Bendamustine Conditioning Skews Murine Host DCs Toward Pre-cDC1s and Reduces GvHD Independently of Batf3.
ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains the second leading cause of death in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients, highlighting the need for improved preventative strategies. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated in an experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model that bendamustine combined with total body irradiation (BEN+TBI) is a safer alternative to cyclophosphamide with TBI (CY+TBI). The biological mechanisms of action of BEN have not been fully elucidated and likely involve multiple cell populations. Host dendritic cells (DCs) can prime naïve donor T-cells immediately following transplantation, making host DCs critical for the initiation phase of GvHD. We hypothesized that BEN+TBI conditioning favorably alters host DC composition to reduce GvHD. We demonstrate that host DCs treated with BEN+TBI induce less allogeneic T-cell proliferation than those conditioned with CY+TBI. We further show that BEN+TBI conditioning results in greater total numbers of all host DC subsets but with a more favorable composition compared to CY+TBI with significantly larger proportions of type 1 conventional DCs (cDC1), a highly regulatory DC subset capable of suppressing GvHD. Our studies using recipient Batf3 KO mice indicate that CD8?+ cDC1s are largely dispensable for the reduced GvHD following BEN+TBI conditioning. We found a higher frequency of host pre-cDC1s with BEN+TBI conditioning in both wild-type (WT) and Batf3 KO mice, which was inversely associated with GvHD. Additionally, we observed that BEN treatment results in greater expression of Flt3 receptor (CD135) on host DCs compared to CY, potentially contributing to the skewing of host DCs toward cDC1s. Further, BEN+TBI conditioning results in host cDCs with greater expression of PIR-B, an inhibitory receptor capable of preventing lethal GvHD. We conclude that BEN+TBI is a safer alternative to CY+TBI, resulting in a greater frequency of host pre-cDC1s and limiting GvHD.
Project description:Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a significant impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) success, necessitating studies focused on alleviating GvHD, while preserving the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. Based on our previous studies showing bendamustine with total body irradiation (BEN-TBI) conditioning reduces GvHD compared to the current clinical standard of care cyclophosphamide (CY)-TBI in a murine MHC-mismatched bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model, this study aimed to evaluate the role and fate of donor T-cells following BEN-TBI conditioning. We demonstrate that BEN-TBI reduces GvHD compared to CY-TBI independently of T regulatory cells (Tregs). BEN-TBI conditioned mice have a smaller proportion and less activated donor T-cells, with lower CD47 expression, early post-transplant, but no sustained phenotypic differences in T-cells. In BEN-TBI conditioned mice, donor T-cells gain tolerance specific to host MHC antigens. Though these T-cells are tolerant to host antigens, we demonstrate that BEN-TBI preserves a T-cell-dependent GvL effect. These findings indicate that BEN-TBI conditioning reduces GvHD without compromising GvL, warranting its further investigation as a potentially safer and more efficacious clinical alternative to CY-TBI.
Project description:Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant challenge in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). An underinvestigated strategy to reduce GVHD is the modification of the preparative conditioning regimen. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate GVHD associated with bendamustine (BEN) conditioning in conjunction with total body irradiation (TBI) as an alternative to the standard myeloablative regimen of cyclophosphamide (CY) and TBI. We demonstrate that BEN-TBI conditioning, although facilitating complete donor chimerism, results in significantly less GVHD compared with CY-TBI. In BEN-TBI-conditioned mice, suppressive CD11b+Gr-1high myeloid cells are increased in the blood, bone marrow, spleen, and intestines. When Gr-1high cells are depleted before transplantation, the beneficial effects of BEN-TBI are partially lost. Alternatively, administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which promotes CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell expansion, is associated with a trend toward increased survival in BEN-TBI-conditioned mice. These findings indicate a potential role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the mechanism by which BEN allows engraftment with reduced GVHD. BEN-TBI conditioning may present a safer alternative to CY-TBI conditioning for allogeneic HCT.
Project description:Host dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in initiating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL), and separation of GVL from GVHD remains a major challenge in the treatment of hematologic malignancies by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Here, we show that preconditioning with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody before conditioning with total body irradiation (TBI) prevents GVHD but retains GVL in a HCT model of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched C57BL/6 donor to BALB/c host. Prevention of GVHD is associated with inhibition of donor T-cell expression of homing and chemokine receptors, and inhibition of GVHD target tissue expression of chemokines. Furthermore, inhibition of donor T-cell expression of gut homing alpha4beta7 and chemokine receptor (CCR)9 by anti-CD3 preconditioning results from a reduction of CD103(+) DCs in draining mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which is associated with down-regulation of DC expression of CCR7, a receptor required for tissue DC migration to draining LNs. These results indicate that anti-CD3 preconditioning reduces not only tissue release of chemokines but also prevents tissue DC migration to draining LNs and subsequently reduces the capacity of DCs of draining LNs to imprint donor T-cell tissue tropism. Therefore, modulation of host DCs by anti-CD3 preconditioning before HCT represents a new approach for separating GVL from GVHD.
