Gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect in graphene-topological insulator van der Waals heterostructures at room temperature.
ABSTRACT: Unique electronic spin textures in topological states of matter are promising for emerging spin-orbit driven memory and logic technologies. However, there are several challenges related to the enhancement of their performance, electrical gate-tunability, interference from trivial bulk states, and heterostructure interfaces. We address these challenges by integrating two-dimensional graphene with a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) in van der Waals heterostructures to take advantage of their remarkable spintronic properties and engineer proximity-induced spin-charge conversion phenomena. In these heterostructures, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect (SGE) at room temperature, allowing for efficient conversion of a non-equilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Systematic measurements of SGE in various device geometries via a spin switch, spin precession, and magnetization rotation experiments establish the robustness of spin-charge conversion in the Gr-TI heterostructures. Importantly, using a gate voltage, we reveal a strong electric field tunability of both amplitude and sign of the spin-galvanic signal. These findings provide an efficient route for realizing all-electrical and gate-tunable spin-orbit technology using TIs and graphene in heterostructures, which can enhance the performance and reduce power dissipation in spintronic circuits.
Project description:In heterostructures with broken inversion symmetry, the electrons' motion is coupled to their spin through interface-driven spin-orbit coupling: the Rashba effect. The Rashba effect enables the interconversion between spin and charge currents, offering a variety of novel spintronic phenomena and functionalities. However, despite the significant progress in Rashba physics, controlling the spin-charge conversion in metallic heterostructures remains a major challenge. We show that molecular self-assembly provides a way to engineer the Rashba spin-charge converters. We demonstrate that magnetoresistance and voltage generation originating from the spin-charge conversion in metallic heterostructures can be manipulated by decorating the surface with self-assembled organic monolayers through the cooperative molecular field effect. We also demonstrate reversible phototuning of the spin-charge conversion through light-driven molecular transformations using a molecule that can photoisomerize between the trans and cis states. These findings, with the almost-infinite chemical tunability of organic monolayers, pave the way toward molecular engineering of spin-orbit devices.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer a unique platform due to their remarkable and contrasting spintronic properties, such as weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene and strong SOC in molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>). Here we combine graphene and MoS<sub>2</sub> in a van der Waals heterostructure (vdWh) to demonstrate the electric gate control of the spin current and spin lifetime at room temperature. By performing non-local spin valve and Hanle measurements, we unambiguously prove the gate tunability of the spin current and spin lifetime in graphene/MoS<sub>2</sub> vdWhs at 300?K. This unprecedented control over the spin parameters by orders of magnitude stems from the gate tuning of the Schottky barrier at the MoS<sub>2</sub>/graphene interface and MoS<sub>2</sub> channel conductivity leading to spin dephasing in high-SOC material. Our findings demonstrate an all-electrical spintronic device at room temperature with the creation, transport and control of the spin in 2D materials heterostructures, which can be key building blocks in future device architectures.
Project description:Interfacial spin-orbit torques (SOTs) enable the manipulation of the magnetization through in-plane charge currents, which has drawn increasing attention for spintronic applications. The search for material systems providing efficient SOTs, has been focused on polycrystalline ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic metal bilayers. In these systems, currents flowing in the non-magnetic layer generate-due to strong spin-orbit interaction-spin currents via the spin Hall effect and induce a torque at the interface to the ferromagnet. Here we report the observation of robust SOT occuring at a single crystalline Fe/GaAs (001) interface at room temperature. We find that the magnitude of the interfacial SOT, caused by the reduced symmetry at the interface, is comparably strong as in ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic metal systems. The large spin-orbit fields at the interface also enable spin-to-charge current conversion at the interface, known as spin-galvanic effect. The results suggest that single crystalline Fe/GaAs interfaces may enable efficient electrical magnetization manipulation.
Project description:Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators (TIs) are known to have unique electronic and spintronic properties. We combine graphene with TIs in van der Waals heterostructures to demonstrate the emergence of a strong proximity-induced spin-orbit coupling in graphene. By performing spin transport and precession measurements supported by ab initio simulations, we discover a strong tunability and suppression of the spin signal and spin lifetime due to the hybridization of graphene and TI electronic bands. The enhanced spin-orbit coupling strength is estimated to be nearly an order of magnitude higher than in pristine graphene. These findings in graphene-TI heterostructures could open interesting opportunities for exploring exotic physical phenomena and new device functionalities governed by topological proximity effects.
Project description:Employing the spin degree of freedom of charge carriers offers the possibility to extend the functionality of conventional electronic devices, while colloidal chemistry can be used to synthesize inexpensive and tunable nanomaterials. Here, in order to benefit from both concepts, we investigate Rashba spin-orbit interaction in colloidal lead sulphide nanosheets by electrical measurements on the circular photo-galvanic effect. Lead sulphide nanosheets possess rock salt crystal structure, which is centrosymmetric. The symmetry can be broken by quantum confinement, asymmetric vertical interfaces and a gate electric field leading to Rashba-type band splitting in momentum space at the M points, which results in an unconventional selection mechanism for the excitation of the carriers. The effect, which is supported by simulations of the band structure using density functional theory, can be tuned by the gate electric field and by the thickness of the sheets. Spin-related electrical transport phenomena in colloidal materials open a promising pathway towards future inexpensive spintronic devices.
