Observing Protein Degradation by the PAN-20S Proteasome by Time-Resolved Neutron Scattering.
ABSTRACT: The proteasome is a key player of regulated protein degradation in all kingdoms of life. Although recent atomic structures have provided snapshots on a number of conformations, data on substrate states and populations during the active degradation process in solution remain scarce. Here, we use time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of a deuterium-labeled GFPssrA substrate and an unlabeled archaeal PAN-20S system to obtain direct structural information on substrate states during ATP-driven unfolding and subsequent proteolysis in solution. We find that native GFPssrA structures are degraded in a biexponential process, which correlates strongly with ATP hydrolysis, the loss of fluorescence, and the buildup of small oligopeptide products. Our solution structural data support a model in which the substrate is directly translocated from PAN into the 20S proteolytic chamber, after a first, to our knowledge, successful unfolding process that represents a point of no return and thus prevents dissociation of the complex and the release of harmful, aggregation-prone products.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is a self-compartmentalized protease which degrades unfolded polypeptides and has been purified from eucaryotes, gram-positive actinomycetes, and archaea. Energy-dependent complexes, such as the 19S cap of the eucaryal 26S proteasome, are assumed to be responsible for the recognition and/or unfolding of substrate proteins which are then translocated into the central chamber of the 20S proteasome and hydrolyzed to polypeptide products of 3 to 30 residues. All archaeal genomes which have been sequenced are predicted to encode proteins with up to approximately 50% identity to the six ATPase subunits of the 19S cap. In this study, one of these archaeal homologs which has been named PAN for proteasome-activating nucleotidase was characterized from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii. In addition, the M. jannaschii 20S proteasome was purified as a 700-kDa complex by in vitro assembly of the alpha and beta subunits and has an unusually high rate of peptide and unfolded-polypeptide hydrolysis at 100 degrees C. The 550-kDa PAN complex was required for CTP- or ATP-dependent degradation of beta-casein by archaeal 20S proteasomes. A 500-kDa complex of PAN(Delta1-73), which has a deletion of residues 1 to 73 of the deduced protein and disrupts the predicted N-terminal coiled-coil, also facilitated this energy-dependent proteolysis. However, this deletion increased the types of nucleotides hydrolyzed to include not only ATP and CTP but also ITP, GTP, TTP, and UTP. The temperature optimum for nucleotide (ATP) hydrolysis was reduced from 80 degrees C for the full-length protein to 65 degrees C for PAN(Delta1-73). Both PAN protein complexes were stable in the absence of ATP and were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid. Kinetic analysis reveals that the PAN protein has a relatively high V(max) for ATP and CTP hydrolysis of 3.5 and 5.8 micromol of P(i) per min per mg of protein as well as a relatively low affinity for CTP and ATP with K(m) values of 307 and 497 microM compared to other proteins of the AAA family. Based on electron micrographs, PAN and PAN(Delta1-73) apparently associate with the ends of the 20S proteasome cylinder. These results suggest that the M. jannaschii as well as related archaeal 20S proteasomes require a nucleotidase complex such as PAN to mediate the energy-dependent hydrolysis of folded-substrate proteins and that the N-terminal 73 amino acid residues of PAN are not absolutely required for this reaction.
Project description:Proteasomes are essential and ubiquitous ATP-dependent proteases that function in eukarya, archaea, and some bacteria. These destructive but critically important proteolytic machines use a 20S core peptidase and a hexameric ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA+) unfolding ring that unfolds and spools substrates into the peptidase chamber. In archaea, 20S can function with the AAA+ Cdc48 or proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) unfoldases. Both interactions are stabilized by C-terminal tripeptides in AAA+ subunits that dock into pockets on the 20S periphery. Here, we provide evidence that archaeal Cdc48 also uses a distinct set of near-axial interactions to bind 20S and propose that similar dual determinants mediate PAN-20S interactions and Rpt(1-6)-20S interactions in the 26S proteasome. Current dogma holds that the Rpt(1-6) unfolding ring of the 19S regulatory particle is the only AAA+ partner of eukaryotic 20S. By contrast, we show that mammalian Cdc48, a key player in cell-cycle regulation, membrane fusion, and endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation, activates mammalian 20S and find that a mouse Cdc48 variant supports protein degradation in combination with 20S. Our results suggest that eukaryotic Cdc48 orthologs function directly with 20S to maintain intracellular protein quality control.
Project description:The ATP-powered protein degradation machinery plays essential roles in maintaining protein homeostasis in all organisms. Robust proteolytic activities are typically sequestered within protein complexes to avoid the fatal removal of essential proteins. Because the openings of proteolytic chambers are narrow, substrate proteins must undergo unfolding. AAA superfamily proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) are mostly located at these openings and regulate protein degradation appropriately. The 26S proteasome, comprising 20S peptidase and 19S regulatory particles, is the major ATP-powered protein degradation machinery in eukaryotes. The 19S particles are composed of six AAA proteins and 13 regulatory proteins, and bind to both ends of a barrel-shaped proteolytic chamber formed by the 20S peptidase. Several recent studies have reported that another AAA protein, Cdc48, can replace the 19S particles to form an alternative ATP-powered proteasomal complex, i.e., the Cdc48-20S proteasome. This review focuses on our current knowledge of this alternative proteasome and its possible linkage to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Project description:The 20S proteasome functions in protein degradation in eukaryotes together with the 19S ATPases or in archaea with the homologous PAN ATPase complex. These ATPases contain a conserved C-terminal hydrophobic-tyrosine-X motif (HbYX). We show that these residues are essential for PAN to associate with the 20S and open its gated channel for substrate entry. Upon ATP binding, these C-terminal residues bind to pockets between the 20S's alpha subunits. Seven-residue or longer peptides from PAN's C terminus containing the HbYX motif also bind to these sites and induce gate opening in the 20S. Gate opening could be induced by C-terminal peptides from the 19S ATPase subunits, Rpt2, and Rpt5, but not by ones from PA28/26, which lack the HbYX motif and cause gate opening by distinct mechanisms. C-terminal residues in the 19S ATPases were also shown to be critical for gating and stability of 26S proteasomes. Thus, the C termini of the proteasomal ATPases function like a "key in a lock" to induce gate opening and allow substrate entry.
Project description:Substrates enter the cylindrical 20S proteasome through a gated channel that is regulated by the ATPases in the 19S regulatory particle in eukaryotes or the homologous PAN ATPase complex in archaea. These ATPases contain a conserved C-terminal hydrophobic-tyrosine-X (HbYX) motif that triggers gate opening upon ATP binding. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified the sites in the archaeal 20S where PAN's C-terminal residues bind and determined the structures of the gate in its closed and open forms. Peptides containing the HbYX motif bind to 20S in the pockets between neighboring alpha subunits where they interact with conserved residues required for gate opening. This interaction induces a rotation in the alpha subunits and displacement of a reverse-turn loop that stabilizes the open-gate conformation. This mechanism differs from that of PA26/28, which lacks the HbYX motif and does not cause alpha subunit rotation. These findings demonstrated how the ATPases' C termini function to facilitate substrate entry.
Project description:Four decades of proteasome research have yielded extensive information on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The archetype of proteasomes is a 20S barrel-shaped complex that does not rely on ubiquitin as a degradation signal but can degrade substrates with a considerable unstructured stretch. Since roughly half of all proteasomes in most eukaryotic cells are free 20S complexes, ubiquitin-independent protein degradation may coexist with ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the highly regulated 26S proteasome. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the biochemical and structural features that underlie the proteolytic mechanism of 20S proteasomes. The two outer ?-rings of 20S proteasomes provide a number of potential docking sites for loosely folded polypeptides. The binding of a substrate can induce asymmetric conformational changes, trigger gate opening, and initiate its own degradation through a protease-driven translocation mechanism. Consequently, the substrate translocates through two additional narrow apertures augmented by the ?-catalytic active sites. The overall pulling force through the two annuli results in a protease-like unfolding of the substrate and subsequent proteolysis in the catalytic chamber. Although both proteasomes contain identical ?-catalytic active sites, the differential translocation mechanisms yield distinct peptide products. Nonoverlapping substrate repertoires and product outcomes rationalize cohabitation of both proteasome complexes in cells.
Project description:Although many bacterial species do not possess proteasome systems, the actinobacteria, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, use proteasome systems for targeted protein removal. Previous structural analyses of the mycobacterial proteasome ATPase Mpa revealed a general structural conservation with the archaeal proteasome-activating nucleotidase and eukaryotic proteasomal Rpt1-6 ATPases, such as the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, oligosaccharide-/oligonucleotide-binding domain, and ATPase domain. However, Mpa has a unique β-grasp domain that in the ADP-bound crystal structure appears to interfere with the docking to the 20S proteasome core particle (CP). Thus, it is unclear how Mpa binds to proteasome CPs. In this report, we show by cryo-EM that the Mpa hexamer in the presence of a degradation substrate and ATP forms a gapped ring, with two of its six ATPase domains being highly flexible. We found that the linkers between the oligonucleotide-binding and ATPase domains undergo conformational changes that are important for function, revealing a previously unappreciated role of the linker region in ATP hydrolysis-driven protein unfolding. We propose that this gapped ring configuration is an intermediate state that helps rearrange its β-grasp domains and activating C termini to facilitate engagement with proteasome CPs. This work provides new insights into the crucial process of how an ATPase interacts with a bacterial proteasome protease.
Project description:Protein degradation in the 20S proteasome is regulated in eukaryotes by the 19S ATPase complex and in archaea by the homologous PAN ATPase ring complex. Subunits of these hexameric ATPases contain on their C-termini a conserved hydrophobic-tyrosine-X (HbYX) motif that docks into pockets in the 20S to stimulate the opening of a gated substrate entry channel. Here, we report the crystal structure of the archaeal 20S proteasome in complex with the C-terminus of the archaeal proteasome regulatory ATPase, PAN. This structure defines the detailed interactions between the critical C-terminal HbYX motif and the 20S alpha-subunits and indicates that the intersubunit pocket in the 20S undergoes an induced-fit conformational change on binding of the HbYX motif. This structure together with related mutagenesis data suggest how in eukaryotes certain proteasomal ATPases bind to specific pockets in an asymmetrical manner to regulate gate opening.
Project description:The primary functions of the proteasome are driven by a highly allosteric ATPase complex. ATP binding to only two subunits in this hexameric complex triggers substrate binding, ATPase-20S association and 20S gate opening. However, it is unclear how ATP binding and hydrolysis spatially and temporally coordinates these allosteric effects to drive substrate translocation into the 20S. Here, we use FRET to show that the proteasomal ATPases from eukaryotes (RPTs) and archaea (PAN) bind ATP with high affinity at neighbouring subunits, which complements the well-established spiral-staircase topology of the 26S ATPases. We further show that two conserved arginine fingers in PAN located at the subunit interface work together as a single allosteric unit to mediate the allosteric effects of ATP binding, without altering the nucleotide-binding pattern. Rapid kinetics analysis also shows that ring resetting of a sequential hydrolysis mechanism can be explained by thermodynamic equilibrium binding of ATP. These data support a model whereby these two functionally distinct allosteric networks cooperate to translocate polypeptides into the 20S for degradation.
Project description:The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded.