Acceptability of HPV screening among HIV-infected women attending an HIV-dedicated clinic in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer incidence is high among women living with HIV due to high-risk HPV persistence in the cervix. In low-income countries, cervical cancer screening is based on visual inspection with acetic acid. Implementing human papilloma virus (HPV) screening through self-sampling could increase women's participation and screening performance. Our study aims to assess the preintervention acceptability of HPV screening among HIV-infected women in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS:Applying the Health Belief Model theoretical framework, we collected qualitative data through in-depth interviews with 21 HIV-infected women treated in an HIV-dedicated clinic. Maximum variation sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample of women in terms of level of health literacy. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data analysis was performed using NVivo 12. RESULTS:Screening acceptability relies on cervical cancer representations among women. Barriers were the fear of diagnosis and the associated stigma disregard for HIV-associated health conditions, poor knowledge of screening and insufficient resources for treatment. Fees removal, higher levels of knowledge about cervical cancer and of the role of HIV status in cancer were found to facilitate screening. Healthcare providers are obstacle removers by their trusting relationship with women and help navigating through the healthcare system. Self-confidence in self-sampling is low. CONCLUSIONS:Free access to cervical screening, communication strategies increasing cervical cancer knowledge and healthcare provider involvement will foster HPV screening. Knowledge gathered through this research is crucial for designing adequate HPV-based screening interventions for women living with HIV in this setting.
Project description:With appropriate screening (ie, the Papanicolaou [Pap] test), cervical cancer is highly preventable, and high-income countries, including Canada, have observed significant decreases in cervical cancer mortality. However, certain subgroups, including immigrants from countries with large Muslim populations, experience disparities in cervical cancer screening. Little is known about the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a screening strategy among Muslim immigrant women in Canada. This study assessed cervical cancer screening practices, knowledge and attitudes, and acceptability of HPV self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women.A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June-August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All women were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, and self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire.More than half of the participants falsely indicated that Pap tests may cause cervical infection, and 46.7% indicated that the test is an intrusion on privacy. The majority of women reported that they would be willing to try HPV self-sampling, and more than half would prefer this method to provider-administered sampling methods. Barriers to self-sampling included confidence in the ability to perform the test and perceived cost, and facilitators included convenience and privacy being preserved.The results demonstrate that HPV self-sampling may provide a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing. These findings add important information to the literature related to promoting cancer screening among women who are under or never screened for cervical cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. METHOD: Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group) or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group). Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV), the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. RESULTS: A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the "control group" and 152 in the "intervention group") completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (p<0.05), but no significant difference on Self-HPV acceptability and confidence in the method was noticed between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. TRIALS REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register ISRCTN78123709.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Bolivia are the highest in Latin America. Vaginal cell self-sampling can improve screening coverage. Information on common reasons for low screening coverage and preferences for future screening are essential to reduce cervical cancer incidence. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer of Bolivian women from urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Cochabamba and to determine their degree of acceptability and confidence towards vaginal HPV self-sampling. In addition, we assessed the impact of self-sampling on cervical cancer screening coverage in a selected peri-urban area.<h4>Methods</h4>We gathered information from women living in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Cochabamba province in Bolivia using two different structured questionnaires. In Survey1, we collected information from 222 women about their knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer. In Survey 2, the acceptance and confidence towards vaginal HPV self-sampling compared to the physician-sampling was assessed in 221 women. A non-probabilistic stratified sampling by areas was carried out for the two questionnaires. In the third phase of the study, we determined the impact of HPV self-sampling collection on screening coverage in a peri-urban area of Cochabamba.<h4>Results</h4>Bolivian women knew little or nothing about cervical cancer and HPV infection in all areas. They all found self-sampling collection easier to perform (86.9 to 93.2%) and more comfortable (79.4 to 83.3%) compared to physician sampling. Sampling accuracy to detect cervical cancer was probably higher in their point of view when it was taken by physician (35.1 to 63.5%). However in rural areas women preferred self-sampling. Accordingly, the campaign of vaginal HPV self-sampling in this peri-urban area increased screening coverage, reaching in three months the annual rate average.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV infection is poor in Bolivia. Despite greater acceptance of the vaginal HPV self-sampling in all areas, women kept greater confidence in the screening performed by the gynecologist although HPV self-sampling improved coverage rate.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The relationship between infection with high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer is transforming prevention through HPV vaccination and HPV oncogenic testing. In Ireland, a national cervical cancer screening programme and HPV vaccination were recently launched; HPV testing is currently being integrated into the screening programme. Women's views on the transformation of cervical cancer prevention have been relatively little investigated. METHODS: Using qualitative focus groups, we determined women's knowledge, attitudes towards, and acceptability of cervical cancer screening, HPV oncogenic testing and vaccination of HPV. Fifty nine women, recruited through primary care in Ireland, participated in ten focus groups. A dynamic topic guide was developed from literature reviewed. Women were provided with standardised information about HPV infection, HPV testing. Discussion transcripts were analysed thematically. RESULTS: The primary themes that emerged regarding HPV infection were: knowledge, emotional response and societal influences; especially those of healthcare practitioners. Knowledge, logistics, and psychological impact were the primary themes relating to HPV testing. Women's attitudes towards HPV testing changed during discussion as issues were explored, thus demonstrating the complexity of this issue; lack of existing treatment for HPV infection influenced women's attitudes, attachment to existing cervical cancer screening also was a significant factor. CONCLUSIONS: Women currently have a strong attachment to cytology and any changes towards HPV primary testing will need to be managed carefully. To ensure that future cervical cancer prevention strategies will be acceptable to women, sufficient thought will have to be given to information provision and education. We identified the importance to women of healthcare practitioners' opinions regarding HPV. Appropriate and timely information on HPV will be crucial in order to minimise possible psychological effects women may have.
