Diversity, enrichment, and genomic potential of anaerobic methane- and ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms from a brewery wastewater treatment plant.
ABSTRACT: Anaerobic wastewater treatment offers several advantages; however, the effluent of anaerobic digesters still contains high levels of ammonium and dissolved methane that need to be removed before these effluents can be discharged to surface waters. The simultaneous anaerobic removal of methane and ammonium by denitrifying (N-damo) methanotrophs in combination with anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria could be a potential solution to this challenge. After a molecular survey of a wastewater plant treating brewery effluent, indicating the presence of both N-damo and anammox bacteria, we started an anaerobic bioreactor with a continuous supply of methane, ammonium, and nitrite to enrich these anaerobic microorganisms. After 14 months of operation, a stable enrichment culture containing two types of 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' bacteria and two strains of 'Ca. Brocadia'-like anammox bacteria was achieved. In this community, anammox bacteria converted 80% of the nitrite with ammonium, while 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' contributed to 20% of the nitrite consumption. The analysis of metagenomic 16S rRNA reads and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) correlated well and showed that, after 14 months, 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' and anammox bacteria constituted approximately 30 and 20% of the total microbial community. In addition, a substantial part (10%) of the community consisted of Phycisphaera-related planctomycetes. Assembly and binning of the metagenomic sequences resulted in high-quality draft genome of two 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' species containing the marker genes pmoCAB, xoxF, and nirS and putative NO dismutase genes. The anammox draft genomes most closely related to 'Ca. Brocadia fulgida' included the marker genes hzsABC, hao, and hdh. Whole-reactor and batch anaerobic activity measurements with methane, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate revealed an average anaerobic methane oxidation rate of 0.12 mmol h-1 L-1 and ammonium oxidation rate of 0.5 mmol h-1 L-1. Together, this study describes the enrichment and draft genomes of anaerobic methanotrophs from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, where these organisms together with anammox bacteria can contribute significantly to the removal of methane and ammonium in a more sustainable way. KEY POINTS: • An enrichment culture containing both N-damo and anammox bacteria was obtained. • Simultaneous consumption of ammonia, nitrite, and methane under anoxic conditions. • In-depth metagenomic biodiversity analysis of inoculum and enrichment culture.
Project description:Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) are two of the most recent discoveries in the microbial nitrogen cycle. In the present study, we provide direct evidence for the cooccurrence of the anammox and n-damo processes in a flooded paddy field in southeastern China. Stable isotope experiments showed that the potential anammox rates ranged from 5.6 to 22.7 nmol N2 g(-1) (dry weight) day(-1) and the potential n-damo rates varied from 0.2 to 2.1 nmol CO2 g(-1) (dry weight) day(-1) in different layers of soil cores. Quantitative PCR showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 1.0 × 10(5) to 2.0 × 10(6) copies g(-1) (dry weight) in different layers of soil cores and the abundance of n-damo bacteria varied from 3.8 × 10(5) to 6.1 × 10(6) copies g(-1) (dry weight). Phylogenetic analyses of the recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that anammox bacteria affiliated with "Candidatus Brocadia" and "Candidatus Kuenenia" and n-damo bacteria related to "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" were present in the soil cores. It is estimated that a total loss of 50.7 g N m(-2) per year could be linked to the anammox process, which is at intermediate levels for the nitrogen flux ranges of aerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification reported in wetland soils. In addition, it is estimated that a total of 0.14 g CH4 m(-2) per year could be oxidized via the n-damo process, while this rate is at the lower end of the aerobic methane oxidation rates reported in wetland soils.
Project description:This study investigates interactions between recently identified denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes in controlled anoxic laboratory reactors. Two reactors were seeded with the same inocula containing DAMO organisms Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens and Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, and anammox organism Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Both were fed with ammonium and methane, but one was also fed with nitrate and the other with nitrite, providing anoxic environments with different electron acceptors. After steady state reached in several months, the DAMO process became solely/primarily responsible for nitrate reduction while the anammox process became solely responsible for nitrite reduction in both reactors. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that the nitrate-driven DAMO organism M. nitroreducens dominated both the nitrate-fed (~70%) and the nitrite-fed (~26%) reactors, while the nitrite-driven DAMO organism M. oxyfera disappeared in both communities. The elimination of M. oxyfera from both reactors was likely the results of this organism being outcompeted by anammox bacteria for nitrite. K. stuttgartiensis was detected at relatively low levels (1-3%) in both reactors.
Project description:Nitrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (n-damo) and ammonium (anammox) are two recently discovered processes in the nitrogen cycle that are catalyzed by n-damo bacteria, including "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera," and anammox bacteria, respectively. The feasibility of coculturing anammox and n-damo bacteria is important for implementation in wastewater treatment systems that contain substantial amounts of both methane and ammonium. Here we tested this possible coexistence experimentally. To obtain such a coculture, ammonium was fed to a stable enrichment culture of n-damo bacteria that still contained some residual anammox bacteria. The ammonium supplied to the reactor was consumed rapidly and could be gradually increased from 1 to 20 mM/day. The enriched coculture was monitored by fluorescence in situ hybridization and 16S rRNA and pmoA gene clone libraries and activity measurements. After 161 days, a coculture with about equal amounts of n-damo and anammox bacteria was established that converted nitrite at a rate of 0.1 kg-N/m(3)/day (17.2 mmol day(-1)). This indicated that the application of such a coculture for nitrogen removal may be feasible in the near future.
