Unique molecular signatures of microRNAs in ocular fluids and plasma in diabetic retinopathy.
ABSTRACT: The main objective of this pilot study was to identify circulatory microRNAs in aqueous or plasma that were reflecting changes in vitreous of diabetic retinopathy patients. Aqueous, vitreous and plasma samples were collected from a total of 27 patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery: 11 controls (macular pucker or macular hole patients) and 16 with diabetes mellitus(DM): DM-Type I with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) (DMI-PDR), DM Type II with PDR(DMII-PDR) and DM Type II with nonproliferative DR(DMII-NPDR). MicroRNAs were isolated using Qiagen microRNeasy kit, quantified on BioAnalyzer, and profiled on Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 microarrays. Data were analyzed using Expression Console, Transcriptome Analysis Console, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The comparison analysis of circulatory microRNAs showed that out of a total of 847 human microRNA probes on the microarrays, common microRNAs present both in aqueous and vitreous were identified, and a large number of unique microRNA, dependent on the DM type and severity of retinopathy. Most of the dysregulated microRNAs in aqueous and vitreous of DM patients were upregulated, while in plasma, they were downregulated. Dysregulation of miRNAs in aqueous did not appear to be a good representative of the miRNA abundance in vitreous, or plasma, although a few potential candidates for common biomarkers stood out: let-7b, miR-320b, miR-762 and miR-4488. Additionally, each of the DR subtypes showed miRNAs that were uniquely dysregulated in each fluid (i.e. aqueous: for DMII-NPDR was miR-455-3p; for DMII-PDR was miR-296, and for DMI-PDR it was miR-3202). Pathway analysis identified TGF-beta and VEGF pathways affected. The comparative profiling of circulatory miRNAs showed that a small number of them displayed differential presence in diabetic retinopathy vs. controls. A pattern is emerging of unique molecular microRNA signatures in bodily fluids of DR subtypes, offering promise for the use of ocular fluids and plasma for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Project description:Purpose:microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate the pathological mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we compared miRNA expression profiles in the vitreous between patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and patients with a macular hole as non-diabetic controls, and between PDR patients treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy and untreated PDR patients. Methods:Vitreous samples of non-diabetic and PDR patients were screened for miRNAs with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) panels. miRNA candidates were validated in vitreous samples of a second, independent cohort. In addition, the effect of anti-VEGF therapy was investigated in the vitreous of a third study population consisting of PDR patients who had not received anti-VEGF therapy and PDR patients who had received preoperative anti-VEGF therapy. Results:During screening, seven miRNAs were found to be significantly higher in the vitreous of PDR patients, whereas two miRNAs were found to be significantly lower compared with non-diabetic controls. Validating the expression of these miRNAs in a second cohort resulted in the identification of six miRNAs that were expressed at significantly higher rates in the vitreous of PDR patients: hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-23b-3p, hsa-miR-142-3p, hsa-miR-185-5p, hsa-miR-326, and hsa-miR-362-5p. Among these six miRNAs, hsa-miR-23b-3p levels were lower in the anti-VEGF-treated group of PDR patients compared with untreated PDR patients. Conclusions:In this study, we identified six miRNAs that are expressed more highly in PDR patients and one miRNA that is expressed at a lower levels in anti-VEGF-treated PDR patients. Translational Relevance:miRNAs identified in the vitreous of PDR patients may improve our understanding of the mechanisms leading to PDR.
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the relationship between proangiogenic and inflammatory cytokines in concurrent vitreous, aqueous, and plasma samples from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods:Vitreous, aqueous, and plasma samples were analyzed using multiplex immunoassay for 10 PDR-related cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1? [MIP-1?], VEGF receptor 1 [Flt-1], placental growth factor [PlGF], VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D). A total of 17 patients with PDR and 7 controls were included. The primary outcome was correlation of cytokines in vitreous, aqueous, and plasma. The secondary outcome was the comparison of cytokine levels in controls and diabetics with and without recent anti-VEGF injection. Results:The following factors were elevated in diabetics compared with controls: vitreous IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, MCP-1, MIP-1?, PlGF, and VEGF-A; and aqueous IL-6, IL-8, PlGF, and VEGF-C (all P < 0.05). Vitreous and aqueous IL-8, PlGF, and VEGF-A were significantly correlated in patients with PDR (all P < 0.05). Plasma cytokines were not correlated with those in vitreous and aqueous (all P > 0.05). Vitreous and aqueous IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, PlGF, and VEGF-A differed among controls and diabetics with and without recent anti-VEGF injection (all P < 0.05). In one-to-one comparisons, aqueous VEGF-A levels were lower in diabetic patients who had recent anti-VEGF injection compared with those who did not (P = 0.01). Conclusions:In this proof-of-concept study, IL-8, VEGF-A, and PlGF demonstrated a strong correlation in vitreous and aqueous of patients with PDR. The aqueous may serve as a proxy for vitreous for some cytokines involved in PDR. Recent anti-VEGF injections decreased VEGF-A levels in aqueous, but did not significantly affect other cytokines, suggesting a role for other targeted therapies in PDR management.
