DdRAD-seq derived genome-wide SNPs, high density linkage map and QTLs for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).
ABSTRACT: Understanding the genetic determinants are essential for improving the fruit quality traits of strawberry. In this study, we focused on mapping the loci for fruit-length (FL), -diameter (FD), -weight (FW) and -soluble solid content (SSC) using the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified via ddRAD-sequencing of the F1 population raised from Maehyang (?) X Festival (?). A total of 12,698 high quality SNPs were identified of which 1554 SNPs that showed significant Mendelian segregation (p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-density genetic mapping is a valuable tool for mapping loci that control specific traits for perennial fruit trees. Peach is an economically important fruit tree and a model Rosaceae species for genomic and genetic research. In peach, even though many molecular markers, genetic maps and QTL mappings have been reported, further research on the improvement of marker numbers, map densities, QTL accuracy and candidate gene identification is still warranted. RESULTS:A high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based peach linkage map was constructed using specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). This genetic map consisted of 7998 SLAF markers, spanning 1098.79?cM with an average distance of 0.17?cM between adjacent markers. A total of 40 QTLs and 885 annotated candidate genes were detected for 10 fruit-related traits, including fruit weight (FW), fruit diameter (FD), percentage of red skin colour (PSC), eating quality (EQ), fruit flavour (FV), red in flesh (RF), red around pit (RP), adherence to pit (AP), fruit development period (FDP) and fruit fibre content (FFC). Eighteen QTLs for soluble solid content (SSC) were identified along LGs 1, 4, 5, and 6 in 2015 and 2016, and 540 genes were annotated in QTL intervals. Thirty-two QTLs for fruit acidity content (FA) were detected on LG1, and 2, 4, 5, 6, and 1232 candidate genes were identified. The expression profiles of 2 candidate genes for SSC and 4 for FA were analysed in parents and their offspring. CONCLUSIONS:We constructed a high-density genetic map in peach based on SLAF-seq, which may contribute to the identification of important agronomic trait loci. Ninety QTLs for 12 fruit-related traits were identified, most of which overlapped with previous reports, and some new QTLs were obtained. A large number of candidate genes for fruit-related traits were screened and identified. These results may improve our understanding of the genetic control of fruit quality traits and provide useful information in marker-assisted selection for fruit quality in peach breeding programmes.
Project description:Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit weight (FW), soluble solid content (SSC), fruit shape and fruit color are crucial for yield, quality and consumer acceptability. In this study, a 192 accessions tomato association panel comprising a mixture of wild species, cherry tomato, landraces, and modern varieties collected worldwide was genotyped with 547 InDel markers evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes and scored for FW, SSC, fruit shape index (FSI), and color parameters over 2 years with three replications each year. The association panel was sorted into two subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium ranged from 3.0 to 47.2 Mb across 12 chromosomes. A set of 102 markers significantly (p < 1.19-1.30 × 10-4) associated with SSC, FW, fruit shape, and fruit color was identified on 11 of the 12 chromosomes using a mixed linear model. The associations were compared with the known gene/QTLs for the same traits. Genetic analysis using F2 populations detected 14 and 4 markers significantly (p < 0.05) associated with SSC and FW, respectively. Some loci were commonly detected by both association and linkage analysis. Particularly, one novel locus for FW on chromosome 4 detected by association analysis was also identified in F2 populations. The results demonstrated that association mapping using limited number of InDel markers and a relatively small population could not only complement and enhance previous QTL information, but also identify novel loci for marker-assisted selection of fruit traits in tomato.
Project description:The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is consumed worldwide for its flavor and nutritional benefits. Genetic analysis of commercially important traits in strawberry are important for the development of breeding methods and tools for this species. Although several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been previously detected for fruit quality and flowering traits using low-density genetic maps, clarity on the sub-genomic locations of these QTLs was missing. Recent discoveries in allo-octoploid strawberry genomics led to the development of the IStraw90 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, enabling high-density genetic maps and finer resolution QTL analysis. In this study, breeder-specified traits were evaluated in the Eastern (Michigan) and Western (Oregon) United States for a common set of breeding populations during 2 years. Several QTLs were validated for soluble solids content (SSC), fruit weight (FWT), pH and titratable acidity (TA) using a pedigree-based QTL analysis approach. For fruit quality, a QTL for SSC on linkage group (LG) 6A, a QTL for FWT on LG 2BII, a QTL for pH on LG 4CII and two QTLs for TA on LGs 2A and 5B were detected. In addition, a large-effect QTL for flowering was detected at the distal end of LG 4A, coinciding with the FaPFRU locus. Marker haplotype analysis in the FaPFRU region indicated that the homozygous recessive genotype was highly predictive of seasonal flowering. SNP probes in the FaPFRU region may help facilitate marker-assisted selection for this trait.
