A Novel Multiplex-PCR Assay to Detect Three Non-Halal Meats Contained in Meatball using Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to detect three non-halal meat products consisted of dog, pork, and rat species in meatball using novel multiplex-PCR with 12S rRNA gene as target sites. A total of 33 self-made meatballs were used, and they were grouped into eleven types of meatball based on meat species origin contained in the meatballs. Each type consisted of three meatballs. Extraction of genomic DNA from the meatballs was used as a DNA template for simplex-, duplex-, and multiplex-PCR processes. The result of simplex-PCR, duplex-PCR, and multiplex-PCR showed that the 12S rRNA primer gene successfully amplified DNA for each species bovine, dog, pig, and rat, which are respectively indicated by 155, 244, 357, and 491 bp of DNA bands. In addition, multiplex-PCR with 12S rRNA gene primers can be uniquely and accurately used for detection bovine, dog, pig, and rat species on beef meatball in one reaction.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the conventional PCR detection method combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for the detection of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef meatballs. Under low temperature, E. coli O157:H7 cells were induced into the VBNC state in ground beef meatballs at - 20 °C after 152 days. The optimal PMA concentration of 5 µg/mL was obtained in beef meatball samples, which could completely inhibit the DNA amplification on dead cells (106 cells/mL) but with no inhibition on viable cells. The established PMA-PCR assay revealed that the VBNC counts exceeded 107 CFU/mL in artificial contamination beef samples, which could be used for semi-quantitative detection of VBNC cells in beef meatball samples. This study indicated that the PMA-PCR assay might be a potential method for detection of VBNC state E. coli O157:H7 cells in food products.
Project description:The impact of black cumin usage on some qualitative properties and formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in meatball production was investigated. It was found that black cumin usage rate, cooking process and temperature had a significant effect (p<0,01) on the water content, pH, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of meatballs. On the other hand, black cumin usage significantly (p<0,01) reduced the water content and cooking loss. The water content and cooking loss of the meatballs decreased with increases in the usage rate. While IQx, IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, A?C, and MeA?C could not be detected in meatballs, varying amounts of MeIQx (up to 1,53 ng/g) and PhIP (up to 1,22 ng/g) were determined. The total amounts of HAAs ranged between non-detected (nd) to 2,75 ng/g. Both the usage rate and cooking temperature had a very significant effect (p<0,01) on the total contents of HAAs. The total amounts of HAAs were decreased in correlation with the increases in the usage rate; the proportion which is increased when the cooking temperature increased as well. Results of the present study suggested that addition of black cumin may have a substantial role in decreasing the TBARS value, cooking loss, and HAA contents during meatball production. Therefore, using of black cumin in meatball production has been suggested.
Project description:In November 2016, an elderly patient was diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia in Finland. Grocery store loyalty card records and microbiological investigation of foods found in the home fridge and freezer of the patient revealed commercial, modified-atmosphere packaged meatballs as the source of the infection. Investigation of the meatball production plant revealed that the floor drain samples were contaminated with the same L. monocytogenes strain as those isolated from the patient and meatballs. Ready-to-eat meatballs were likely contaminated after heat treatment from the production environment before packaging. Long-term cold storage, modified-atmosphere conditions, and the absence of competing bacteria presumably enhanced the growth of L. monocytogenes. We recommend that collection of shopping details and home fridge and freezer sampling should be part of surveillance of all cases of L. monocytogenes infections to complement information obtained from in-depth interviews.
Project description:Mitochondrial 12S rRNA A1555G and C1494T mutations are the major contributors to hearing loss. As patients with these mutations are sensitive to aminoglycosides, mutational screening for 12S rRNA is therefore recommended before the use of aminoglycosides. Most recently, we developed a novel multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR) that can be used for detecting A1555G and C1494T mutations. In the present study, we employed this MAS-PCR to screen the 12S rRNA mutations in 500 deaf patients and 300 controls from 5 community hospitals. After PCR and electrophoresis, two patients with A1555G and one patient with C1494T were identified, this was consistent with Sanger sequence results. We further traced the origin of three Chinese pedigrees. Clinical evaluation revealed variable phenotypes of hearing loss including severity, age at onset and audiometric configuration in these patients. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genomes from matrilineal relatives suggested the presence of three evolutionarily conserved mutations: tRNACys T5802C, tRNALys A8343G and tRNAThr G15930A, which may result the failure in tRNAs metabolism and lead to mitochondrial dysfunction that was responsible for deafness. However, the lack of any functional variants in GJB2, GJB3, GJB6 and TRMU suggested that nuclear genes may not play active roles in deafness expression. Hence, aminoglycosides and mitochondrial genetic background may contribute to the clinical expression of A1555G/C1494T-induced deafness. Our data indicated that the MAS-PCR was a fast, convenience method for screening the 12S rRNA mutations, which was useful for early detection and prevention of mitochondrial deafness.