Project description:Electrical generation and detection of pure spin currents without the need of magnetic materials are key elements for the realization of full electrically controlled spintronic devices. In this framework, achieving a large spin-to-charge conversion signal is crucial, as considerable outputs are needed for plausible applications. Unfortunately, the values obtained so far have been rather low. Here we exploit the spin Hall effect by using Pt, a non-magnetic metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, to generate and detect pure spin currents in a few-layer graphene channel. Furthermore, the outstanding properties of graphene, with long-distance spin transport and higher electrical resistivity than metals, allow us to achieve in our graphene/Pt lateral heterostructures the largest spin-to-charge output voltage at room temperature reported so far in the literature. Our approach opens up exciting opportunities towards the implementation of spin-orbit-based logic circuits and all electrical control of spin information without magnetic field.Spintronic devices with full electrical control rely on electrical generation and detection of spin currents in the absence of magnetic materials. Here, the authors use Pt, a non-magnetic metal, to generate and detect pure spin currents in a few-layer graphene channel, achieving a remarkable spin-to-charge voltage signal at room temperature.
Project description:The proximity of a transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) to graphene imprints a rich spin texture in graphene and complements its high-quality charge/spin transport by inducing spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Rashba and valley-Zeeman SOCs are the origin of charge-to-spin conversion mechanisms such as the Rashba-Edelstein effect (REE) and spin Hall effect (SHE). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time charge-to-spin conversion due to the REE in a monolayer WS2-graphene van der Waals heterostructure. We measure the current-induced spin polarization up to room temperature and control it by a gate electric field. Our observation of the REE and the inverse of the effect (IREE) is accompanied by the SHE, which we discriminate by symmetry-resolved spin precession under oblique magnetic fields. These measurements also allow for the quantification of the efficiencies of charge-to-spin conversion by each of the two effects. These findings are a clear indication of induced Rashba and valley-Zeeman SOC in graphene that lead to the generation of spin accumulation and spin current without using ferromagnetic electrodes. These realizations have considerable significance for spintronic applications, providing accessible routes toward all-electrical spin generation and manipulation in two-dimensional materials.
Project description:A large spin-dependent and electric field-tunable magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron system is a key ingredient for the realization of many novel concepts for spin-based electronic devices. The low magnetoresistance observed during the last few decades in devices with lateral semiconducting transport channels between ferromagnetic source and drain contacts has been the main obstacle for realizing spin field effect transistor proposals. Here, we show both a large two-terminal magnetoresistance in a lateral spin valve device with a two-dimensional channel, with up to 80% resistance change, and tunability of the magnetoresistance by an electric gate. The enhanced magnetoresistance is due to finite electric field effects at the contact interface, which boost spin-to-charge conversion. The gating scheme that we use is based on switching between uni- and bidirectional spin diffusion, without resorting to spin-orbit coupling. Therefore, it can also be employed in materials with low spin-orbit coupling.
Project description:Current-induced spin-orbit torques provide an effective way to manipulate magnetization in spintronic devices, promising for fast switching applications in nonvolatile memory and logic units. Recent studies have revealed that the spin-orbit torque is strongly altered by the oxidation of heterostructures with broken inversion symmetry. Although this finding opens a new field of metal-oxide spin-orbitronics, the role of the oxidation in the spin-orbit physics is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate a marked enhancement of the spin-orbit torque induced by a fine-tuning of oxygen-induced modification of orbital hybridization. This is evidenced by a concomitant enhancement of the interface spin-orbit torque, interface spin loss, and interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy within a narrow range of the oxidation level of metallic heterostructures. This result reveals the crucial role of the atomic-scale effects in the generation of the spin-orbit torques, opening the door to atomic-level engineering of the spin-orbit physics.
Project description:Van der Waals heterostructures have become a paradigm for designing new materials and devices in which specific functionalities can be tailored by combining the properties of the individual 2D layers. A single layer of transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) is an excellent complement to graphene (Gr) because the high quality of charge and spin transport in Gr is enriched with the large spin-orbit coupling of the TMD via the proximity effect. The controllable spin-valley coupling makes these heterostructures particularly attractive for spintronic and opto-valleytronic applications. In this work, we study spin precession in a monolayer MoSe2/Gr heterostructure and observe an unconventional, dramatic modulation of the spin signal, showing 1 order of magnitude longer lifetime of out-of-plane spins compared to that of in-plane spins (?? ? 40 ps and ?? ? 3.5 ps). This demonstration of a large spin lifetime anisotropy in TMD/Gr heterostructures, is a direct evidence of induced spin-valley coupling in Gr and provides an accessible route for manipulation of spin dynamics in Gr, interfaced with TMDs.