Articulation rehabilitation induces cortical plasticity in adults with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated brain morphological changes in adults with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) after articulation rehabilitation (AR). High-resolution T1 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed from 45 adults with NSCLP after palatoplasty: 24 subjects were assessed before AR (bNSCLP) and 21 subjects were assessed after AR (aNSCLP). In addition, there were 24 age and sex matched controls. Intergroup differences of grey matter volume were evaluated as a comprehensive measure of the cortex; cortical thickness and cortical complexity (gyrification and fractal dimensions) were also analyzed. As compared to controls, the bNSCLP subjects exhibited altered indexes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes; these morphological changes are characteristic for adults with NSCLP. Importantly, as compared to the bNSCLP and control subjects, the aNSCLP subjects exhibited cortical plasticity in the regions involved in language, auditory, pronunciation planning, and execution functions. The AR-mediated cortical plasticity in aNSCLP subjects may be caused by AR-induced cortical neurogenesis, which might reflect the underlying neural mechanism during AR.
Project description:Context:Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/CP) is a common congenital facial malformation without any other structural or developmental abnormalities. Aims and Objectives:To test the association of Wnt9B rs1530364 and Wnt5A rs566926 gene variants with the nonsyndromic CL/CP patients in South Indian population. Methods:Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples of 25 subjects with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) and 25 unrelated controls collected from the department were used for the study. Group A: DNA samples of 25 subjects NSCLP (P1-P25). Group B: DNA samples of 25 unrelated controls (C1-C25). The extracted DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction, and later, these amplified products were subjected to DNA sequencing. Results were documented in the form of electropherograms. Results:The results indicated that there is a strong association between the presence of Wnt9B rs1530364 gene with the incidence of NSCLP. This study also suggests that the likelihood of NSCLP is higher in subjects having CC (P = 0.02) genotype for Wnt9B gene variant rs1530364. Conclusion:We can conclude that Wnt9B gene variant rs1530364 can be considered as genetic marker for NSCLP for our population.
Project description:Non-syndromic orofacial clefts encompass a range of morphological changes affecting the oral cavity and the craniofacial skeleton, of which the genetic and epigenetic etiologic factors remain largely unknown. The objective of this study is to explore the contribution of underlying dentofacial deformities (also known as skeletal malocclusions) in the craniofacial morphology of non-syndromic cleft lip and palate patients (nsCLP). For that purpose, geometric morphometric analysis was performed using full skull cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of patients with nsCLP (n = 30), normocephalic controls (n = 60), as well as to sex- and ethnicity- matched patients with an equivalent dentofacial deformity (n = 30). Our outcome measures were shape differences among the groups quantified via principal component analysis and associated principal component loadings, as well as mean shape differences quantified via a Procrustes distance among groups. According to our results, despite the shape differences among all three groups, the nsCLP group shares many morphological similarities in the maxilla and mandible with the dentofacial deformity group. Therefore, the dentoskeletal phenotype in nsCLP could be the result of the cleft and the coexisting dentofacial deformity and not simply the impact of the cleft.
Project description:Ischemic small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on routine scans in older people, but cognitive sequelae vary considerably. To improve understanding of mechanisms underlying decline or preservation of cognitive function in this condition, we assessed cognition and cortical plasticity in 20 elderly subjects with severe SVD and 20 age-matched controls without SVD, as rated on conventional MRI. Cognitive status was determined with a neuropsychological test battery, cortical plasticity induced with a paired associative stimulation protocol. Microstructural white matter changes were further analyzed for fractional anisotrophy using diffusion tensor imaging. We found that cortical plasticity as well as memory functions were preserved in severe SVD, while executive functions showed trendwise or significant decreases. Within the SVD group, lower white matter integrity in parahippocampal regions and posterior parts of the corpus callosum was associated with larger cortical plasticity, an association not seen for prefrontal white matter tracts. Enhanced cortical plasticity in subjects with lower white matter integrity in memory-relevant areas might thus indicate a compensatory mechanism to counteract memory decline in severe SVD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) is genetically distinct from those with syndromic clefts, and accounts for ~70% of cases with Oral clefts. Folate, or vitamin B9, is an essential nutrient in our diet. Allelic variants in genes involved in the folate pathway might be expected to have an impact on risk of oral clefts. Given the key role of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) in folate metabolism, it would be of significant interest to assess its role in NSCLP etiology. STUDY DESIGN:The present study aims at examining the association between MTHFD1 1958G>A polymorphism and NSCLP risk by conducting a case-control study in south Indian population. Our sample comprised of 142 cases with nonsyndromic clefts and 141 controls without clefts or family history of clefting. The MTHFD1 1958G>A polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP. RESULTS:An increased risk was found for the heterozygous 1958GA (OR=2.44; P=0.020) and homozygous 1958AA (OR=2.45; P=0.012) genotypes in the children. When the dominant model (AG+AA vs GG) was applied the risk remained the same as co-dominant model, but the level of significance increased (OR=2.44; P=0.002). CONCLUSION:The results indicated the MTHFD1 1958G>A polymorphism to be one of the important genetic determinants of NSCLP risk in South Indian subjects.
Project description:Heterogeneity of the posterior alpha rhythm (AR) is a widely assumed but rarely tested phenomenon. We decomposed the posterior AR in the cortical source space with a 3-way PARAFAC technique, taking into account the spatial, frequency, and temporal aspects of mid-density EEG. We found a multicomponent AR structure in 90% of a group of 29 healthy adults. The typical resting-state structure consisted of a high-frequency occipito-parietal component of the AR (ARC1) and a low-frequency occipito-temporal component (ARC2), characterized by individual dynamics in time. In a few cases, we found a 3-component structure, with two ARC1s and one ARC2. The AR structures were stable in their frequency and spatial features over weeks to months, thus representing individual EEG alpha phenotypes. Cortical topography, individual stability, and similarity to the primate AR organization link ARC1 to the dorsal visual stream and ARC2 to the ventral one. Understanding how many and what kind of posterior AR components contribute to the EEG is essential for clinical neuroscience as an objective basis for AR segmentation and for interpreting AR dynamics under various conditions, both normal and pathological, which can selectively affect individual components.
Project description:Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders.
Project description:Cortical structure has been consistently related to cognitive abilities in children and adults, yet we know little about how the cortex develops to support emergent cognition in infancy and toddlerhood when cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are maturing rapidly. In this report, we assessed how regional and global measures of CT and SA in a sample (N?=?487) of healthy neonates, 1-year-olds, and 2-year-olds related to motor, language, visual reception, and general cognitive ability. We report novel findings that thicker cortices at ages 1 and 2 and larger SA at birth, age 1, and age 2 confer a cognitive advantage in infancy and toddlerhood. While several expected brain-cognition relationships were observed, overlapping cortical regions were also implicated across cognitive domains, suggesting that infancy marks a period of plasticity and refinement in cortical structure to support burgeoning motor, language, and cognitive abilities. CT may be a particularly important morphological indicator of ability, but its impact on cognition is relatively weak when compared with gestational age and maternal education. Findings suggest that prenatal and early postnatal cortical developments are important for cognition in infants and toddlers but should be considered in relation to other child and demographic factors.
Project description:Non-syndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is the most common congenital anomaly in the craniofacial region. NSCLP is a highly gene-associated malformation. We speculate that pregnant women with NSCLP fetuses (pregnancies with NSCLP) may have specific brain changes during pregnancy. To explore characteristic brain function changes of pregnancies with NSCLP, we analyzed resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data of 42 pregnant women (21 pregnancies with NSCLP and 21 pregnancies with normal fetuses) to compare intergroup differences of (fractional) amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF/ALFF), regional homogeneity (Reho), functional connectivity (FC) and network topological properties. Compared with the control group, increased ALFF in the left hippocampus, the right fusiform and the left anterior cingulate (ACG), increased Reho in left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and right medial frontal gyrus (MFG) were found for pregnancies with NSCLP. Meanwhile, FC between the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and bilateral olfactory cortex (OLF), FC between left precentral gyrus (PreCG) and right MFG, FC between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) were enhanced in pregnancies with NSCLP. Besides, FC between left PreCG and left amygdala, bilateral para-hippocampal gyrus, FC between left amygdala and left MFG, right IFG were decreased. Graph theory-based analysis explored increased degree centrality (DC), betweenness centrality (BC) and nodal efficiency (Ne) in the left ITG and left SMG for pregnancies with NSCLP. Pregnancies with NSCLP has widespread decreased FC within neural networks of speech and language, which indicated that they were more likely to be associated with defects in speech and language skills. At the same time, increased topological indices showed that speech and language related regions played dominant role in their brain networks. These findings may provide clues for early detection of NSCLP fetuses.
Project description:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:A candidate variant (p.Val496Ala) of the ACSS2 gene (T > C missense, rs59088485 variant at chr20: bp37 33509608) was previously found to consistently segregate with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) in three Honduran families. Objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the frequency of this ACSS2 variant in Honduran unrelated NSCLP patients and unrelated unaffected controls and 2) to investigate the frequency of this variant in Colombian unrelated affected NSCLP patients and unrelated unaffected controls. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control studies. METHODS:Sanger sequencing of 99 unrelated Honduran NSCLP patients and 215 unrelated unaffected controls for the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was used to determine the carrier frequency in NSCLP patients and controls. Sanger sequencing of 230 unrelated Colombian NSCLP patients and 146 unrelated unaffected controls for the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was used to determine the carrier frequency in NSCLP patients and controls. RESULTS:In the Honduran population, the odds ratio of having NSCLP among carriers of the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was 4.0 (P = .03), with a carrier frequency of seven of 99 (7.1%) in unrelated affected and four of 215 (1.9%) in unrelated unaffected individuals. In the Colombian population, the odds ratio of having NSCLP among carriers of the p.Val496Ala ACSS2 variant was 2.6 (P = .04), with a carrier frequency of 23 of 230 (10.0%) in unrelated affected and six of 146 (4.1%) in unrelated unaffected individuals. CONCLUSIONS:These findings support the role of ACSS2 in NSCLP in two independent Hispanic populations from Honduras and Colombia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:NA Laryngoscope, 127:E336-E339, 2017.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a common birth defect with multifactorial etiology. Genetic studies have identified numerous gene variants in association with NSCLP. IFT88 (intraflagellar transport 88) has been suggested to play a major role in craniofacial development, as Ift88 mutant mice exhibit cleft palate and mutations in IFT88 were identified in individuals with NSCLP. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of IFT88 single nucleotide gene variants (SNVs) with NSCLP in a large family data set consisting of non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic families. METHODS:Nine SNVs in/nearby IFT88 were genotyped in 482 NHW families and 301 Hispanic NSCLP families. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan® chemistry. Single- and pairwise-SNV association analyses were performed for all families stratified by ethnicity and family history of NSCLP using the family-based association test (FBAT), and association in the presence of linkage (APL). Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing and p values ?.0055 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Significant association was found between IFT88 rs9509311 and rs2497490 and NSCLP in NHW all families (p =?.004 and .005, respectively), while nominal associations were found for rs7998361 and rs9509307 (p <?.05). Pairwise association analyses also showed nominal associations between NSCLP in both NHW and Hispanic data sets (p <?.05). No association was found between individual variants in IFT88 and NSCLP in Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that variation in IFT88 may contribute to NSCLP risk, particularly in multiplex families from a non-Hispanic white population.