Protocol and statistical analysis plan for the REstricted fluid therapy VERsus Standard trEatment in Acute Kidney Injury-REVERSE-AKI randomized controlled pilot trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Fluid accumulation frequently coexists with acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased risk for AKI progression and mortality. Among septic shock patients, restricted use of resuscitation fluid has been reported to reduce the risk of worsening of AKI. Restrictive fluid therapy, however, has not been studied in the setting of established AKI. Here, we present the protocol and statistical analysis plan of the REstricted fluid therapy VERsus Standard trEatment in Acute Kidney Injury-the REVERSE-AKI trial that compares a restrictive fluid therapy regimen to standard therapy in critically ill patients with AKI. METHODS:REVERSE-AKI is an investigator-initiated, multinational, open-label, randomized, controlled, feasibility pilot trial conducted in seven ICUs in five countries. We aim to randomize 100 critically ill patients with AKI to a restrictive fluid treatment regimen vs standard management. In the restrictive fluid therapy regimen, the daily fluid balance target is neutral or negative. The primary outcome is the cumulative fluid balance assessed after 72 hours from randomization. Secondary outcomes include safety, feasibility, duration, and severity of AKI, and outcome at 90 days (mortality and dialysis dependence). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first multinational trial investigating the feasibility and safety of a restrictive fluid therapy regimen in critically ill patients with AKI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinical.trials.gov NCT03251131.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We compared a restrictive fluid management strategy to usual care among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who had received initial fluid resuscitation.<h4>Methods</h4>This multicenter feasibility trial randomized 100 AKI patients 1:1 in seven ICUs in Europe and Australia. Restrictive fluid management included targeting negative or neutral daily fluid balance by minimizing fluid input and/or enhancing urine output with diuretics administered at the discretion of the clinician. Fluid boluses were administered as clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was cumulative fluid balance 72 h from randomization.<h4>Results</h4>Mean (SD) cumulative fluid balance at 72 h from randomization was - 1080 mL (2003 mL) in the restrictive fluid management arm and 61 mL (3131 mL) in the usual care arm, mean difference (95% CI) - 1148 mL (- 2200 to - 96) mL, P = 0.033. Median [IQR] duration of AKI was 2 [1-3] and 3 [2-7] days, respectively (median difference - 1.0 [- 3.0 to 0.0], P = 0.071). Altogether, 6 out of 46 (13%) patients in the restrictive fluid management arm and 15 out of 50 (30%) in the usual care arm received renal replacement therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.16-0.91), P = 0.043. Cumulative fluid balance at 24 h and 7 days was lower in the restrictive fluid management arm. The dose of diuretics was not different between the groups. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the usual care arm.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In critically ill patients with AKI, a restrictive fluid management regimen resulted in lower cumulative fluid balance and less adverse events compared to usual care. Larger trials of this intervention are justified.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common in critically ill children and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recognition and management of AKI is often delayed, predisposing patients to risk of clinically significant fluid accumulation (Fluid Overload (FO)). Early recognition and intervention in high risk patients could decrease fluid associated morbidity. We aim to assess an AKI Clinical Decision Algorithm (CDA) using a sequential risk stratification strategy integrating the Renal Angina Index (RAI), urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and the Furosemide Stress Test (FST) to optimize AKI and FO prediction and management in critically ill children.<h4>Methods/design</h4>This single center prospective observational cohort study evaluates the AKI CDA in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Every patient ≥ 3 months old has the risk score RAI calculated automatically at 12 hours of admission. Patients with a RAI ≥ 8 (fulfilling renal angina) have risk further stratified with a urine NGAL and, if positive (NGAL ≥ 150ng/mL), subsequently by their response to a standardized dose of furosemide (namely FST). RAI negative or NGAL negative patients are treated per usual care. FST-responders are managed conservatively, while non-responders receive fluid restrictive strategy and/or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) at 10%-15% of FO. 2100 patients over 3 years will be evaluated to capture 210 patients with severe AKI (KDIGO Stage 2 or 3 AKI), 100 patients with >10% FO, and 50 requiring CRRT. Primary analyses: Standardizing a pediatric FST and assessing prediction accuracy of CDA for severe AKI, FO>10% and CRRT requirement in children. Secondary analyses in patients with AKI: Renal function return to baseline, RRT and mortality within 28 days.<h4>Discussion</h4>This will be the first prospective evaluation of feasibility of AKI CDA, integrating individual prediction tools in one cohesive and comprehensive approach, and its prediction of FO>10% and AKI, as well as the first to standardize the FST in the pediatric population. This will increase knowledge on current AKI prediction tools and provide actionable insight for early interventions in critically ill children based on their level of risk.
