes of inorganic N exceed the uptake capacities of sugarcane roots by several orders of magnitude. Contrary, fluxes of organic N closely matched roots' uptake capacity. These results indicate root uptake capacity constrains plant acquisition of inorganic N. This mismatch between soil N supply and root N uptake capacity is a likely key driver for low N efficiency in the studied crop system. Our results also suggest that (i) the relative contribution of inorganic N for plant nutrition may be overestimated when relying on soil extracts as indicators for root-available N, and (ii) organic N may contribute more to crop N supply than is currently assumed.
Project description:Background: The soil environment is responsible for sustaining most terrestrial plant life on earth, yet we know surprisingly little about the important functions carried out by diverse microbial communities in soil. Soil microbes that inhabit the channels of decaying root systems, the detritusphere, are likely to be essential for plant growth and health, as these channels are the preferred locations of new root growth. Understanding the microbial metagenome of the detritusphere and how it responds to agricultural management such as crop rotations and soil tillage will be vital for improving global food production. Methods: The rhizosphere soils of wheat and chickpea growing under + and - decaying root were collected for metagenomics sequencing. A gene catalogue was established by de novo assembling metagenomic sequencing. Genes abundance was compared between bulk soil and rhizosphere soils under different treatments. Conclusions: The study describes the diversity and functional capacity of a high-quality soil microbial metagenome. The results demonstrate the contribution of the microbiome from decaying root in determining the metagenome of developing root systems, which is fundamental to plant growth, since roots preferentially inhabit previous root channels. Modifications in root microbial function through soil management, can ultimately govern plant health, productivity and food security. Overall design: Totally 18 samples were analysed, including the rhizosphere soils of wheat and chickpea growing under + and - decaying root, soils attached on the decaying root, and bulk soil with three replicates.
Project description:The application of organic amendments to agricultural soil can enhance crop yield, while improving the physicochemical and biological properties of the recipient soils. However, the use of manure-derived amendments as fertilizers entails environmental risks, such as the contamination of soil and crops with antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). In order to delve into these risks, we applied dairy cow manure-derived amendments (slurry, fresh manure, aged manure), obtained from a conventional and an organic farm, to soil. Subsequently, lettuce and wheat plants were grown in the amended soils. After harvest, the abundance of 95 ARGs and MGE-genes from the amended soils and plants were determined by high-throughput qPCR. The structure of soil prokaryotic communities was determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and qPCR. The absolute abundance of ARGs and MGE-genes differed between treatments (amended vs. unamended), origins of amendment (conventional vs. organic), and types of amendment (slurry vs. fresh manure vs. aged manure). Regarding ARG-absolute abundances in the amendments themselves, higher values were usually found in slurry vs. fresh or aged manure. These abundances were generally higher in soil than in plant samples, and higher in wheat grain than in lettuce plants. Lettuce plants fertilized with conventional amendments showed higher absolute abundances of tetracycline resistance genes, compared to those amended with organic amendments. No single treatment could be identified as the best or worst treatment regarding the risk of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant samples. Within the same treatment, the resistome risk differed between the amendment, the amended soil and, finally, the crop. In other words, according to our data, the resistome risk in manure-amended crops cannot be directly inferred from the analysis of the amendments themselves. We concluded that, depending on the specific question under study, the analysis of the resistome risk should specifically focus on the amendment, the amended soil or the crop.
Project description:Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and specifically resistance to third generation cephalosporins associated with extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) activity, is one of the greatest epidemiological challenges of our time. In this study we addressed the impact of the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone on microbial activity and bacterial community composition of two physically and chemically distinct undisturbed soils in highly regulated microcosm experiments. Surprisingly, periodical irrigation of the soils with clinical doses of ceftriaxone did not affect their microbial activity; and only moderately impacted the microbial diversity (? and ?) of the two soils. Corresponding slurry experiments demonstrated that the antibiotic capacity of ceftriaxone rapidly diminished in the presence of soil, and ?70% of this inactivation could be explained by biological activity. The biological nature of ceftriaxone degradation in soil was supported by microcosm experiments that amended model Escherichia coli strains to sterile and non-sterile soils in the presence and absence of ceftriaxone and by the ubiquitous presence of ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaOXA) in soil DNA extracts. Collectively, these results suggest that the resistance of soil microbiomes to ceftriaxone stems from biological activity and even more, from broad-spectrum ?-lactamase activity; raising questions regarding the scope and clinical implications of ESBLs in soil microbiomes.
Project description:Copper-based fungicides have been used for a long time in viticulture and have accumulated in many vineyard soils. In this study, incrementing Cu(OH)2-based fungicide application from 0.05 to 5 g Cu kg-1 on two agricultural soils (an acidic sandy loam (L, pH 4.95) and an alkaline silt loam (D, pH 7.45)) resulted in 5 times more mobile Cu in the acidic soil. The most sensitive parameters of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) growing in these soils were the root nodule number, decreasing to 34% and 15% of the control at 0.1 g Cu kg-1 in soil L and at 1.5 g Cu kg-1 in soil D, respectively, as well as the nodule biomass, decreasing to 25% and 27% at 0.5 g Cu kg-1 in soil L and at 1.5 g Cu kg-1 in soil D, respectively. However, the enzymatic N2-fixation was not directly affected by Cu in spite of the presence of Cu in the meristem and the zone of effective N2-fixation, as illustrated by chemical imaging. The strongly different responses observed in the two tested soils reflect the higher buffering capacity of the alkaline silt loam and showed that Cu mitigation and remediation strategies should especially target vineyards with acidic, sandy soils.
Project description:Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils.
Project description:More frequent and longer drought periods are predicted threatening agricultural yield. The capacity of soils to hold water is a highly important factor controlling drought stress intensity for plants. Biogenic amorphous silica (bASi) pools in soils are in the range of 0-6% and are suggested to help plants to resist drought. In agricultural soils, bASi pools declined to values of ~1% or lower) due to yearly crop harvest, decreasing water holding capacity of the soils. Here, we assessed the contribution of bASi to water holding capacity (WHC) of soil. Consequently, ASi was mixed at different rates (0, 1, 5 or 15%) with different soils. Afterwards, the retention curve of the soils was determined via Hyprop method. Here we show that bASi increases the soil water holding capacity substantially, by forming silica gels with a water content at saturation higher than 700%. An increase of bASi by 1% or 5% (weight) increased the water content at any water potential and plant available water increased by up to >?40% or >?60%, respectively. Our results suggest that soil management should be modified to increase bASi content, enhancing available water in soils and potentially decreasing drought stress for plants in terrestrial ecosystems.