Project description:Insufficient diagnostic sensitivity and specificity coupled with the potential for cross-reactivity among closely related Anaplasma species has made the accurate determination of infection status problematic. A method for the development of simplex and duplex real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA in plasma-free bovine peripheral blood samples is described. The duplex assay was able to detect as few as 100 copies of 16S rRNA of both A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum in the same reaction. The ratio of 16S rRNA to 16S DNA copies for A. marginale was determined to be 117.9:1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 100.7:1, 135.2:1). Therefore, the detection limit is the minimum infective unit of one A. marginale bacterium. The duplex assay detected nonequivalent molar ratios as high as 100-fold. Additionally, the duplex assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) were used to screen 237 samples collected from herds in which anaplasmosis was endemic. When the cELISA was evaluated by the results of the qRT-PCR, its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of A. marginale infection were found to be 65.2% (95% CI, 55.3%, 75.1%) and 97.3% (95% CI, 94.7%, 99.9%), respectively. A. phagocytophilum infection was not detected in the samples analyzed. One- and two-way receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed in order to recommend the optimum negative cutoff value for the cELISA. Percentages of inhibition of 20 and 15.3% were recommended for the one- and two-way curves, respectively. In conclusion, the duplex real-time qRT-PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for the accurate and precise detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in cattle.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Virulence factors (VFs) among the clinical strains of enterococci play a vital role in pathogenesis. This study was aimed to screen for cylA, asa1, gelE, esp and hyl among Enterococcus faecalis (n?=?89) and E. faecium (n?=?51) by multiplex PCR. The previously reported multiplex PCR was modified to 2 duplex (asa1 and gelE, cylA and esp) PCRs and 1 simplex (hyl) PCR. The idea of the modification of the multiplex PCR proposed here emerged in the course of the research study when majority of the isolates which phenotypically exhibited virulence traits were found to be negative for the respective gene. RESULTS:cylA, gelE and asa1 were significantly predominant in E. faecalis (59.55%, 85.39%, 86.51%) than E. faecium (1.96%, 60.78%, 9.80%) (p?<?0.0001, p?=?0.001967, p?<?0.0001). hyl was detected in E. faecium (5.9%) only. The number of VFs detected in each isolate was recorded as the VF score. E. faecalis isolates had a VF score pattern of score 4 (34.83%), score 3 (26.96%), score 2 (28.08%) and score 1 (8.98%) while E. faecium had score 4 (1.96%), score 3 (7.84%), score 2 (25.49%) and score 1 (41.18%). This modification of the PCR protocol could resolve the problem of decreased detection of virulence determinants in enterococci.
Project description:Mitochondrial 12S rRNA has proven to be a useful molecular marker for better conservation and management of the endangered species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene has proven to be a reliable and efficient tool for the identification of different Indian deer species of family cervidae. In the present study, mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence of mouse deer (Moschiola indica) belonging to the family Tragulidae was characterized and analysed in silico for its use in species identification. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hair follicles and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primers. PCR product was cloned and sequenced for the first time. The sequence of mouse deer showed 90.04, 90.08, 90.04, 91.2, 90.04, and 90.08% identities with sika deer, sambar, hog deer, musk deer, chital, and barking deer, respectively. Restriction mapping in Lasergene (DNAstar Inc., Madison, WI, USA) revealed that mouse deer mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence can be differentiated from the other deer species in PCR-RFLP using RsaI, DdeI, BsrI, and BstSFI. With the help of predicted pattern, mouse deer can be identified using genomic DNA from a variety of biomaterials, thereby providing molecular aid in wildlife forensics and conservation of the species.
Project description:<b>Introduction</b>: With the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, different articles have been published highlighting the superiority of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) over the gold-standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, few studies have been reported on developing multiplex ddPCR assays for SARS-CoV-2 detection and their performance. This study shows steps on how to develop different ddPCR SAR-CoV-2 assays including higher order multiplex assays for SARS-CoV-2 detection and antiviral screening. <b>Methods</b>: Using multiple primer/probe sets, we developed, optimized, and analyzed the performance of simplex (1 target), duplex (2 targets), triplex probe mix (3 targets), and quadruplex (4 targets) SARS-CoV-2 ddPCR assays based on a two-color ddPCR detection system. <b>Results</b>: Results showed that the quadruplex assay had similar limits of detection and accuracy to the lower multiplex assays. Analyzing 94 clinical samples demonstrated that the ddPCR triplex probe mix assay had better sensitivity than the RT-qPCR assay. Additionally, the ddPCR multiplex assay showed that remdesivir could inhibit the growth of SARS-CoV-2 <i>in vitro</i> while another testing drug could not. <b>Conclusion</b>: Our research shows that developing multiplex ddPCR assays is possible by combing probe mix and amplitude-based multiplexing, which will help in developing multiplexed ddPCR assays for different SARS-CoV-2 applications.
Project description:This dataset investigates the transcriptional effect of mitochondrial 12S rRNA hypermethylation, both by overexpressing the mitochondrial methyltransferase mtTFB1 in HeLa cells and by using A1555G cybrids, where the 12S rRNA is hypermethylated. HeLa cells overexpressing a methyltransferase-deficient mtTFB1 (mtTFB1[G65A]) and wild-type A1555A cybrids were used as controls. four samples with 12S rRNA hypermethylation (two cell lines, with two biological replicates each) versus four samples with basal 12S rRNA methylation (two cell lines, with two biological replicates each)
Project description:Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a third generation of PCR that was recently developed to overcome the challenges of real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) in absolute quantification of pathogens. Few studies have been done on tuberculosis (TB) detection and quantification using ddPCR despite its many advantages over qPCR. From the few studies, none explores a single dye duplex assay for the detection and quantification of TB. In this study, steps toward developing and evaluating a duplex single dye (FAM) assay for detecting two targets (IS6110 and IS1081) are clearly described using simplex and duplex experiments. To achieve this, various parameters are investigated, including annealing temperature, primer and probe concentration, sensitivity and specificity, sample concentration, and inter/intra-assay variability. From the results, primer and probe concentration, annealing temperature, and sample concentration have an effect on the position and separation of droplets in both simplex and duplex assays. The copies of target genes in a duplex assay can be estimated accurately using the threshold tool with little inter-assay (CV <1%) and intra-assay (CV <6%) variability when compared to simplex assays. The ddPCR assay specificity and sensitivity are both 100% when compared to qPCR. This work shows steps toward the detection and quantification of two targets in a single channel, enabling higher multiplexing to include more targets in future works.