Project description:More than half of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation at our institution are ethnic or racial minorities, making the search for matched unrelated donors more challenging. Since the introduction of haploidentical bone marrow transplant (haplo-BMT) into our pediatric BMT program in 2015, 69.2% of recipients have been minorities. Herein, we describe our experience with the first 13 pediatric and young adult patients with hematologic malignancies who have undergone T cell-replete haplo-BMT after myeloablative conditioning (MAC) at our institution. We have previously documented that in experimental haplo-BMT, post-transplant bendamustine (PT-BEN) is at least as effective as post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and elicits superior graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. We report on, for the first time in humans, 4 patients treated with PT-CY and PT-BEN after haplo-BMT as part of our ongoing institutional phase I/II study (NCT02996773). The remaining 9 patients reviewed in this report received PT-CY. Our findings indicate that MAC haplo-BMT is well tolerated by children and young adults with advanced hematologic malignancies with no observed nonrelapse mortality or grades III to IV GVHD. All patients who underwent haplo-BMT remain alive and disease-free with a median follow-up of 15.6 months (range, 1.5 to 31.2). Preliminary findings from our ongoing clinical trial demonstrate that partial substitution of PT-BEN for PT-CY is feasible and safe after haplo-BMT as an immune modulatory strategy to alleviate GVHD and potentially more effectively preserve GVL.
Project description:Advances in haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (h-BMT) have drastically broadened the treatment options for patients requiring BMT. The possibility of significantly reducing the complications resulting from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) with the administration of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) has substantially improved the efficacy and applicability of T cell-replete h-BMT. However, higher frequency of disease recurrence remains a major challenge in h-BMT with PT-CY. There is a critical need to identify novel strategies to prevent GvHD while sparing the graft-versus-leukaemia (GvL) effect in h-BMT. To this end, we evaluated the impact of bendamustine (BEN), given post-transplant, on GvHD and GvL using clinically relevant murine h-BMT models. We provide results indicating that post-transplant bendamustine (PT-BEN) alleviates GvHD, significantly improving survival, while preserving engraftment and GvL effects. We further document that PT-BEN can mitigate GvHD even in the absence of Treg. Our results also indicate that PT-BEN is less myelosuppressive than PT-CY, significantly increasing the number and proportion of CD11b(+) Gr-1(hi) cells, while decreasing lymphoid cells. In vitro we observed that BEN enhances the suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) while impairing the proliferation of T- and B-cells. These results advocate for the consideration of PT-BEN as a new therapeutic platform for clinical implementation in h-BMT.
Project description:Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) candidates may lack HLA-matched, related haploidentical, and unrelated umbilical cord options. Barriers to partially HLA-mismatched, unrelated donor (mMUD) BMT include excess graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft failure, and death. We prospectively studied nonmyeloablative (NMA) mMUD BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for patients with hematologic malignancies. Three transplants were performed with busulfan/fludarabine conditioning, with subsequent change to fludarabine/Cy/total body irradiation (flu/Cy/TBI). Twenty mMUD transplants are reported using flu/Cy/TBI, T-cell replete bone marrow grafts, and PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus or tacrolimus (1 patient) for GVHD prophylaxis. The median patient age was 56. Ofthese unrelated grafts, 45% had ?2 mismatched HLA loci, 25% had ?3 mismatched loci, and 50% had HLA-C mismatches. No graft failure or grades 3-4 acute GVHD occurred. The median times to neutrophil recovery (?500/?L) and platelet recovery (?20 000/?L) were 19 days and 31 days, respectively. Full-donor chimerism was achieved in 95% of evaluable patients by day 60. The 180-day probability of grades 2-4 acute GVHD (all grade 2) was 25%, and the 1-year probability of any chronic GVHD was 16% (none severe). The 2-year nonrelapse mortality probability was 6%. With 4-year median follow-up, the 1-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 65% and 75%, respectively. NMA, T-cell replete mMUD BMT is thus a potentially viable option for patients without other suitable donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01203722.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs [pDCs]) develop from pre-pDCs, whereas two lineages of conventional DCs (cDCs; cDC1s and cDC2s) develop from lineage-committed pre-cDCs. Several transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in regulating the development of pDCs (E2-2 and Id2) and cDC1s (Irf8, Id2, and Batf3); however, those required for the early commitment of pre-cDCs toward the cDC2 lineage are unknown. Here, we identify the TF zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) to play a crucial role in regulating DC development. Zeb2 was expressed from the pre-pDC and pre-cDC stage onward and highly expressed in mature pDCs and cDC2s. Mice conditionally lacking Zeb2 in CD11c(+) cells had a cell-intrinsic reduction in pDCs and cDC2s, coupled with an increase in cDC1s. Conversely, mice in which CD11c(+) cells overexpressed Zeb2 displayed a reduction in cDC1s. This was accompanied by altered expression of Id2, which was up-regulated in cDC2s and pDCs from conditional knockout mice. Zeb2 chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed Id2 to be a direct target of Zeb2. Thus, we conclude that Zeb2 regulates commitment to both the cDC2 and pDC lineages through repression of Id2.