Project description:Understanding key adaptation traits is crucial to developing new cultivars with broad adaptations. The main objective of this research is to understand the genetic basis of winter hardiness (WH) and fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa and the association between the two traits. QTL analysis was conducted in a pseudo-testcross F1 population developed from two cultivars contrasting in FD (3010 with FD = 2 and CW 1010 with FD = 10). The mapping population was evaluated in three replications at two locations (Watkinsville and Blairsville, GA). FD levels showed low to moderate correlations with WH (0.22-0.57). Assessing dormancy in winter is more reliable than in the fall in southern regions with warm winters. The mapping population was genotyped using Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Single dose allele SNPs (SDA) were used for constructing linkage maps. The parental map (CW 1010) consisted of 32 linkage groups spanning 2127.5 cM with 1377 markers and an average marker density of 1.5 cM/SNP. The maternal map (3010) had 32 linkage groups spanning 2788.4 cM with 1837 SDA SNPs with an average marker density of 1.5 cM/SNP. Forty-five significant (P < 0.05) QTLs for FD and 35 QTLs for WH were detected on both male and female linkage maps. More than 75% (22/28) of the dormancy QTL detected from the 3010 parent did not share genomic regions with WH QTLs and more than 70% (12/17) dormancy QTLs detected from CW 1010 parent were localized in different genomic regions than WH QTLs. These results suggest that the two traits have independent inheritance and therefore can be improved separately in breeding programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fruit quality traits have a significant effect on consumer acceptance and subsequently on peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) consumption. Determining the genetic bases of key fruit quality traits is essential for the industry to improve fruit quality and increase consumption. Pedigree-based analysis across multiple peach pedigrees can identify the genomic basis of complex traits for direct implementation in marker-assisted selection. This strategy provides breeders with better-informed decisions and improves selection efficiency and, subsequently, saves resources and time. RESULTS:Phenotypic data of seven F1 low to medium chill full-sib families were collected over 2 years at two locations and genotyped using the 9?K SNP Illumina array. One major QTL for fruit blush was found on linkage group 4 (LG4) at 40-46?cM that explained from 20 to 32% of the total phenotypic variance and showed three QTL alleles of different effects. For soluble solids concentration (SSC), one QTL was mapped on LG5 at 60-72?cM and explained from 17 to 39% of the phenotypic variance. A major QTL for titratable acidity (TA) co-localized with the major locus for low-acid fruit (D-locus). It was mapped at the proximal end of LG5 and explained 35 to 80% of the phenotypic variance. The new QTL for TA on the distal end of LG5 explained 14 to 22% of the phenotypic variance. This QTL co-localized with the QTL for SSC and affected TA only when the first QTL is homozygous for high acidity (epistasis). Haplotype analyses revealed SNP haplotypes and predictive SNP marker(s) associated with desired QTL alleles. CONCLUSIONS:A multi-family-based QTL discovery approach enhanced the ability to discover a new TA QTL at the distal end of LG5 and validated other QTLs which were reported in previous studies. Haplotype characterization of the mapped QTLs distinguishes this work from the previous QTL studies. Identified predictive SNPs and their original sources will facilitate the selection of parents and/or seedlings that have desired QTL alleles. Our findings will help peach breeders develop new predictive, DNA-based molecular marker tests for routine use in marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:A strawberry Multi-parent Advanced Generation Intercrosses (MAGIC) population, derived from crosses using six strawberry cultivars was successfully developed. The population was composed of 338 individuals; genome conformation was evaluated by expressed sequence tag-derived simple short repeat (EST-SSR) markers. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) based on EST-SSR marker polymorphisms revealed that the MAGIC population was a mosaic of the six founder cultivars and covered the genomic regions of the six founders evenly. Fruit quality related traits, including days to flowering (DTF), fruit weight (FW), fruit firmness (FF), fruit color (FC), soluble solid content (SC), and titratable acidity (TA), of the MAGIC population were evaluated over two years. All traits showed normal transgressive segregation beyond the founder cultivars and most traits, except for DTF, distributed normally. FC exhibited the highest correlation coefficient overall and was distributed normally regardless of differences in DTF, FW, FF, SC, and TA. These facts were supported by PCA using fruit quality related values as explanatory variables, suggesting that major genetic factors, which are not influenced by fluctuations in other fruit traits, could control the distribution of FC. This MAGIC population is a promising resource for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection for efficient strawberry breeding.
