High Level of Legumain Was Correlated With Worse Prognosis and Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Patients.
ABSTRACT: Background: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that legumain (LGMN) is abnormally expressed in several malignancies and functions as an oncogene. However, the association between LGMN and gastric cancer (GC) has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the role of LGMN in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of GC patients. Methods: The study had two patient cohorts, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort and the Zhongshan Hospital cohort, both of which were used to analyze the role of LGMN in GC samples. The relationship between LGMN and clinicopathologic characteristics was determined by the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were conducted to investigate the prognostic role of LGMN in GC patients. Moreover, a nomogram was constructed based on the factors that were independently associated with peritoneal metastasis. Finally, the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to explore the underlying pathways through which LGMN was involved in GC progression. Results: The mRNA and protein levels of LGMN were significantly upregulated in GC tissues, especially for diffuse-type GC. High level of LGMN was independently associated with poor prognosis in both TCGA and Zhongshan cohorts. Further analysis showed that increased protein level of LGMN was related to peritoneal metastasis in GC patients. In a nomogram model, the LGMN expression could help predict the possibility of peritoneal metastasis in GC patients. LGMN was a strong determinant for prediction of peritoneal metastasis. GC patients with high LGMN expression tended to have worse survival together with more frequent diffuse-type tumors and increased risk of peritoneal metastasis. The GSEA results showed that focal adhesion, ecm receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules cams, TGF-? signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, gap junction, etc. were differentially enriched in the phenotype with high LGMN expression. Conclusion: LGMN was an independent prognostic factor for OS in GC patients. Increased expression of LGMN was significantly associated with peritoneal metastasis. The nomogram based on LGMN might guide the clinical decisions for patients with GC.
Project description:Background:Peritoneal metastasis (PM) in gastric cancer (GC) remains an untreatable disease, and is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Here, we aim to establish a novel prediction model. Methods:The clinicopathologic characteristics of a cohort that included 86 non-metastatic GC patients and 43 PMGC patients from Zhongshan Hospital were retrospectively analysed to identify PM associated variables. Additionally, mass spectrometry and glycomic analysis were applied in the same cohort to find glycomic biomarkers in serum for the diagnosis of PM. A nomogram was established based on the associations between potential risk variables and PM. Results:Overexpression of 4 N-glycans (H6N5L1E1: m/z 2620.93; H5N5F1E2: m/z 2650.98; H6N5E2, m/z 2666.96; H6N5L1E2, m/z 2940.08); weight loss???5 kg; tumour size???3 cm; signet ring cell or mucinous adenocarcinoma histology type; poor differentiation; diffuse or mixed Lauren classification; increased CA19-9, CA125, and CA724 levels; decreased lymphocyte count, haemoglobin, albumin, and pre-albumin levels were identified to be associated with PM. A nomogram that integrated with five independent risk factors (weight loss???5 kg, CA19-9???37 U/mL, CA125???35 U/mL, lymphocyte count?<?2.0 * 10?~?9/L, and H5N5F1E2 expression???0.0017) achieved a good performance for diagnosis (AUC: 0.892, 95% CI 0.829-0.954). When 160 was set as the cut-off threshold value, the proposed nomogram represented a perfectly discriminating power for both sensitivity (0.97) and specificity (0.88). Conclusions:The nomogram achieved an individualized assessment of the risk of PM in GC patients; thus, the nomogram could be used to assist clinical decision-making before surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dissemination (PD) frequently occurs in gastric cancer (GC) and is incurable. In this study, we aimed to identify novel PD-associated genes and clarify their clinical and biological significance in GC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We identified LOXL1 as a PD-associated candidate gene by in silico analysis of GC datasets (highly disseminated peritoneal GC cell line and two freely available GC datasets, GSE15459 and TCGA). Next, we evaluated the clinical significance of LOXL1 expression using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry staining (IHC) in a validation cohort (Kyushu cohort). Moreover, we performed gene expression analysis, including gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) with GSE15459 and TCGA datasets. Finally, we performed a series of in vitro experiments using GC cells. RESULTS:In silico analysis showed that LOXL1 was overexpressed in tumor tissues of GC patients with PD and in highly disseminated peritoneal GC cells, relative to that in the control GC patients and cells, respectively. High expression of LOXL1 was a poor prognostic factor in the TCGA dataset. Next, IHC showed that LOXL1 was highly expressed in GC cells. High LOXL1 mRNA expression was associated with poorly differentiated histological type, lymph node metastasis, and was an independent poor prognostic factor in the Kyushu validation cohort. Moreover, LOXL1 expression was positively correlated with the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) gene set in GSEA. Finally, LOXL1-overexpressing GC cells changed their morphology to a spindle-like form. LOXL1 overexpression reduced CDH1 expression; increased the expression of VIM, CDH2, SNAI2, and PLS3; and promoted the migration capacity of GC cells. CONCLUSIONS:LOXL1 is associated with PD in GC, possibly through the induction of EMT.
