The genome sequence of the grape phylloxera provides insights into the evolution, adaptation, and invasion routes of an iconic pest.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Although native to North America, the invasion of the aphid-like grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae across the globe altered the course of grape cultivation. For the past 150?years, viticulture relied on grafting-resistant North American Vitis species as rootstocks, thereby limiting genetic stocks tolerant to other stressors such as pathogens and climate change. Limited understanding of the insect genetics resulted in successive outbreaks across the globe when rootstocks failed. Here we report the 294-Mb genome of D. vitifoliae as a basic tool to understand host plant manipulation, nutritional endosymbiosis, and enhance global viticulture. RESULTS:Using a combination of genome, RNA, and population resequencing, we found grape phylloxera showed high duplication rates since its common ancestor with aphids, but similarity in most metabolic genes, despite lacking obligate nutritional symbioses and feeding from parenchyma. Similarly, no enrichment occurred in development genes in relation to viviparity. However, phylloxera evolved >?2700 unique genes that resemble putative effectors and are active during feeding. Population sequencing revealed the global invasion began from the upper Mississippi River in North America, spread to Europe and from there to the rest of the world. CONCLUSIONS:The grape phylloxera genome reveals genetic architecture relative to the evolution of nutritional endosymbiosis, viviparity, and herbivory. The extraordinary expansion in effector genes also suggests novel adaptations to plant feeding and how insects induce complex plant phenotypes, for instance galls. Finally, our understanding of the origin of this invasive species and its genome provide genetics resources to alleviate rootstock bottlenecks restricting the advancement of viticulture.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a major insect pest that negatively impacts commercial grapevine performance worldwide. Consequently, the use of phylloxera resistant rootstocks is an essential component of vineyard management. However, the majority of commercially available rootstocks used in viticulture production provide limited levels of grape phylloxera resistance, in part due to the adaptation of phylloxera biotypes to different Vitis species. Therefore, there is pressing need to develop new rootstocks better adapted to specific grape growing regions with complete resistance to grape phylloxera biotypes. RESULTS:Grapevine rootstock breeding material, including an accession of Vitis cinerea and V. aestivalis, DRX55 ([M. rotundifolia x V. vinifera] x open pollinated) and MS27-31 (M. rotundifolia specific hybrid), provided complete resistance to grape phylloxera in potted plant assays. To map the genetic factor(s) of grape phylloxera resistance, a F1 V. cinerea x V. vinifera Riesling population was screened for resistance. Heritability analysis indicates that the V. cinerea accession contained a single allele referred as RESISTANCE TO DAKTULOSPHAIRA VITIFOLIAE 2 (RDV2) that confers grape phylloxera resistance. Using genetic maps constructed with pseudo-testcross markers for V. cinerea and Riesling, a single phylloxera resistance locus was identified in V. cinerea. After validating SNPs at the RDV2 locus, interval and linkage mapping showed that grape phylloxera resistance mapped to linkage group 14 at position 16.7 cM. CONCLUSION:The mapping of RDV2 and the validation of markers linked to grape phylloxera resistance provides the basis to breed new rootstocks via marker-assisted selection that improve vineyard performance.
Project description:Grape phylloxera, <i>Daktulosphaira vitifoliae</i>, is a small, invasive, sap-sucking pest that is widely present in most viticulture regions all over the world. It is originally from North America and feeds on grapevine roots and leaves. In the current study, the potential distribution area of the leaf-feeding population was investigated with MaxEnt based on population occurrence data under different environmental variables. Results suggested that under current climatic conditions, Europe, East and North China, Japan, the Eastern USA, Uruguay, and the Southeast of South America are highly suitable areas for the occurrence of phylloxera leaf populations. The results showed that isothermality and precipitation of coldest quarter were major factors which contribute more than 60% of the model under current climate conditions. Our results provide important information for governmental decision makers and famers to develop control and management strategies against <i>D. vitifoliae</i>, and can also be used as a reference for studies on other invasive pest.
Project description:Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies. In order to understand the population diversity of grape phylloxera in its native range, more than 500 samples from 19 States and 34 samples from the introduced range (northern California, Europe and South America) were genotyped with 32 simple sequence repeat markers. STRUCTURE, a model based clustering method identified five populations within these samples. The five populations were confirmed by a neighbor-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). These populations were distinguished by their Vitis species hosts and their geographic locations. Samples collected from California, Europe and South America traced back to phylloxera sampled in the northeastern United States on V. riparia, with some influence from phylloxera collected along the Atlantic Coast and Central Plains on V. vulpina. Reproductive statistics conclusively confirmed that sexual reproduction is common in the native range and is combined with cyclical parthenogenesis. Native grape phylloxera populations were identified to be under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The identification of admixed samples between many of these populations indicates that shared environments facilitate sexual reproduction between different host associated populations to create new genotypes of phylloxera. This study also found that assortative mating might occur across the sympatric range of the V. vulpina west and V. cinerea populations.