Project description:Inflammation is known to be involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We have recently reported that vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNF? are higher than the respective serum levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients, and that vitreous levels of these cytokines are higher in PDR than in other non-inflammatory vitreoretinal diseases or uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. In the present study, we investigated inflammatory cytokines including Th17 cell-related cytokines in aqueous humor samples obtained from eyes with PDR, and analyzed the association between the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of individual cytokines. The study group consisted of 31 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with PDR who underwent cataract surgery and vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage and/or tractional retinal detachment. Undiluted aqueous humor was collected during cataract surgery, and then vitreous fluid was obtained using a 25G vitreous cutter inserted into the mid-vitreous cavity at the beginning of vitrectomy. IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-?, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNF? levels in the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid were measured using a beads-array system. Although IL-17A was detected in the aqueous humor of eyes with PDR and the level correlated with IL-17A level in the vitreous fluid, both percent detectable and level of IL-17A in the aqueous humor were significantly lower than those in the vitreous fluid. Vitreous IL-17A level was related significantly to IL-10, IL-22, and TNF? levels in aqueous humor as well as in vitreous fluid, On the other hand, aqueous IL-17A level was not related significantly to aqueous or vitreous levels of IL-10, IL-22 or TNF? level. The present study demonstrated that IL-17A level and detectable rate in the aqueous humor of patients with PDR are markedly lower than those in the vitreous fluid and aqueous IL-17A does not correlate with vitreous levels of other cytokines, and hence should not be used as a surrogate for IL-17A in the vitreous fluid.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is associated with microvascular complications that cause biochemical changes in the human retina and alter the proteome of vitreous humor and aqueous humor (AH).<h4>Methods</h4>Human vitreous humor and AH of PDR subjects were collected. Subjects who had surgery for epiretinal membrane or macular hole served as controls. Protein profiles were obtained and analyzed after running the samples on a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.<h4>Results</h4>In vitreous humor, 16 unique proteins were noted in PDR patients, but not in controls. Those were associated mainly with coagulation, complement, and kallikrein-kinin systems. Under coagulation, fibrinogen and prothrombin proteins were more evident and may emphasize the importance of angiogenesis in the development of PDR. Vitreous proteins showed replicative presence in AH too. As for AH samples, we detected 10 proteins found in PDR patients, which were related to transport, coagulation, and inflammatory responses.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found 57 proteins in human vitreous and 39 proteins in AH. Identification of these proteins that are involved in various pathways will be helpful to understand diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis and to develop proteome as a biomarker for PDR.
Project description:We investigate the metabolomic profile of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Eighteen eyes of 18 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy underwent microincision vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery. Samples of the aqueous and vitreous humors were collected and underwent mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides (polysulfidomics). The effect of reactive polysulfide species on the viability of immortalized retinal cells (the RGC-5 cell line) under oxidative stress (induced with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) was also evaluated with an Alamar Blue assay. The experiments showed that cysteine persulfides (CysSSH), oxidized glutathione trisulfide (GSSSG) and cystine were elevated in the aqueous humor, and CysSSH, Cys, and cystine were elevated in the vitreous. Furthermore, GSSSG, cystine, and CysSSH levels were correlated in the aqueous and vitreous humors. A comparison, in DM and control subjects, of plasma levels of reactive persulfides and polysulfides showed that they did not differ. In vitro findings revealed that reactive polysulfide species increased cell viability under oxidative stress. Thus, various reactive persulfides and polysulfides appear to be present in the eye, and some reactive sulfide species, which have a protective effect against oxidative stress, are upregulated in the aqueous and vitreous humors of DM eyes.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Vitreous vitamin C, as an anti-oxidant, is responsible for regulating oxygen tension and oxidative stress in the eye. Oxidative stress and retinal ischemia are implicated in the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In this study, we aimed to determine whether vitreous level of vitamin C is compromised in patients with PDR and to investigate the association of diabetic macular ischemia and vitamin C.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective study enrolled forty patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of PDR (PDR group, n = 20) and idiopathic epiretinal membrane (control group, n = 20). Serum, aqueous humor, and the vitreous were collected for the analysis of vitamin C level by HPLC. Diabetic macular ischemia (DMI) in PDR group was evaluated with fluorescein angiography (FA).<h4>Results</h4>PDR patients (60.4 ± 2.1 y) were younger than non-diabetic control patients (67.4 ± 1.2 y). Serum, aqueous, and vitreous levels of vitamin C in PDR were 38.7%, 22.5%, and 11.1% of non-diabetic control group, respectively. All PDR patients had DMI (grade 1: 25%, grade 2: 30%, grade 3: 30%, grade 4: 15%). DMI grade was inversely correlated with the level of vitreous vitamin C (r = -0.546, P = 0.019), not with HbA1C, serum, or aqueous vitamin C level. In addition, the level of vitreous vitamin C (4.5 ± 2.6 μg/ml) in high DMI group (Gr 3 &4) was lower than that (31.0 ± 9.1 μg/ml) in low DMI group (Gr 1&2) (P = 0.015).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vitreous level of vitamin C in PDR patients showed a tenfold decrease, which was associated with the degree of macular ischemia. This suggests that vitreous vitamin C depletion may cause macula ischemia in PDR patients.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of mRNA translation. Dysregulation of miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs, has been reported to play an important role in the development of various diseases, including fibrotic diseases. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in the vitreous humor of vitreoretinal diseased eyes has been reported. However, the expression pattern of miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of proliferative vitreoretinal disease (PVD) patients, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), remains unknown. To investigate the factors important for the development of PVD, we characterized the miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of PVD patients and analyzed the expression profiles of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based miRNA arrays. The expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, previously reported to be associated with the development of angiogenesis and fibrosis, was significantly altered in the vitreous of PVD patients. Among these miRNAs, we identified miR-21 as a candidate fibrotic miRNA with an important role in the pathogenesis of PVD. Increased miR-21 levels in the vitreous were associated with retinal fibrosis, including PVR and PDR. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs) plays a critical role in retinal fibrosis, the expression of miR-21 in human RPECs was determined. Its expression in RPECs was induced by transforming growth factor-?, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis, and was enhanced by high glucose culture conditions, suggesting that miR-21 expression positively correlates with disease progression. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that miR-21 promoted cell proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells without affecting EMT-related gene expression. Together, our studies have identified miR-21 as a potential disease-modifying miRNA in the vitreous humor that is involved in the development of retinal fibrosis and may be a novel marker of PVD.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can provide insight into the pathophysiological states of ocular tissues such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In this study, differences in miRNA expression in vitreous from PDR patients with and without incidence of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage (RVH) after the initial pars-plana vitrectomy (PPV) were analyzed, with the aim of identifying biomarkers for RVH. Fifty-four consented vitreous samples were analyzed from patients undergoing PPV for PDR, of which eighteen samples underwent a second surgery due to RVH. Ten of the sixty-six expressed miRNAs (miRNAs-19a, -20a, -22, -27a, -29a, -93, -126, -128, -130a, and -150) displayed divergences between the PDR vitreous groups and to the control. A significant increase in the miRNA-19a and -27a expression was determined in PDR patients undergoing PPV as compared to the controls. miRNA-20a and -93 were significantly upregulated in primary PPV vitreous samples of patients afflicted with RVH. Moreover, this observed upregulation was not significant between the non-RVH and control group, thus emphasizing the association with RVH incidence. miRNA-19a and -27a were detected as putative vitreous biomarkers for PDR, and elevated levels of miRNA-20a and -93 in vitreous with RVH suggest their biomarker potential for major PDR complications such as recurrent hemorrhage incidence.
Project description:To assess the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humor of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients.The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humors of 15 cataract patients and 25 DME patients were compared. DME patients were analyzed according to the diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment, recurrence within 3 months, HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) level, and axial length.The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 of the DME groups were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). There was a significant difference in MMP-1 concentration between the mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group and the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (p = 0.012). MMP-1 concentrations were elevated in PRP-treated patients (p = 0.005). There was a significant difference in MMP-9 concentrations between the mild NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001), and between the moderate and severe NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001). The MMP-9 concentrations in PRP treated patients, DM patients with diabetes ? 10 years and recurrent DME within 3months were elevated (p = 0.023, p = 0.011, and p = 0.027, respectively). In correlation analyses, the MMP-1 level showed a significant correlation with age (r = -0.48, p = 0.01,), and the MMP-9 level showed significant correlations with axial length (r = -0.59, p < 0.01) and DM duration (r = 049, p = 0.01).Concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were higher in the DME groups than in the control group. MMP-9 concentrations also differed depending on DR staging, DM duration, PRP treatment, and degree of axial myopia. MMP-9 may be more important than MMP-1 in the induction of DM complications in eyes.
Project description:In this study, we compare the vitreous cytokine profile in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) to that of patients without PDR. The identification of novel cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of PDR provides candidate therapeutic targets that may stand alone or work synergistically with current therapies in the management of diabetic retinopathy. Undiluted vitreous humor specimens were collected from 74 patients undergoing vitrectomy for various vitreoretinal disorders. Quantitative immunoassay was performed for a panel of 36 neuroinflammatory cytokines in each specimen and assessed to identify differences between PDR (<i>n</i> = 35) and non-PDR (<i>n</i> = 39) patients. Levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, c-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) were significantly increased in the vitreous of PDR patients compared to non-PDR patients (<i>p</i> < 0.05). We report novel increases in IL-15 and IL-16, in addition to the expected VEGF, in the human vitreous humor of patients with PDR. Additionally, we confirm the elevation of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, SAA, IL-8 and CRP in the vitreous of patients with PDR, which has previously been described.