Project description:The importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a methane sink in freshwater systems is largely unexplored, particularly in peat ecosystems. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and reported to be catalyzed by the bacterium "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera," which is affiliated with the NC10 phylum. So far, several "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" enrichment cultures have been obtained using a limited number of freshwater sediments or wastewater treatment sludge as the inoculum. In this study, using stable isotope measurements and porewater profiles, we investigated the potential of n-damo in a minerotrophic peatland in the south of the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water. Methane and nitrate profiles suggested that all methane produced was oxidized before reaching the oxic layer, and NC10 bacteria could be active in the transition zone where countergradients of methane and nitrate occur. Quantitative PCR showed high NC10 bacterial cell numbers at this methane-nitrate transition zone. This soil section was used to enrich the prevalent NC10 bacteria in a continuous culture supplied with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.2. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA and pmoA genes showed that the enriched bacteria were very similar to the ones found in situ and constituted a new branch of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 90% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera," respectively. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and highlight their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles.
Project description:In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.
Project description:We present here the second complete genome of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacterium, Candidatus (Ca.) Brocadia pituitae, along with those of a nitrite oxidizer and two incomplete denitrifiers from the anammox bacterial community (ABC) metagenome. Although NO2- reduction to NO is considered to be the first step in anammox, Ca. B. pituitae lacks nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) responsible for this reaction. Comparative genomics of Ca. B. pituitae with Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and six other anammox bacteria with nearly complete genomes revealed that their core genome structure contains 1,152 syntenic orthologues. But nitrite reductase genes were absent from the core, whereas two other Brocadia species possess nirK and these genes were horizontally acquired from multiple lineages. In contrast, at least five paralogous hydroxylamine oxidoreductase genes containing candidate ones (hao2 and hao3) encoding another nitrite reductase were observed in the core. Indeed, these two genes were also significantly expressed in Ca. B. pituitae as in other anammox bacteria. Because many nirS and nirK genes have been detected in the ABC metagenome, Ca. B. pituitae presumably utilises not only NO supplied by the ABC members but also NO and/or NH2OH by self-production for anammox metabolism.
Project description:Methane and ammonia have to be removed from wastewater treatment effluent in order to discharge it to receiving water bodies. A potential solution for this is a combination of simultaneous ammonia and methane oxidation by anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria and nitrite/nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-damo) microorganisms. When applied, these microorganisms will be exposed to oxygen, but little is known about the effect of a low concentration of oxygen on a culture containing these microorganisms. In this study, a stable coculture containing anammox and N-damo microorganisms in a laboratory scale bioreactor was established under oxygen limitation. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) was used to directly measure the <i>in situ</i> simultaneous activity of N-damo, anammox, and aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. In addition, batch tests revealed that the bioreactor also harbored aerobic methanotrophs and anaerobic methanogens. Together with fluorescence <i>in situ</i> hybridization (FISH) analysis and metagenomics, these results indicate that the combination of N-damo and anammox activity under the continuous supply of limiting oxygen concentrations is feasible and can be implemented for the removal of methane and ammonia from anaerobic digester effluents. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Nitrogen in wastewater leads to eutrophication of the receiving water bodies, and methane is a potent greenhouse gas; it is therefore important that these are removed from wastewater. A potential solution for the simultaneous removal of nitrogenous compounds and methane is the application of a combination of nitrite/nitrate-dependent methane oxidation (N-damo) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (annamox). In order to do so, it is important to investigate the effect of oxygen on these two anaerobic processes. In this study, we investigate the effect of a continuous oxygen supply on the activity of an anaerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing coculture. The findings presented in this study are important for the potential application of these two microbial processes in wastewater treatment.
Project description:Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale sequencing batch reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, respectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high NH3-N (1.9-10 mg NH3-N/L) and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L) are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle. Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" type, able to grow in presence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS) gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus Nitrobacter was detected.
Project description:Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for significant global nitrogen loss. Moreover, the anammox process is widely implemented for nitrogen removal from wastewaters as a cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative to conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep-branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium-Chlamydiae superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants and have been enriched in lab-scale bioreactors, but genome information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of a granular sludge anammox reactor dominated (?50%) by "Candidatus Jettenia asiatica." The metagenome was sequenced using both Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571?nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd(1)-type nitrite reductase (NirS, present in "Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" and "Ca. Scalindua profunda"). Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methanogens, and the denitrifying methanotroph "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera", indicating a possible active methane and nitrogen cycle in the bioreactor under the prevailing operational conditions.
Project description:The process of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and shown to be mediated by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera). Here, evidence for n-damo in three different freshwater wetlands located in southeastern China was obtained using stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays, and 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase gene clone library analyses. Stable isotope experiments confirmed the occurrence of n-damo in the examined wetlands, and the potential n-damo rates ranged from 0.31 to 5.43 nmol CO2 per gram of dry soil per day at different depths of soil cores. A combined analysis of 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase genes demonstrated that M. oxyfera-like bacteria were mainly present in the deep soil with a maximum abundance of 3.2 × 10(7) gene copies per gram of dry soil. It is estimated that ?0.51 g of CH4 m(-2) per year could be linked to the n-damo process in the examined wetlands based on the measured potential n-damo rates. This study presents previously unidentified confirmation that the n-damo process is a previously overlooked microbial methane sink in wetlands, and n-damo has the potential to be a globally important methane sink due to increasing nitrogen pollution.