Prone cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A scoping and expanded grey literature review for the COVID-19 pandemic.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To identify and summarize the available science on prone resuscitation. To determine the value of undertaking a systematic review on this topic; and to identify knowledge gaps to aid future research, education and guidelines. METHODS:This review was guided by specific methodological framework and reporting items (PRISMA-ScR). We included studies, cases and grey literature regarding prone position and CPR/cardiac arrest. The databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus and Google Scholar. Expanded grey literature searching included internet search engine, targeted websites and social media. RESULTS:Of 453 identified studies, 24 (5%) studies met our inclusion criteria. There were four prone resuscitation-relevant studies examining: blood and tidal volumes generated by prone compressions; prone compression quality metrics on a manikin; and chest computed tomography scans for compression landmarking. Twenty case reports/series described the resuscitation of 25 prone patients. Prone compression quality was assessed by invasive blood pressure monitoring, exhaled carbon dioxide and pulse palpation. Recommended compression location was zero-to-two vertebral segments below the scapulae. Twenty of 25 cases (80%) survived prone resuscitation, although few cases reported long term outcome (neurological status at hospital discharge). Seven cases described full neurological recovery. CONCLUSION:This scoping review did not identify sufficient evidence to justify a systematic review or modified resuscitation guidelines. It remains reasonable to initiate resuscitation in the prone position if turning the patient supine would lead to delays or risk to providers or patients. Prone resuscitation quality can be judged using end-tidal CO2, and arterial pressure tracing, with patients turned supine if insufficient.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the effect of the duration of asphyxial arrest on the survival benefit previously seen with end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. DESIGN:Preclinical randomized controlled study. SETTING:University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS:Two-week-old swine. INTERVENTIONS:After either 17 or 23 minutes of asphyxial arrest, animals were randomized to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation or end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. Standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation was optimized by marker, monitor, and verbal feedback about compression rate, depth, and release. End-tidal CO2-guided delivery used adjustments to chest compression rate and depth to maximize end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for both groups proceeded from 10 minutes of basic life support to 10 minutes of advanced life support or return of spontaneous circulation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:After 17 minutes of asphyxial arrest, mean end-tidal CO2 during 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 18?±?9 torr in the standard group and 33?±?15 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (p = 0.004). The rate of return of spontaneous circulation was three of 14 (21%) in the standard group rate and nine of 14 (64%) in the end-tidal CO2 group (p = 0.05). After a 23-minute asphyxial arrest, neither end-tidal CO2 values (20 vs 26) nor return of spontaneous circulation rate (3/14 vs 1/14) differed between the standard and end-tidal CO2-guided groups. CONCLUSIONS:Our previously observed survival benefit of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery after 20 minutes of asphyxial arrest was confirmed after 17 minutes of asphyxial arrest. The poor survival after 23 minutes of asphyxia shows that the benefit of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is limited by severe asphyxia duration.
Project description:Scientific knowledge on the subjects: Injurious mechanical ventilation amplifies acute lung injury in a heterogeneous and regional fashion but the molecular mechanisms underlying regional lung injury and the protective effects of prone positioning are unclear. Regionally injurious ventilation is associated with discrete differential lung transcriptomic changes. Ventilating in the prone, compared with the supine position abrogates regional injury by depressing MKP-1. Adult rats were ventilated with high (18 mL/Kg, PEEP 0) tidal volume (Vt) in supine or prone position. Non ventilated rats were used as controls. Dorsal-caudal lung mRNA was analyzed by microarray.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research article, "The Use of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide (ETCO2) Measurement to Guide Management of Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review" . This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data on the subject of whether any level of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) correlates with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or survival in adult patients experiencing cardiac arrest in any setting. These data are made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyses.