Project description:Fusarium wilt (FW) is one of the most important biotic stresses causing yield losses in pigeonpea. Genetic improvement of pigeonpea through genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) is an economically feasible option for the development of high yielding FW resistant genotypes. In this context, two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (ICPB 2049?×?ICPL 99050 designated as PRIL_A and ICPL 20096?×?ICPL 332 designated as PRIL_B) and one F2 (ICPL 85063?×?ICPL 87119) populations were used for the development of high density genetic maps. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to identify and genotype SNPs in three mapping populations. As a result, three high density genetic maps with 964, 1101 and 557 SNPs with an average marker distance of 1.16, 0.84 and 2.60?cM were developed in PRIL_A, PRIL_B and F2, respectively. Based on the multi-location and multi-year phenotypic data of FW resistance a total of 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) including six major QTLs explaining >10% phenotypic variance explained (PVE) were identified. Comparative analysis across the populations has revealed three important QTLs (qFW11.1, qFW11.2 and qFW11.3) with upto 56.45% PVE for FW resistance. This is the first report of QTL mapping for FW resistance in pigeonpea and identified genomic region could be utilized in GAB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Goji (Lycium spp., 2n?=?24) is a fruit bearing woody plant popular as a superfood for extensive medicinal and nutritional advantages. Fruit size associated attributes are important for evaluating small-fruited goji berry and plant architecture. The domestication traits are regulated quantitatively in crop plants but few studies have attempted on genomic regions corresponding to fruit traits. RESULTS:In this study, we established high-resolution map using specific locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing for de novo SNPs detection based on 305 F1 individuals derived from L. chinense and L. barbarum and performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of fruit size related traits in goji berry. The genetic map contained 3495 SLAF markers on 12 LGs, spanning 1649.03?cM with 0.47?cM average interval. Female and male parents and F1 individuals` sequencing depth was 111.85-fold and 168.72-fold and 35.80-fold, respectively. The phenotype data were collected for 2 successive years (2018-2019); however, two-year mean data were combined in an extra year (1819). Total 117 QTLs were detected corresponding to multiple traits, of which 78 QTLs in 2 individual years and 36 QTLs in extra year. Six Promising QTLs (qFW10-6.1, qFL10-2.1, qLL10-2.1, qLD10-2.1, qLD12-4.1, qLA10-2.1) were discovered influencing fruit weight, fruit length and leaf related attributes covering an interval ranged from 27.32-71.59?cM on LG10 with peak LOD of 10.48 and 14.6% PVE. Three QTLs targeting fruit sweetness (qFS3-1, qFS5-2) and fruit firmness (qFF10-1) were also identified. Strikingly, various traits QTLs were overlapped on LG10, in particular, qFL10-2.1 was co-located with qLL10-2.1, qLD10-2.1 and qLA10-2.1 among stable QTLs, harbored tightly linked markers, while qLL10-1 was one major QTL with 14.21 highest LOD and 19.3% variance. As LG10 harbored important traits QTLs, we might speculate that it could be hotspot region regulating fruit size and plant architectures. CONCLUSIONS:This report highlights the extremely saturated linkage map using SLAF-seq and novel loci contributing fruit size-related attributes in goji berry. Our results will shed light on domestication traits and further strengthen molecular and genetic underpinnings of goji berry; moreover, these findings would better facilitate to assemble the reference genome, determining potential candidate genes and marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:Improvement of nutritional and organoleptic quality of fruits is a key goal in current strawberry breeding programs. The ratio of sugars to acids is a determinant factor contributing to fruit liking, although different sugars and acids contribute in varying degrees to this complex trait. A segregating F1 population of 95 individuals, previously characterized for several fruit quality characters, was used to map during 2 years quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 50 primary metabolites, l-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and other related traits such as soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH. A total of 133 mQTL were detected above the established thresholds for 44 traits. Only 12.9% of QTL were detected in the 2 years, suggesting a large environmental influence on primary metabolite content. An objective of this study was the identification of key metabolites that were associated to the overall variation in SSC and acidity. As it was observed in previous studies, a number of QTL controlling several metabolites and traits were co-located in homoeology group V (HG V). mQTL controlling a large variance in raffinose, sucrose, succinic acid, and L-AA were detected in approximate the same chromosomal regions of different homoeologous linkage groups belonging to HG V. Candidate genes for selected mQTL are proposed based on their co-localization, on the predicted function, and their differential gene expression among contrasting F1 progeny lines. RNA-seq analysis from progeny lines contrasting in L-AA content detected 826 differentially expressed genes and identified Mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, FaM6PI1, as a candidate gene contributing to natural variation in ascorbic acid in strawberry fruit.
Project description:Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs.