Deep Metabolomics of a High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Triple-Knockout Mouse Model.
ABSTRACT: High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer (OC) type, accounting for 70-80% of OC deaths. This high mortality is largely due to late diagnosis. Early detection is thus crucial to reduce mortality, yet the tumor pathogenesis of HGSC remains poorly understood, making early detection exceedingly difficult. Faithfully and reliably representing the clinical nature of human HGSC, a recently developed triple-knockout (TKO) mouse model offers a unique opportunity to examine the entire disease spectrum of HGSC. Metabolic alterations were investigated by applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to serum samples collected from these mice at premalignant, early, and advanced stages of HGSC. This comprehensive analysis revealed a panel of 29 serum metabolites that distinguished mice with HGSC from controls and mice with uterine tumors with over 95% accuracy. Meanwhile, our panel could further distinguish early-stage HGSC from controls with 100% accuracy and from advanced-stage HGSC with over 90% accuracy. Important identified metabolites included phospholipids, sphingomyelins, sterols, N-acyltaurine, oligopeptides, bilirubin, 2(3)-hydroxysebacic acids, uridine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and pyrazine derivatives. Overall, our study provides insights into dysregulated metabolism associated with HGSC development and progression, and serves as a useful guide toward early detection.
Project description:High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.
Project description:Pathogenic germline BRCA1, BRCA2 (BRCA1/2), and several other gene variants predispose women to primary ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma (OC), although variant frequency and relevance information is scarce in Japanese women with OC. Using targeted panel sequencing, we screened 230 unselected Japanese women with OC from our hospital-based cohort for pathogenic germline variants in 75 or 79 OC-associated genes. Pathogenic variants of 11 genes were identified in 41 (17.8%) women: 19 (8.3%; BRCA1), 8 (3.5%; BRCA2), 6 (2.6%; mismatch repair genes), 3 (1.3%; RAD51D), 2 (0.9%; ATM), 1 (0.4%; MRE11A), 1 (FANCC), and 1 (GABRA6). Carriers of BRCA1/2 or any other tested gene pathogenic variants were more likely to be diagnosed younger, have first or second-degree relatives with OC, and have OC classified as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). After adjustment for these variables, all 3 features were independent predictive factors for pathogenic variants in any tested genes whereas only the latter two remained for variants in BRCA1/2. Our data indicate similar variant prevalence in Japanese patients with OC and other ethnic groups and suggest that HGSC and OC family history may facilitate genetic predisposition prediction in Japanese patients with OC and referring high-risk patients for genetic counseling and testing.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly being identified as crucial regulators in pathologies like cancer. High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer (OC), one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies. LncRNAs, especially in cancers such as HGSC, could play a valuable role in diagnosis and even therapy. From RNA-sequencing analysis performed between an OC cell line, SKOV3, and a Fallopian Tube (FT) cell line, FT194, an important long non-coding RNA, HAND2 Anti sense RNA 1 (HAND2-AS1), was observed to be significantly downregulated in OCs when compared to FT. Its downregulation in HGSC was validated in different datasets and in a panel of HGSC cell lines. Furthermore, this study shows that the downregulation of HAND2-AS1 is caused by promoter hypermethylation in HGSC and behaves as a tumor suppressor in HGSC cell lines. Since therapeutic relevance is of key importance in HGSC research, for the first time, HAND2-AS1 upregulation was demonstrated to be one of the mechanisms through which HDAC inhibitor Panobinostat could be used in a strategy to increase HGSC cells' sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents currently used in clinical trials. To unravel the mechanism by which HAND2-AS1 exerts its role, an in silico mRNA network was constructed using mRNAs whose expressions were positively and negatively correlated with this lncRNA in HGSC. Finally, a putative ceRNA network with possible miRNA targets of HAND2-AS1 and their mRNA targets was constructed, and the enriched Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were identified.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer, worldwide, largely due to its vague and nonspecific early stage symptoms, resulting in most tumors being found at advanced stages. Moreover, due to its relative rarity, there are currently no satisfactory methods for OC screening, which remains a controversial and cost-prohibitive issue. Here, we demonstrate that Papanicolaou test (Pap test) cervical scrapings, instead of blood, can reveal genetic/epigenetic information for OC detection, using specific and sensitive DNA methylation biomarkers. RESULTS:We analyzed the methylomes of tissues (50 OC tissues versus 6 normal ovarian epithelia) and cervical scrapings (5 OC patients versus 10 normal controls), and integrated public methylomic datasets, including 79 OC tissues and 6 normal tubal epithelia. Differentially methylated genes were further classified by unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and each candidate biomarker gene was verified in both OC tissues and cervical scrapings by either quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP) or bisulfite pyrosequencing. A risk-score by logistic regression was generated for clinical application. One hundred fifty-one genes were classified into four clusters, and nine candidate hypermethylated genes from these four clusters were selected. Among these, four genes fulfilled our selection criteria and were validated in training and testing set, respectively. The OC detection accuracy was demonstrated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) in 0.80-0.83 of AMPD3, 0.79-0.85 of AOX1, 0.78-0.88 of NRN1, and 0.82-0.85 of TBX15. From this, we found OC-risk score, equation generated by logistic regression in training set and validated an OC-associated panel comprising AMPD3, NRN1, and TBX15, reaching a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 84%, and OC detection accuracy of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1) in testing set. CONCLUSIONS:Ovarian cancer detection from cervical scrapings is feasible, using particularly promising epigenetic biomarkers such as AMPD3/NRN1/TBX15. Further validation is warranted.