Project description:Depending on their life cycle, grape phylloxera (<i>Daktulosphaira vitifoliae</i> Fitch) leaf-feeding populations are initiated through asexually produced offspring or sexual recombination. The vine's initial foliar larvae may originate from root-feeding phylloxera or wind-drifted foliar larvae from other habitats. Though some studies have reported phylloxera leaf-feeding in commercial vineyards, it is still unclear if they are genetically distinct from the population structure of these two sources. Using seven SSR-markers, this study analyzed the genetic structure of phylloxera populations in commercial vineyards with different natural infestation scenarios and that of single-plant insect systems that exclude infestation by wind-drifted larvae. We saw that during the vegetation period, phylloxera populations predominately go through their asexual life cycle to migrate from roots to leaves. We provided evidence that such migrations do not exclusively occur through wind-drifted foliar populations from rootstock vines in abandoned thickets, but that root populations within commercial vineyards also migrate to establish <i>V. vinifera</i> leaf populations. Whereas the former scenario generates foliar populations with high genotypic diversity, the latter produces population bottlenecks through founder effects or phylloxera biotype selection pressure. We finally compared these population structures with those of populations in their native habitat in North America, using four microsatellite markers.
Project description:Grape phylloxera is one of the most dangerous insect pests for worldwide viticulture. The leaf- and root-galling phylloxerid has been managed by grafting European grapevines onto American rootstock hybrids. Recent reports pinpoint the appearance of host-adapted biotypes, but information about the biomolecular characteristics underlying grape phylloxera biotypisation and its role in host performance is scarce. Using RNA-sequencing, we sequenced the transcriptome of two larval stages: L1 (probing) and L2-3 (feeding) larvae of two root-feeding grape phylloxera lineages feeding on the rootstock Teleki 5C (biotype C) and V. vinifera Riesling (biotype A). In total, 7501 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly modulated by the two biotypes. For the probing larvae, we found an increased number of DEGs functionally associated with insect chemoreception traits, such as odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, ionotropic, odorant, and gustatory receptors. The transcriptomic profile of feeding larvae was enriched with DEGs associated with the primary metabolism. Larvae feeding on the tolerant rootstock Teleki 5C exhibited higher numbers of plant defense suppression-associated DEGs than larvae feeding on the susceptible host. Based on the identified DEGs, we discuss their potential role for the compatible grape phylloxera-Vitis interaction belowground. This study was the first to compare the transcriptomes of two grape phylloxera lineages feeding on a tolerant and susceptible host, respectively, and to identify DEGs involved in the molecular interaction with these hosts. Our data provide a source for future studies on host adaptation mechanisms of grape phylloxera and help to elucidate grape phylloxera resistance further.
Project description:The successful parasitisation of a plant by a phytophagous insect is dependent on the delivery of effector molecules into the host. Sedentary gall forming insects, such as grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, Phylloxeridae), secrete multiple effectors into host plant tissues that alter or modulate the cellular and molecular environment to the benefit of the insect. The identification and characterisation of effector proteins will provide insight into the host-phylloxera interaction specifically the gall-induction processes and potential mechanisms of plant resistance. Using proteomic mass spectrometry and in-silico secretory prediction, 420 putative effectors were determined from the salivary glands or the root-feeding D. vitifoliae larvae reared on Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. riparia). Among them, 170 conserved effectors were shared between D. vitifoliae and fourteen phytophagous insect species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of five conserved effector candidates (protein disulfide-isomerase, peroxidoredoxin, peroxidase and a carboxypeptidase) revealed that their gene expression decreased, when larvae were starved for 24 h, supporting their assignment as effector molecules. The D. vitifoliae effectors identified here represent a functionally diverse group, comprising both conserved and unique proteins that provide new insight into the D. vitifoliae-Vitis spp. interaction and the potential mechanisms by which D. vitifoliae establishes the feeding site, suppresses plant defences and modulates nutrient uptake.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors are involved in defense responses caused by biotic stresses. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), a pest widespread in viticulture, elicits transcriptional reprogramming of plant defense-associated components, such as regulons related to WRKYs and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. In this study, we characterized WRKY46, a WRKY transcription factor responsible for phylloxera attack, and revealed the molecular mechanism for WRKY-mediated defense responses to phylloxera. qRT-PCR and GUS staining analyses revealed that WRKY46 is induced in response to phylloxera damage and mechanical wounding. VvWRKY46 is a nuclear-localized transcription factor that activates its downstream target VvCHIB by direct protein-DNA interaction. Regulons involved in the SA-mediated defense response were regulated during incompatible interactions between "1103 Paulsen" rootstock and phylloxera. In addition, WRKY46 exhibited a higher transcript abundance in "1103 Paulsen" than in "Crimson Seedless", regardless of whether the plants were infected with phylloxera. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of VvWRKY46 significantly attenuated phylloxera attack and delayed nymph development of composite grape plants. In summary, we demonstrated that WRKY46 plays a role in the SA-mediated defense-regulatory network by directly binding to the downstream structural gene VvCHIB. The phylloxera-responsive gene WRKY46 was identified, which could improve the understanding of the basic mechanism of grapevine in response to phylloxera.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) is one of the world's most important viticultural pests. However, the reproductive mode, genetic structure and host adaptation of phylloxera in various viticultural environments remains unclear. We examined reproductive mode and genetic structure of phylloxera by analyzing microsatellite makers across the samples from four vineyard-sites in California.<h4>Result</h4>The phylloxera populations in California are believed to have predominantly parthenogenetic reproduction. Therefore, genetic diversity of phylloxera is expected to be limited. However, this study showed relatively high levels of diversity in Napa and Yolo county populations with a large number of unique genotypes, average number of alleles (2.1 to 2.9) and observed heterozygosities (0.330 to 0.388) per vineyard-sites. Reproduction diversity index (G: N-unique genotypes versus number of samples) ranged from 0.500 to 0.656 among vineyard-sites. Both significant and non-significant Psex (probability of sexual reproduction) were observed among different repeated genotypes within each vineyard. Moreover, high variation of FIS was observed among different loci in each vineyard-site. Genetic structure analysis (UPGMA) and various measures of population differentiations (FST, PCA, and gene flow estimates) consistently separated AXR#1 (Vitis vinifera x V. rupestris-widely planted in California during the 1960s and 1970s) associated populations from the populations associated with other different rootstocks.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Genetic diversity, G: N ratio, Psex and FIS consistently suggested the occurrence of both parthenogenetic and sexual reproduction in California populations. This study clearly identified two major groups of phylloxera obtained from various rootstocks, with one group exclusively associated with only AXR#1 rootstock, defined as "biotype B", and another group associated with vinifera-based rootstocks, known as "biotype A".
Project description:Grape phylloxera (<i>Daktulosphaira vitifoliae</i> Fitch) is a serious global pest in viticulture. The insects are sedentary feeders and require a gall to feed and reproduce. The insects induce their feeding site within the meristematic zone of the root tip, where they stay attached, feeding both intra- and intercellularly, and causing damage by reducing plant vigour. Several changes in cell structure and composition, including increased cell division and tissue swelling close to the feeding site, cause an organoid gall called a nodosity to develop. Because alpha expansin genes are involved in cell enlargement and cell wall loosening in many plant tissues it may be anticipated that they are also involved in nodosity formation. To identify expansin genes in <i>Vitis vinifera</i> cv. <i>Pinot noir</i>, we mined for orthologues genes in a comparative analysis. Eleven putative expansin genes were identified and shown to be present in the rootstock Teleki 5C (<i>V. berlandieri</i> Planch. x <i>V. riparia</i> Michx.) using specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Expression analysis of young and mature nodosities and uninfested root tips were conducted via quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Up-regulation was measured for three putative expansin genes (VvEXPA15, -A17 and partly -A20) or down-regulation for three other putative genes (VvEXPA7, -A12, -A20) in nodosities. The present study clearly shows the involvement of putative expansin genes in the phylloxera-root interaction.
Project description:Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae), is a very destructive insect pest of grapevines. Intercropping of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (f. Amaranthaceae) and Vitis spp. grapevines can be useful to control this pest. In the present study, the toxicity of 22 compounds, known to be present in A. bidentata, to grape phylloxera was evaluated. All treatments were toxic towards grape phylloxera but the degree of toxicity differed between treatments. Among the 22 tested compounds, several of which proved toxic towards grape phylloxera. However β-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects against grape phylloxera, with LC50 values of 175.73 mg a.i. liter-1. In addition, we assessed the sublethal effects of LC10, LC20 and LC40 of β-ecdysterone on grape phylloxera. The fourth instar and adult developmental periods and total life span were significantly prolonged by LC40 of β-ecdysterone. Fecundity decreased when grape phylloxera were exposed to LC20 and LC40 of β-ecdysterone. In addition, LC40 of β-ecdysterone decreased the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) and prolonged the population doubling time (DT). The net reproductive rate (R0) was significantly reduced by both the LC20 and LC40 β-ecdysterone treatments. Our results demonstrated that β-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects and significant sublethal effects on grape phylloxera, and showed potential control of grape phylloxera.