Project description:Background:Critically ill patients frequently develop acute kidney injury that necessitates renal replacement therapy (RRT). At some centers, critically ill patients who are hemodynamically unstable and require RRT are treated with slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED). Unfortunately, hypotension is a frequent complication that occurs during SLED treatments and may limit the recovery of kidney function. Hypotension may also limit the amount of fluid that can be removed by ultrafiltration with SLED. Fluid overload can be exacerbated as a consequence, and fluid overload is associated with increased mortality.Occasionally, intravenous albumin fluid is given to prevent or treat low blood pressure during SLED. The intent of doing so is to increase the colloid oncotic pressure in the circulation to draw in extravascular fluid, increase the blood pressure, and enable more aggressive fluid removal with ultrafiltration. Nonetheless, there is little evidence to support this practice and theoretical reasons why it may not be especially effective at augmenting fluid removal in critically ill patients. At the same time, albumin fluid is expensive.As such, we present a protocol for a study to assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the use of albumin fluid versus saline in critically ill patients receiving SLED. Methods:This study is a single-center, double-blind, and randomized controlled pilot trial with two parallel arms. It involves randomly assigning patients receiving SLED treatment in the ICU to receive either albumin (25%) boluses or normal saline fluid boluses (placebo) to prevent and treat low blood pressure. Discussion:The results of this pilot trial will help with planning a larger trial comparing the efficacy of the interventions in achieving fluid removal in critically ill patients with AKI on SLED. They will establish whether enough participants would participate in a larger study and accept the study procedures. Trial registration:This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03665311, registered on September 11, 2018.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine whether a restrictive compared to a liberal fluid therapy will increase postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe preeclampsia. METHODS:A total of 46 patients (mean age, 32 years; standard deviation, 6.8 years) with severe preeclampsia were randomized to liberal (1500 ml of lactated Ringer's, n=23) or restrictive (250 ml of lactated Ringer's, n=23) intravenous fluid regimen during cesarean section. The primary outcome was the development of a postoperative renal dysfunction defined by AKI Network stage ?1. Serum cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were evaluated at postoperative days 1 and 2. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02214186. RESULTS:The rate of postoperative AKI was 43.5% in the liberal fluid group and 43.5% in the restrictive fluid group (p=1.0). Intraoperative urine output was higher in the liberal (116 ml/h, IQR 69-191) than in the restrictive fluid group (80 ml/h, IQR 37-110, p<0.05). In both groups, serum cystatin C did not change from postoperative day 1 compared to the preoperative period and significantly decreased on postoperative day 2 compared to postoperative day 1 (p<0.05). In the restrictive fluid group, NGAL levels increased on postoperative day 1 compared to the preoperative period (p<0.05) and decreased on postoperative day 2 compared to postoperative day 1 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:Among patients with severe preeclampsia, a restrictive fluid regimen during cesarean section was not associated with increased postoperative AKI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after thoracoscopic lobectomy in high-risk patients due to insufficient intraoperative infusion. Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) is an individualized fluid infusion strategy; the fluid infusion strategy is adjusted according to the patient's fluid response. GDFT during operation can reduce the incidence of AKI after major surgery. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol optimizes perioperative interventions to decrease the postoperative complications after surgery. In ERAS protocol of lobectomy, intraoperative restrictive fluid therapy is recommended. In this study, we will compare the effects of intraoperative GDFT with restrictive fluid therapy combined with an ERAS protocol on the incidence of AKI after thoracoscopic lobectomy in high-risk patients.<h4>Methods/design</h4>This is a prospective single-center single-blind randomized controlled trial. Two hundred seventy-six patients scheduled for thoracoscopic lobectomy are randomly allocated to receive either GDFT or restrictive fluid therapy combined with an ERAS protocol at a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome is the incidence of AKI after operation. The secondary outcomes include (1) the incidence of renal replacement therapy, (2) the length of intensive care unit stay after operation, (3) the length of hospital stay after operation, and (4) the incidence of other complications including infection, acute lung injury, pneumonia, arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, and cardiac infarction.<h4>Discussion</h4>This is the first study to compare intraoperative GDFT with restrictive fluid therapy combined with an ERAS protocol on the incidence of AKI after thoracoscopic lobectomy in high-risk patients. The hypothesis is that the restrictive fluid therapy is noninferior to GDFT in reducing the incidence of AKI, but restrictive fluid therapy is simpler to apply than GDFT.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04302467 . Registered on 26 February 2020.