Project description:Owing to the lack of effective screening tools and early detection biomarkers, ovarian cancer (OC) still remains as a deadly disease with highest mortality among other gynecological cancers. So far there have been no attempts to discover biomarkers using early stage OC patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as great tool to develop non-invasive biomarkers in various cancers including ovarian cancer. Overall design: We have performed small RNA sequencing in fresh-frozen primary tissue samples collected from stage I OC (n=31) and identified a panel of eight miRNAs (OCaMIR) for the early detection of OC.
Project description:Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Early detection is key to ensuring good outcomes but a lack of minimally invasive screening tools is a significant barrier. Most endometrial cancers are obesity-driven and develop in the context of severe metabolomic dysfunction. Blood-derived metabolites may therefore provide clinically relevant biomarkers for endometrial cancer detection. In this study, we analysed plasma samples of women with body mass index (BMI) ?30kg/m<sup>2</sup> and endometrioid endometrial cancer (cases, <i>n</i> = 67) or histologically normal endometrium (controls, <i>n</i> = 69), using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach. Eighty percent of the samples were randomly selected to serve as a training set and the remaining 20% were used to qualify test performance. Robust predictive models (AUC > 0.9) for endometrial cancer detection based on artificial intelligence algorithms were developed and validated. Phospholipids were of significance as biomarkers of endometrial cancer, with sphingolipids (sphingomyelins) discriminatory in post-menopausal women. An algorithm combining the top ten performing metabolites showed 92.6% prediction accuracy (AUC of 0.95) for endometrial cancer detection. These results suggest that a simple blood test could enable the early detection of endometrial cancer and provide the basis for a minimally invasive screening tool for women with a BMI ? 30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>.
Project description:High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test.
Project description:Our group recently developed a urinary 6-biomarker panel for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) which has a higher level of accuracy compared to the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Herein, urine from an independent cohort of PCa patients and cancer-free controls was analyzed to further validate the discriminative power of that panel. Additionally, urine from patients diagnosed with bladder cancer (BC) and renal cancer (RC) were included to evaluate the site-specificity of the panel. Results confirmed the ability of the 6-biomarker panel to discriminate PCa patients from controls, but not from other urological cancers. To overcome this limitation, an untargeted approach was performed to unveil discriminant metabolites among the three cancer types. A 10-biomarker panel comprising the original panel plus four new metabolites was established to discriminate PCa from controls, BC, and RC, with 76% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 92% accuracy. This improved panel also disclosed better accuracy than serum PSA test and provides the basis for a new non-invasive early detection tool for PCa.
Project description:A central reason behind the poor clinical outcome of patients with high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) of the ovary is the difficulty in reliably detecting early occurrence or recurrence of this malignancy. Biomarkers that provide reliable diagnosis of this disease are therefore urgently needed. Systematic proteomic methods that identify HGSC-associated molecules may provide such biomarkers. We applied the antibody-based proximity extension assay (PEA) platform (Olink) for the identification of proteins that are upregulated in the plasma of OC patients. Using binders targeting 368 different plasma proteins, we compared 20 plasma samples from HGSC patients (OC-plasma) with 20 plasma samples from individuals with non-malignant gynecologic disorders (N-plasma). We identified 176 proteins with significantly higher levels in OC-plasma compared to N-plasma by PEA (p < 0.05 by U-test; Benjamini-Hochberg corrected), which are mainly implicated in immune regulation and metastasis-associated processes, such as matrix remodeling, adhesion, migration and proliferation. A number of these proteins have not been reported in previous studies, such as BCAM, CDH6, DDR1, N2DL-2 (ULBP2), SPINT2, and WISP-1 (CCN4). Of these SPINT2, a protease inhibitor mainly derived from tumor cells within the HGSC microenvironment, showed the highest significance (p < 2 × 10-7) similar to the previously described IL-6 and PVRL4 (NECTIN4) proteins. Results were validated by means of the aptamer-based 1.3 k SOMAscan proteomic platform, which revealed a high inter-platform correlation with a median Spearman ? of 0.62. Likewise, ELISA confirmed the PEA data for 10 out of 12 proteins analyzed, including SPINT2. These findings suggest that in contrast to other entities SPINT2 does not act as a tumor suppressor in HGSC. This is supported by data from the PRECOG and KM-Plotter meta-analysis databases, which point to a tumor-type-specific inverse association of SPINT2 gene expression with survival. Our data also demonstrate that both the PEA and SOMAscan affinity proteomics platforms bear considerable potential for the unbiased discovery of novel disease-associated biomarkers.
Project description:Metabolic alternations were investigated by applying Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to serum samples collected from triple knockout (TKO) mice at pre-malignant, early, and advanced stages of HGSC. Samples were analyzed with control mice, which have the same genetic background as TKO mice but develop no tumors. To enhance the selectivity for HGSC-specific metabolite markers, a tumor control group was also included. These were uterine tumor (UT) mice that developed uterine tumors, but no HGSC. All samples were analyzed using reverse phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) UPLC-MS analysis in positive and negative ion modes.