Project description:Preoperative lymph node (LN) status is important for the treatment of bladder cancer (BCa). Here, we report a genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram for preoperatively predicting LN metastasis in BCa. In the discovery stage, 325 BCa patients from TCGA were involved and LN-status-related mRNAs were selected. In the training stage, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to developed a genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram for preoperative LN metastasis prediction in the training set (SYSMH set, n=178). In the validation stage, we validated the nomogram using two independent sample sets (SYSUCC set, n=142; RJH set, n=104) with respect to its discrimination, calibration and clinical usefulness. As results, we identified five LN-status-related mRNAs, including ADRA1D, COL10A1, DKK2, HIST2H3D and MMP11. Then, a genomic classifier was developed to classify patients into high- and low-risk groups in the training set. Furthermore, a nomogram incorporating the five-mRNA-based classifier, image-based LN status, transurethral resection (TUR) T stage, and TUR lymphovascular invasion (LVI) was constructed in the training set, which performed well in the training and validation sets. Decision curve analysis demonstrated the clinical value of our nomogram. Thus, our genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram shows favorable discriminatory ability and may aid in clinical decision-making, especially for cN-patients.
Project description:Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are a newly proposed RNA interaction mechanism that has been associated with the tumorigenesis, metastasis, diagnosis, and predicting survival of various cancers. In this study, we constructed a ceRNA network in colorectal cancer (CRC). Then, we sought to develop and validate a composite clinicopathologic-genomic nomogram using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. To construct the ceRNA network in CRC, we analyzed the mRNAseq, miRNAseq data, and clinical information from TCGA database. LncRNA, miRNA, and mRNA signatures were identified to construct risk score as independent indicators of the prognostic value in CRC patients. A composite clinicopathologic-genomic nomogram was developed to predict the overall survival (OS). One hundred sixty-one CRC-specific lncRNAs, 97 miRNAs, and 161 mRNAs were identified to construct the ceRNA network. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that nine-lncRNA signatures, eight-miRNA signatures, and five-mRNA signatures showed a significant prognostic value for CRC. Furthermore, a clinicopathologic-genomic nomogram was constructed in the primary cohort, which performed well in both the primary and validation sets. This study presents a nomogram that incorporates the CRC-specific ceRNA expression profile, clinical features, and pathological factors, which demonstrate its excellent differentiation and risk stratification in predicting OS in CRC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Due to their varied outcomes, men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) present a management dilemma. Here, we evaluate Decipher, a genomic classifier (GC), for its ability to predict metastasis following BCR. METHODS: The study population included 85 clinically high-risk patients who developed BCR after RP. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, weighted Cox proportional hazard models, and decision curves were used to compare GC scores to Gleason score (GS), PSA doubling time (PSAdT), time to BCR (ttBCR), the Stephenson nomogram, and CAPRA-S for predicting metastatic disease progression. All tests were two-sided with a type I error probability of 5%. RESULTS: GC scores stratified men with BCR into those who would or would not develop metastasis (8% of patients with low versus 40% with high scores developed metastasis, p<0.001). The area under the curve for predicting metastasis after BCR was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.86) for GC, compared to GS 0.64 (0.58-0.70), PSAdT 0.69 (0.61-0.77) and ttBCR 0.52 (0.46-0.59). Decision curve analysis showed that GC scores had a higher overall net benefit compared to models based solely on clinicopathologic features. In multivariable modeling with clinicopathologic variables, GC score was the only significant predictor of metastasis (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to clinicopathologic variables, GC better predicted metastatic progression among this cohort of men with BCR following RP. While confirmatory studies are needed, these results suggest that use of GC may allow for better selection of men requiring earlier initiation of treatment at the time of BCR. Overall design: 85 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from primary prostate cancer obtained from Radical Prostatectomy.
Project description:Due to their varied outcomes, men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) present a management dilemma. Here, we evaluate Decipher, a genomic classifier (GC), for its ability to predict metastasis following BCR.The study population included 85 clinically high-risk patients who developed BCR after RP. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, weighted Cox proportional hazard models and decision curves were used to compare GC scores to Gleason score (GS), PSA doubling time (PSAdT), time to BCR (ttBCR), the Stephenson nomogram and CAPRA-S for predicting metastatic disease progression. All tests were two-sided with a type I error probability of 5%.GC scores stratified men with BCR into those who would or would not develop metastasis (8% of patients with low versus 40% with high scores developed metastasis, P<0.001). The area under the curve for predicting metastasis after BCR was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.86) for GC, compared to GS 0.64 (0.58-0.70), PSAdT 0.69 (0.61-0.77) and ttBCR 0.52 (0.46-0.59). Decision curve analysis showed that GC scores had a higher overall net benefit compared to models based solely on clinicopathologic features. In multivariable modeling with clinicopathologic variables, GC score was the only significant predictor of metastasis (P=0.003).When compared to clinicopathologic variables, GC better predicted metastatic progression among this cohort of men with BCR following RP. While confirmatory studies are needed, these results suggest that use of GC may allow for better selection of men requiring earlier initiation of treatment at the time of BCR.
Project description:Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether radiomics imaging signatures based on computed tomography (CT) could predict peritoneal metastasis (PM) in gastric cancer (GC) and to develop a nomogram for preoperative prediction of PM status. Methods: We collected CT images of pathological T4 gastric cancer in 955 consecutive patients of two cancer centers to analyze the radiomics features retrospectively and then developed and validated the prediction model built from 292 quantitative image features in the training cohort and two validation cohorts. Lasso regression model was applied for selecting feature and constructing radiomics signature. Predicting model was developed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Radiomics nomogram was developed by the incorporation of radiomics signature and clinical T and N stage. Calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness were used to evaluate the performance of the nomogram. Results: In training and validation cohorts, PM status was associated with the radiomics signature significantly. It was found that the radiomics signature was an independent predictor for peritoneal metastasis in multivariable logistic analysis. For training and internal and external validation cohorts, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of radiomics signature for predicting PM were 0.751 (95%CI, 0.703-0.799), 0.802 (95%CI, 0.691-0.912), and 0.745 (95%CI, 0.683-0.806), respectively. Furthermore, for training and internal and external validation cohorts, the AUCs of radiomics nomogram for predicting PM were 0.792 (95%CI, 0.748-0.836), 0.870 (95%CI, 0.795-0.946), and 0.815 (95%CI, 0.763-0.867), respectively. Conclusions: CT-based radiomics signature could predict peritoneal metastasis, and the radiomics nomogram can make a meaningful contribution for predicting PM status in GC patient preoperatively.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed gastrointestinal cancer types in the world. Novel prognostic biomarkers are required to predict the progression of GC. Glutathione S-transferase Mu (GSTM) belongs to a family of phase II enzymes that have been implicated in a number of cancer types. However, the prognostic value of the GSTM genes has not been previously investigated in GC. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of GSTMs in GC tissue samples. Overall survival (OS) rates, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using the Cox logistic regression model and Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis was performed. In addition, the KM plotter online database was used to validate mRNA expression and the prognostic value of GSMT family members in patients with GC. To predict the function of GSTM genes in these patients, several bioinformatics tools, including the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, gene multiple association network integration algorithm, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), nomogram and genome-wide co-expression analysis were used. In the present study, high expression of GSTM5 was indicated to be strongly associated with lower OS in patients with GC, according to the TCGA and KM plotter online databases (HR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.06-2.04, P=0.021; and HR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.42-2.01, P=1.6×10-9, respectively). The results from the GSEA and genome-wide co-expression analysis indicated that GSTM5 expression associated with several biological process terms, including 'adhesion', 'angiogenesis', 'apoptotic process', 'cell growth', 'proliferation', 'migration', 'Hedgehog signaling', 'MAPK signaling' and the 'TGF-? signaling pathway'. In conclusion, the present results indicated that GSTM5 may serve as a biomarker for GC prognosis and may be a potential therapeutic target for GC.
Project description:Background: To evaluate whether radiomic feature-based computed tomography (CT) imaging signatures allow prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis in gastric cancer (GC) and to develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting LN status. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed radiomics features of CT images in 1,689 consecutive patients from three cancer centers. The prediction model was developed in the training cohort and validated in internal and external validation cohorts. Lasso regression model was utilized to select features and build radiomics signature. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop the model. We integrated the radiomics signature, clinical T and N stage, and other independent clinicopathologic variables, and this was presented as a radiomics nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was assessed with calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. Results: The radiomics signature was significantly associated with pathological LN stage in training and validation cohorts. Multivariable logistic analysis found the radiomics signature was an independent predictor of LN metastasis. The nomogram showed good discrimination and calibration. Conclusions: The newly developed radiomic signature was a powerful predictor of LN metastasis and the radiomics nomogram could facilitate the preoperative individualized prediction of LN status.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC), with high heterogeneity, can be mainly classified into intestinal type and diffuse type according to the Lauren classification system. Although a number of differences were reported between these two types, no study on the Lauren subtype-specific multi-gene signature for evaluation of GC prognosis has been conducted, and the molecular mechanism underlying its poor prognosis has still remained elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to explore subtype-specific multi-gene signature for prognostic prediction in different subtypes of Lauren classification. With combination of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the 3-gene subtype-specific prognostic signature was successfully established in diffuse type GC using GSE62254 dataset. Following the calculation of risk score (RS) based on 3-gene signature, the nomogram models were established to predict 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival in diffuse type GC. Moreover, the prognostic predictive nomogram model of diffuse type GC was also proved to be effective for validation of GSE1549 dataset and by a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)-based meta-analysis. In the analysis of the correlation between RS and clinical-pathological characteristics, RS and two genes of the 3-gene signature (EMCN and COL4A5) were found to be positively correlated with peritoneal metastasis. Furthermore, EMCN and COL4A5, rather than CCL11, were proved to be able to enhance the adhesion ability of MKN45 and NUGC4 cells to peritoneal mesothelial cell line HMR-SV5. Eventually, it was proved that COL4A5 promoted peritoneal metastasis by activating Wnt signaling pathway, whereas the upregulation of integrin family genes mediated by FAK-AKT/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway activation is involved in peritoneal metastasis promotion function of EMCN. Taken together, our study identified the subtype-specific 3-gene signature in diffuse type GC, which could effectively predict the patients' OS and might explain the molecular mechanisms in presence of its poor prognosis.