Project description:Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n = 948; TBICy, n = 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLA-matched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P = .67; relative risk, 1.01; P = .91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P = .34; relative risk, .89, P = .18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P = .27; relative risk, .93; P = .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P = .39; relative risk, .9; P = .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P = .62; relative risk, .96; P = .57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P = .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic autoimmune disease which etiology remains unknown. Several cell types have been described to potentiate/aggravate the arthritic process however the initiating event in synovial inflammation is still elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the initiation of primary immune responses and thus we hypothesized that these cells might be crucial for RA induction. DCs are a heterogeneous population of cells comprising different subsets with distinct phenotype and function. Here we investigated which DC subset(s) is/are crucial for the initiation of the arthritic process. We have previously demonstrated that Flt3?/? mice, with reduced DCs, were protected from collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Here we have shown that GM-CSF derived DCs in Flt3L?/? mice are functional but not sufficient to induce arthritis. Batf3?/? mice lacking both CD103+ and CD8?+ cDC1 were resistant to collagen induced arthritis (CIA), demonstrating that this DC subset is crucial for arthritis development. CEP-701 (a Flt3L inhibitor) treatment prevented CIA induction, and reduced dramatically the numbers CD103+ cDC1s present in the lymph nodes and synovium. Hence this study identified cDC1 as the main subset orchestrating the initiation of cell-mediated immunity in arthritis. Highlights • Flt3L independent DCs present in Flt3L?/? mice are functional but are not sufficient to induce arthritis.• BATF3?/? mice lacking cDC1 are protected from arthritis development indicating that cDC1 are necessary for disease induction.• Treatment with a Flt3L inhibitor, CEP701, reduced cDC1 populations and prevented arthritis induction.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and possess an incomparable ability to activate and instruct T cells, which makes them one of the cornerstones in the regulation of the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, a deep understanding of DC biology lays the foundations to describe and to harness the mechanisms that regulate the development of the adaptive response, with clear implications in a vast array of fields such as the study of autoimmune diseases and the development of new vaccines. However, the great difficulty to obtain large quantities of viable non-activated DCs for experimentation have considerably hindered the progress of DC research. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these limitations by promoting an increase of DC abundance <i>in vivo</i>, by inducing DC development from DC progenitors <i>in vitro</i> and by generating stable DC lines. In the past years, we have described a method to derive immortalized stable DC lines, named MutuDCs, from the spleens of Mushi1 mice, a transgenic mouse strain that express the simian virus 40 Large T-oncogene in the DCs. The comparison of these DC lines with the vast variety of DC subsets described <i>in vivo</i> has shown that all the MutuDC lines that we have generated so far have phenotypic and functional features of type 1 conventional DCs (cDC1s). With the purpose of deriving DC lines with characteristics of type 2 conventional DCs (cDC2s), we bred a new Batf3<sup>-/-</sup> Mushi1 murine line in which the development of the cDC1 subset is severely defective. The new MutuDC line that we generated from Batf3<sup>-/-</sup> Mushi1 mice was phenotypically and functionally characterized in this work. Our results demonstrated that all the tested characteristics of this new cell line, including the expression of subset-determining transcription factors, the profile of cytokine production and the ability to present antigens, are comparable with the features of splenic CD4<sup>-</sup> cDC2s. Therefore, we concluded that our new cell line, that we named CD4<sup>-</sup> MutuDC2 line, represents a valuable model for the CD4<sup>-</sup> cDC2 subset.