Mind over Matter: Testing the Efficacy of an Online Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Distraction from Smartphone Use.
ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests a growing call for the prevention of excessive smartphone and social media use and the ensuing distraction that arises affecting academic achievement and productivity. A ten-day online randomized controlled trial with the use of smartphone apps, engaging participants in mindfulness exercises, self-monitoring and mood tracking, was implemented amongst UK university students (n = 143). Participants were asked to complete online pre- and post-intervention assessments. Results indicated high effect sizes in reduction of smartphone distraction and improvement scores on a number of self-reported secondary psychological outcomes. The intervention was not effective in reducing habitual behaviours, nomophobia, or time spent on social media. Mediation analyses demonstrated that: (i) emotional self-awareness but not mindful attention mediated the relationship between intervention effects and smartphone distraction, and (ii) online vigilance mediated the relationship between smartphone distraction and problematic social media use. The present study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy of an intervention for decreased smartphone distraction and highlights psychological processes involved in this emergent phenomenon in the smartphone literature. Online interventions may serve as complementary strategies to reduce distraction levels and promote insight into online engagement. More research is required to elucidate the mechanisms of digital distraction and assess its implications in problematic use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The increasing concern about the adverse effects of overuse of smartphones during clinical practicum implies the need for policies restricting smartphone use while attending to patients. It is important to educate health personnel about the potential risks that can arise from the associated distraction. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the level of nomophobia and the distraction associated with smartphone use among nursing students during their clinical practicum. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out on 304 nursing students. The nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q) and a questionnaire about smartphone use, the distraction associated with it, and opinions about phone restriction policies in hospitals were used. RESULTS:A positive correlation between the use of smartphones and the total score of nomophobia was found. In the same way, there was a positive correlation between opinion about smartphone restriction polices with each of the dimensions of nomophobia and the total score of the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS:Nursing students who show high levels of nomophobia also regularly use their smartphones during their clinical practicum, although they also believe that the implementation of policies restricting smartphone use while working is necessary.
Project description:This review enhances the existing literature on relationships between problematic smartphone use (PSU), psychopathology, addictive personality, and online social engagement as regards young adults, giving attention to predictive determinants of addictive behavior in smartphone usage. My article cumulates previous research findings on the psychology of addictive smartphone behavior in terms of problematic use, social anxiety, and depressive stress by focusing on the relationship among mobile social media usage, smartphone addiction risk, mental health issues, and individual well-being. The inspected collected findings prove that depression and social anxiety constitute risk determinants for greater PSU and that particular categories of smartphone applications are positively related to well-being. State anxiety and motivations represent significant predictors of PSU. High PSU affects participation in social engagement. As limitations in the current review, my results point towards relevant avenues of research on social consequences of teenagers' smartphone problematic use. Future directions should clarify whether compulsive smartphone use adversely affects both mental and physical health in the long run.
Project description:Mobile phones are changing behaviour, relationships, communication and the dynamics of physical environments. As such, reliance on the device for everyday activities has increased. Consequently, "nomophobia", defined as the fear of being without one's mobile phone, has emerged as a new phobia. The current study aimed to determine if nomophobia can increase the likelihood of problematic dependent, prohibited and dangerous mobile phone use. The sample comprised 2838 participants (males n = 1337 females n = 1501) recruited from various online platforms. The instrument used to measure nomophobia was the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), while problematic mobile phone use was measured using the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-R). The findings revealed a strong positive correlation between nomophobia and all three problematic use factors. In addition to nomophobia, regression models revealed younger age and more time spent on a mobile phone per day significantly increased problematic dependency, prohibited use and dangerous use. Males were more likely to engage in prohibited and dangerous use, while no significant gender differences were found in dependent use. These findings support the need for further research into the relationship between nomophobia and specific aspects of problematic mobile phone use, such as using a mobile phone while driving.
Project description:Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning). The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19-46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19); the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19-46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21). In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU.
Project description:Varsity athletes are a group of high performers situated within a demographic notable for smartphone usage and media-multitasking. Surprisingly, little research has examined the impact of smartphones in the lives of varsity athletes. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to begin addressing this gap by investigating varsity athletes' experiences with smartphones. Varsity athletes (<i>n</i> = 21) from nine different sports participated in one of five focus groups, and data emerging from these discussions were subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results indicate that smartphones are a mainstay of varsity athletes' experiences, as the athletes regularly use their smartphones to manage roles and demands across multiple contexts (e.g., sport, school, home). Themes pertained to concurrent negative (e.g., stress, distraction, disengagement) and positive (e.g., self-regulation, social connectedness) implications of smartphone usage, making it clear that athletes' relationship with their smartphone is a complicated one. Findings contribute to the limited studies of smartphone usage among athletes, and support the notion that implications of usage exist along a continuum, rather than in distinct categories of "good" and "bad". Results can inform practical guidelines for optimising athletes' use of smartphones in and around the sport context.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Specialised early intervention services have demonstrated improved outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP); however, clinical gains may not be sustained after patients are transferred to regular care. Moreover, many patients with FEP remain socially isolated with poor functional outcomes. To address this, our multidisciplinary team has developed a moderated online social media therapy (HORYZONS) designed to enhance social functioning and maintain clinical gains from specialist FEP services. HORYZONS merges: (1) peer-to-peer social networking; (2) tailored therapeutic interventions; (3) expert and peer-moderation; and (4) new models of psychological therapy (strengths and mindfulness-based interventions) targeting social functioning. The aim of this trial is to determine whether following 2 years of specialised support and 18-month online social media-based intervention (HORYZONS) is superior to 18 months of regular care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. The treatment conditions include HORYZONS plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. We recruited 170 young people with FEP, aged 16-27 years, in clinical remission and nearing discharge from Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre, Melbourne. The study includes four assessment time points, namely, baseline, 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up. The study is due for completion in July 2018 and included a 40-month recruitment period and an 18-month treatment phase. The primary outcome is social functioning at 18 months. Secondary outcome measures include rate of hospital admissions, cost-effectiveness, vocational status, depression, social support, loneliness, self-esteem, self-efficacy, anxiety, psychological well-being, satisfaction with life, quality of life, positive and negative psychotic symptoms and substance use. Social functioning will be also assessed in real time through our Smartphone Ecological Momentary Assessment tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Melbourne Health Human Research Ethics Committee (2013.146) provided ethics approval for this study. Findings will be made available through scientific journals and forums and to the public via social media and the Orygen website. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12614000009617; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Only a small fraction of individuals with pathological or problematic gambling seek professional help despite available evidence-based treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Anonymous Internet-based interventions may help to overcome treatment barriers. Results of a pilot study using an Internet-based intervention for depression in a sample of individuals with problematic or pathological gambling behavior show that both depressive and gambling-related symptomatology can be reduced with a generic depression program compared with a wait-list control group. Based on encouraging results of the pilot study, we developed a low-threshold, anonymous and cost-free online self-help program ("Restart") to test whether a program tailored to the needs of gamblers yields better results compared to the effects of the intervention evaluated in the pilot study. The online self-help program is based on CBT, targeting emotional problems and gambling-related symptoms and is accompanied by a smartphone application to sustain treatment benefits. METHOD:A randomized controlled trial with two conditions (intervention group and wait-list control group), two assessment times (reassessment after 8?weeks) and a total of 136 participants is planned. The primary outcome will be change in pathological gambling measured with the Pathological Gambling Adaptation of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale from pre to post intervention. The change in depressive symptoms (assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 depression module) and gambling-related dysfunctional thoughts (assessed with the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey) will represent secondary outcomes. The intervention includes modules on debt management, impulse control, gambling-specific cognitive biases, self-esteem, social competence, sleep hygiene, mindfulness and positive activities. DISCUSSION:This study is one of the first investigations of Internet-based self-help programs in a sample of problematic gamblers. Self-guided Internet-based interventions represent a promising possibility to narrow the existing treatment gap while saving expensive and scarce resources (e.g., psychotherapists). The expected findings will add substantial knowledge in the development of effective Internet-based treatments for individuals with gambling problems. The empirical and clinical implications (e.g., broader use and promotion of such interventions in the future) and the limitations of the study will be discussed. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03372226 . Registered on 13 December 2017.
Project description:This study investigated smartphone use characteristics including the purpose of smartphone use (i.e., leisure, learning, or work) and situational smartphone use (i.e., sitting, standing, or moving about) in Chinese adolescents. Moreover, it tested the moderating role of self-control in the link between sedentary behavior and problematic smartphone use. A total of 947 adolescents completed measures of the purpose of their smartphone use, situational smartphone use, sedentary behavior, self-control, time on smartphone, and smartphone addiction. Results showed that the majority of smartphone use was for leisure and learning, and 90.9% of adolescents reported typically sitting as they used the smartphone. Problematic smartphone use was positively correlated with sedentary behavior and negatively correlated with self-control. Moreover, the relationship between sedentary behavior and problematic smartphone use was moderated by self-control, in that the negative correlation was stronger for adolescents with low self-control and weaker for those with high self-control. These results contribute to the understanding of when sedentary behavior is associated with problematic smartphone use. Several limitations and implications are discussed in this study.
Project description:The smartphone is a widely used and rapidly growing phenomenon worldwide, and problematic smartphone use is common in our society. This study's objective was to examine the gender difference of baseline and post-intervention skin conductance response (SCR) among smartphone users and explore the relationships among problematic smartphone use level, anxiety level, and SCR changes by evaluating SCR, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score, and the Chinese version of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) score in a one-group baseline and post-test design. Sixty participants were recruited from two communities, and data were collected from April to June 2017. There was a significant difference in terms of SCR changes between young males and old males and between young females and old females. Additionally, the SCR changes in young females were significantly greater than those in young males with twofold mean difference. This study provides strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of SCR measurement for assessing problematic smartphone use (PSU) anxiety when users are in a withdrawal-like state. The SCR measurement can help healthcare providers identify cases with risk factors of PSU for early intervention.
Project description:Previous research on stress and media use mainly concentrated on between-person effects. We add to this research field by additionally assessing within-person associations, assuming that experiencing more stress than usual goes along with more nomophobia ("no-mobile-phone phobia") and more passive and active Facebook use than usual, cross-sectionally and over time, and by exploring potential age differences. We conducted a secondary analysis of three waves of a representative multi-wave survey of adult Dutch internet users (N = 861). Specifically, we used two subsamples: (1) smartphones users for the analyses on nomophobia (n = 600) and (2) Facebook users for the analyses on social media (n = 469). Employing random-intercept cross-lagged panel models, we found within-person correlations between nomophobia and stress at one time-point, but not over time. For the younger age group (18-39 years), more passive Facebook use than usual was associated with more stress than usual six months later, and more stress than usual was followed by less passive Facebook use six month later. There were no longitudinal relationships for active Facebook use across the different age groups. Methodological and theoretical implications are discussed.