Project description:Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated that prolonged (?16?hours) prone positioning can reduce the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the effectiveness and optimal duration of prone positioning was not fully evaluated. To fill these gaps, we will first investigate the effectiveness of prone positioning compared with the conventional management of patients with ARDS, regarding outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Second, if statistical heterogeneity in effectiveness with regard to short-term mortality (intensive care unit death or ?30-day mortality) is shown, we will conduct a meta-regression analysis to explore the association between duration and effectiveness, and determine the optimal duration of prone positioning.Relevant studies are collected using PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the WHO International Clinical Trials Platform Search Portal. Randomised controlled trials comparing prone and supine positioning in adults with ARDS will be included in the meta-analysis. Two independent investigators will screen trials obtained by search eligibility and extract data from selected studies to standardised data recording forms. For each selected trial, the risk of bias and quality of evidence will be evaluated using the GRADE system. Meta-regression analyses will be performed to identify the most important factors associated with short-term mortality, and subgroup analysis will be used to analyse the following: duration of mechanical ventilation in the prone position per day, patient severity, tidal volume and cause of ARDS. If heterogeneity or inconsistency among the studies is detected, subgroup analysis will be conducted on factors that may cause heterogeneity.This study requires no ethical approval. The results obtained from this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated through international conference presentations and publication in a peer-reviewed journal.CRD42017078340.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 brought to the fore prone positioning as treatment for patients with acute respiratory failure. With the increasing number of patients in prone position, both spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated, cardiac arrest in this position is more likely to occur. This scoping review aimed to summarize the available evidence on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prone position ('reverse CPR') and knowledge or research gaps to be further evaluated. The protocol of this scoping review was prospectively registered on 10th May 2020 in Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/nfuh9). METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and pre-print repositories (bioRxiv and medRxiv) for simulation, pre-clinical and clinical studies on reverse CPR until 31st May 2020. RESULTS:We included 1 study on manikins, 31 case reports (29 during surgery requiring prone position) and 2 nonrandomized studies describing reverse CPR. No studies were found regarding reverse CPR in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:Even if the algorithms provided by the guidelines on basic and advanced life support remain valid in cardiac arrest in prone position, differences exist in the methods of performing CPR. There is no clear evidence of superiority in terms of effectiveness of reverse compared to supine CPR in patients with cardiac arrest occurring in prone position. The quality of evidence is low and knowledge gaps (e.g. protocols, training of healthcare personnel, devices for skill acquisition) should be fulfilled by further research. Meanwhile, a case-by-case evaluation of patient and setting characteristics should guide the decision on how to start CPR in such cases.
Project description:This article is a companion to a systematic review, entitled, Associations between cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge, self-efficacy, training history and willingness to perform CPR and CPR psychomotor skills: a systematic review (Riggs et al., 2019). The data tables described in this article summarise the impact that specific training interventions, number of times trained, and retention testing intervals have on laypeople's CPR psychomotor skills, as reported by peer-reviewed journal articles. The psychomotor skills included are: compression rate, compression depth, duration of interruptions to compressions, chest recoil, hand placement, proportion of adequate or 'correct' compressions, ventilation volume, compression-to-ventilation ratio, duty cycle and overall skills. The data tables described in this article are available as a supplementary file to this article.
Project description:Background The American Heart Association recommends use of physiologic feedback when available to optimize chest compression delivery. We compared hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in which either end-tidal carbon dioxide ( ETCO 2) or diastolic blood pressure ( DBP ) levels were used to guide chest compression delivery after asphyxial cardiac arrest. Methods and Results One- to 2-week-old swine underwent a 17-minute asphyxial-fibrillatory cardiac arrest followed by alternating 2-minute periods of ETCO 2-guided and DBP -guided chest compressions during 10 minutes of basic life support and 10 minutes of advanced life support. Ten animals underwent resuscitation. We found significant changes to ETCO 2 and DBP levels within 30 s of switching chest compression delivery methods. The overall mean ETCO 2 level was greater during ETCO 2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (26.4±5.6 versus 22.5±5.2 mm Hg; P=0.003), whereas the overall mean DBP was greater during DBP -guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (13.9±2.3 versus 9.4±2.6 mm Hg; P=0.003). ETCO 2-guided chest compressions resulted in a faster compression