Project description:Furosemide is commonly prescribed in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Existing data from observational studies and small clinical trials have significant limitations and have reported conflicting findings. There remains controversy on whether furosemide can impact clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI; however, a survey of intensivists and nephrologists showed equipoise for high-quality evidence on this important issue.This protocol summarizes the rationale and design of a phase II randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial of a low-dose continuous infusion of furosemide, titrated to the physiology parameter of urine output, in critically ill patients with early AKI. Two hundred sixteen adult critically ill patients with early evidence of AKI, defined by the RIFLE criteria, will be enrolled. Included patients will also have fulfilled >or=2 criteria of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and achieved immediate goals of acute resuscitation. The primary outcome is progression in severity of kidney injury. Secondary outcomes include: safety, fluid balance, electrolyte balance, the need for renal replacement therapy, duration of AKI, rate of renal recovery, mortality and changes in novel serum and urine biomarkers of AKI. The primary analysis will be intention-to-treat. Planned recruitment will be complete by June 2011 and results available by December 2011.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00978354.
Project description:Liberal fluid strategies in critically ill patients are associated with harm, thought to be due to endothelial and glycocalyx injury. As the restrictive versus liberal fluid therapy for major abdominal surgery trial not only failed to report survival benefit with restrictive fluids but was associated with a higher rate of acute kidney injury, we hypothesized that factors other than endothelial and glycocalyx injury were likely to account for these findings. Consequently, we measured injury biomarkers in a cohort of the restrictive versus liberal fluid therapy for major abdominal surgery trial.<h4>Design</h4>The restrictive versus liberal fluid therapy for major abdominal surgery trial was an international, randomized, assessor-blinded trial comparing restrictive with liberal IV fluid regimens that represented traditional care in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.<h4>Setting and patients</h4>Cohort of restrictive versus liberal fluid therapy for major abdominal surgery bloods was collected at a single major site (161 patients) prior to, day 1 and day 3 after surgery.<h4>Intervention</h4>Bloods were blindly and randomly batch analyzed for plasma markers of endothelial/glycocalyx injury-angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, soluble tyrosine-protein kinase-2 receptor, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, syndecan, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Data were examined as restrictive versus liberal enrollment groups and high versus low (± 5,000 mL) fluid groups. Differences were examined by linear mixed modeling.<h4>Measurement and main results</h4>There were no significant differences in any biomarkers between the restrictive (<i>n</i> = 75) and liberal (<i>n</i> = 86) groups. When examined as low (<i>n</i> = 81) and high (<i>n</i> = 79) fluid groups, plasma angiopoietin-2 (<i>p</i> = 0.009) and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (<i>p</i> = 0.01) were elevated in the high fluid group. There were no differences in other biomarkers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although these results are consistent with previous findings of vascular injury following liberal fluid therapy, they suggest alternative mechanisms underlie the clinical outcomes from restrictive versus liberal fluid therapy for major abdominal surgery study.<h4>Clinicaltrialsgov identifier</h4>NCT01424150.
Project description:The efficacy and safety of normal saline (NS) for fluid therapy in critically ill patients remain controversy. In this review, we summarized the evidence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared NS with other solutions in critically ill patients. The results showed that when compared with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES), NS may reduce the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is no significant different in mortality and incidence of AKI when compared with 10% HES, albumin and buffered crystalloid solution. Therefore, it is important to prescribe intravenous fluid for patients according to their individual condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Isotonic crystalloid fluid bolus therapy is used in critically ill children to restore or maintain hemodynamic stability. However, the ideal choice of crystalloid remains to be determined. The most easily available and most frequently used crystalloid is 0.9% saline, an unbalanced crystalloid, that has been associated with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Balanced fluids such as Ringer's lactate (RL) were developed to be closer to the composition of serum. However, they are more expensive and less readily available than 0.9% saline. Few trials have found RL to be associated with more favorable outcomes, but pediatric data is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the present systematic review is to review existing literature to determine the effect of balanced versus unbalanced fluid bolus therapy on metabolic acidosis in critically ill children. METHODS:Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines, we will conduct a systematic review to retrieve all controlled trials and observational studies comparing balanced and unbalanced resuscitative fluids in critically ill children from age 28?days to 18?years old in any resuscitation settings. Search strategy was developed in collaboration with an experienced clinical research librarian. The primary outcome is the incidence and/or time to resolution of metabolic acidosis. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of hyperchloremia, AKI, duration of renal replacement therapy, vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, total volume of rehydration needed per day, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and length of stay and mortality. Study screening, inclusion, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias will be performed independently by two authors. We intend to perform a meta-analysis with studies that are compatible on the basis of population and outcomes. DISCUSSION:Isotonic crystalloid fluid bolus therapy is a ubiquitous treatment in resuscitation of critically ill pediatric patients and yet there is no clear recommendation to support the choice of balanced versus unbalanced fluid. The present review will summarize current available data in the literature and assess whether recommendations can be generated regarding the choice of crystalloids or otherwise identify knowledge gaps which will open the door to a large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There are limited data on acute kidney injury (AKI) progression and long-term outcomes in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors for development of AKI, its subsequent clinical course and AKI progression, as well as renal recovery or dialysis dependence and survival in this group of patients.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a retrospective observational study in an expanded tertiary care intensive care unit in London, United Kingdom. Critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 1st March 2020 and 31st July 2020 with confirmed SARS-COV2 infection were included. Analysis of baseline characteristics, organ support, COVID-19 associated therapies and their association with mortality and outcomes at 90 days was performed.<h4>Results</h4>Of 313 patients (70% male, mean age 54.5 ± 13.9 years), 240 (76.7%) developed AKI within 14 days after ICU admission: 63 (20.1%) stage 1, 41 (13.1%) stage 2, 136 (43.5%) stage 3. 113 (36.1%) patients presented with AKI on ICU admission. Progression to AKI stage 2/3 occurred in 36%. Risk factors for AKI progression were mechanical ventilation [HR (hazard ratio) 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-10.49] and positive fluid balance [HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.11-1.31)], while steroid therapy was associated with a reduction in AKI progression (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.97]). Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) was initiated in 31.9%. AKI patients had a higher 90-day mortality than non-AKI patients (34% vs. 14%; p < 0.001). Dialysis dependence was 5% at hospital discharge and 4% at 90 days. Renal recovery was identified in 81.6% of survivors at discharge and in 90.9% at 90 days. At 3 months, 16% of all AKI survivors had chronic kidney disease (CKD); among those without renal recovery, the CKD incidence was 44%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>During the first COVID-19 wave, AKI was highly prevalent among severely ill COVID-19 patients with a third progressing to severe AKI requiring KRT. The risk of developing CKD was high. This study identifies factors modifying AKI progression, including a potentially protective effect of steroid therapy. Recognition of risk factors and monitoring of renal function post-discharge might help guide future practice and follow-up management strategies. Trial registration NCT04445259.