rate (149±3 versus 120±5 compressions/min; P=0.0001) and a higher intracranial pressure (21.7±2.3 versus 16.0±1.1 mm Hg; P=0.002). DBP -guided chest compressions were associated with a higher myocardial perfusion pressure (6.0±2.8 versus 2.4±3.2; P=0.02) and cerebral perfusion pressure (9.0±3.0 versus 5.5±4.3; P=0.047). Conclusions Using the ETCO 2 or DBP level to optimize chest compression delivery results in physiologic changes that are method-specific and occur within 30 s. Additional studies are needed to develop protocols for the use of these potentially conflicting physiologic targets to improve outcomes of prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Project description:Body positioning affects the configuration and dynamic properties of the chest wall and therefore may influence decisions made to increase or decrease ventilating pressures and tidal volume. We hypothesized that unlike global functional residual capacity (FRC), component sector gas volumes and their corresponding regional tidal expansions would vary markedly in the setting of unilateral pleural effusion (PLEF), owing to shifting distributions of aeration and collapse as posture changed.Six deeply anesthetized swine underwent tracheostomy, thoracostomy, and experimental PLEF with 10 mL/kg of radiopaque isotonic fluid randomly instilled into either pleural space. Animals were ventilated at VT?=?10 mL/kg, frequency?=?15 bpm, I/E?=?1:2, PEEP?=?1 cmH2O, and FiO2?=?0.5. Quantitative lung computed tomographic (CT) analysis of regional aeration and global FRC measurements by nitrogen wash-in/wash-out technique was performed in each of these randomly applied positions: semi-Fowler's (inclined 30° from horizontal in the sagittal plane); prone, supine, and lateral positions with dependent PLEF and non-dependent PLEF.No significant differences in total FRC were observed among the horizontal positions, either at baseline (p?=?0.9037) or with PLEF (p?=?0.58). However, component sector total gas volumes in each phase of the tidal cycle were different within all studied positions with and without PLEF (p?=?<?.01). Compared to other positions, prone and lateral positions with non-dependent PLEF had more homogenous VT distributions among quadrants (p?=?.051). Supine position was associated with most dependent collapse and greatest tendency for tidal recruitment (48 vs ~?22%, p?=?0.0073).Changes in body position in the setting of effusion-caused chest asymmetry markedly affected the internal distributions of gas volume, collapse, ventilation, and tidal recruitment, even though global FRC measurements provided little indication of these potentially important positional changes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Massive hemothorax secondary to thoracic spinal fractures is rare, and its clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis are unknown. We present two cases of thoracic spinal fracture-induced massive hemothorax and a systematic review of previously reported cases. METHODS:This study included patients with traumatic hemothorax from thoracic spinal fractures at a Japanese tertiary care hospital. A systematic review of published cases was undertaken through searches in PubMed, EMBASE, and ICHUSHI from inception to October 13, 2019. RESULTS:Case 1: An 81-year-old man developed hemodynamic instability from a right hemothorax with multiple rib fractures following a pedestrian-vehicle accident; >?1500?mL blood was evacuated through the intercostal drain. Thoracotomy showed hemorrhage from a T8-burst fracture, and gauze packing was used for hemostasis. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with right hemothorax and hypotension after a fall from height had hemorrhage from a T7-burst fracture, detected on thoracotomy, which was sealed with bone wax. Hypotension recurred during transfer; re-thoracotomy showed bleeding from a T7 fracture, which was packed with bone wax and gauze for hemostasis. The systematic review identified 10 similar cases and analyzed 12 cases, including the abovementioned cases. Inferior part of thoracic spines was prone to injury and induced right-sided hemothorax. Most patients developed hemodynamic instability, and some sustained intra-transfer hemorrhage; direct compression (gauze packing, bone wax, and hemostatic agents) was the commonest hemostatic procedure. The mortality rate was 33.3%. CONCLUSIONS:Hemothorax due to thoracic spinal fracture can be fatal. Thoracotomy with direct compression is necessary in hemodynamically unstable patients.
Project description:Newborn infants receiving chest compressions in the delivery room have a high incidence of mortality (41%) and short-term neurological morbidity (e.g., 57% hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and seizures). Furthermore, infants who have no signs of life at 10 min despite chest compressions have 83% mortality, with 93% of survivors experiencing moderate-to-severe disability. The poor prognosis associated with receiving chest compressions in the delivery room raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. Combining chest compressions during sustained inflation (CC+SI) has recently been shown to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Overall, CC+SI accomplishes the following: 1) significantly reduces time to return of spontaneous circulation, mortality, and epinephrine administration, and improves systemic and regional hemodynamic recovery; 2) significantly increases tidal volume and minute ventilation, and therefore alveolar oxygen delivery; 3) allows for passive ventilation during chest compression; and 4) does not increase lung or brain injury markers compared with the current standard of using 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio. A randomized trial comparing CC+SI versus a 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the delivery room is therefore warranted.