Project description:Women in safety-net institutions are less likely to receive cervical cancer screening. Human papilloma virus (HPV) self-sampling is an alternative method of cervical cancer screening. We examine the acceptability and feasibility of HPV self-sampling among patients and clinic staff in two safety-net clinics in Miami.Haitian and Latina women aged 30-65 years with no Pap smear in the past 3 years were recruited. Women were offered HPV self-sampling or traditional Pap smear screening. The acceptability of HPV self-sampling among patients and clinic staff was assessed. If traditional screening was preferred the medical record was reviewed.A total of 180 women were recruited (134 Latinas and 46 Haitian). HPV self-sampling was selected by 67% women. Among those selecting traditional screening, 22% were not screened 5 months postrecruitment. Over 80% of women agreed HPV self-sampling was faster, more private, easy to use, and would prefer to use again. Among clinic staff, 80% agreed they would be willing to incorporate HPV self-sampling into practice.HPV self-sampling was both acceptable and feasible to participants and clinic staff and may help overcome barriers to screening.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To understand knowledge about, and acceptability of, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccines among medical students; and to explore potential factors that influence their acceptability in China. METHODS: We conducted a survey among medical students at six universities across southwest China using a 58-item questionnaire regarding knowledge and perceptions of HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines. RESULTS: We surveyed 1878 medical students with a mean age of 20.8 years (standard deviation: 1.3 years). Of these, 48.8% and 80.1% believed cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV vaccines and screening respectively, while 60.2% and 71.2% would like to receive or recommend HPV vaccines and screening. 35.4% thought HPV vaccines ought to be given to adolescents aged 13-18 years. 32% stated that women should start to undergo screening from the age of 25. 49.2% felt that women should receive screening every year. Concern about side effects (38.3% and 39.8%), and inadequate information (42.4% and 35.0%) were the most cited barriers to receiving or recommending HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Females were more likely to accept HPV vaccines (OR, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.47-2.35) or cervical cancer screening (OR, 3.69; 95% CI: 2.88-4.74). Students with a higher level of related knowledge were much more willing to receive or recommend vaccines (P<0.001) or screening (P<0.001). Students who showed negative or uncertain attitudes towards premarital sex were less likely to accept either HPV vaccines (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96), or screening (OR, 0.68; 0.47-0.10). Non-clinical students showed lower acceptability of cervical screening compared to students in clinical medicine (OR, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening is relatively low among medical students in southwest China. Measures should be taken to improve knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of HPV vaccines and screening among medical students at university.
Project description:This study aims to investigate acceptance of vaginal self-sampling for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) among long-term screening non-attenders at increased cervical cancer risk and to identify leverage points to promote screening adherence among these women. Forty-three long-term screening non-attenders performed home vaginal self-sampling for HPV, had positive HPV results, and subsequently attended gynecologic examination. Sixteen (37.2%) had high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or 3), and two had invasive cervical cancer. Forty-one of these women completed a questionnaire concerning Specific Knowledge about HPV, CIN, and cervical cancer, potential barriers to screening and views about self-sampling. Results were compared with 479 women treated for CIN2+ who attended gynecologic follow-up and also performed self-sampling. Significant multivariate predictors of long-term non-attender status compared with referents were low Specific Knowledge, high confidence in self-sampling, and potential barriers-refraining from activity to attend gynecologic examination, needing another's help to attend, and long travel time. Non-attenders citing fear/refraining from gynecologic examination as why they preferred self-sampling significantly more often had lowest Specific Knowledge compared with other non-attenders. All non-attenders could envision themselves doing self-sampling again while only 74% of referents endorsed this statement (p?=?0.0003). We conclude that HPV self-sampling is an acceptable option for women at increased cervical cancer risk who have been long-term screening non-attenders. Educational outreach to enhance Specific Knowledge about HPV, CIN and cervical cancer is critical. Those non-attenders who explicitly avoid gynecologic examinations need special attention. Trial Registry: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02750124.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. AIM: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. METHODS: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. RESULTS were summarized in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. CONCLUSION: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities.
Project description:Background Accelerated global control of cervical cancer would require primary prevention with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in addition to novel screening program strategies that are simple, inexpensive, and effective. We present the feasibility and outcome of a community-based HPV self-sampled screening program. Methods In Ile Ife, Nigeria, 9406 women aged 30–49?years collected vaginal self-samples, which were tested for HPV in the local study laboratory using Hybrid Capture-2 (HC2) (Qiagen). HPV-positive women were referred to the colposcopy clinic. Gynecologist colposcopic impression dictated immediate management; biopsies were taken when definite acetowhitening was present to produce a histopathologic reference standard of precancer (and to determine final clinical management). Retrospective linkage to the medical records identified 442 of 9406 women living with HIV (WLWH). Results With self-sampling, it was possible to screen more than 100 women per day per clinic. Following an audio-visual presentation and in-person instructions, overall acceptability of self-sampling was very high (81.2% women preferring self-sampling over clinician collection). HPV positivity was found in 17.3% of women. Intensive follow-up contributed to 85.9% attendance at the colposcopy clinic. Of those referred, 8.2% were initially treated with thermal ablation and 5.6% with large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ). Full visibility of the squamocolumnar junction, necessary for optimal visual triage and ablation, declined from 68.5% at age 30 to 35.4% at age 49. CIN2+ and CIN3+ (CIN- Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia), including five cancers, were identified by histology in 5.9 and 3.2% of the HPV-positive women, respectively (0.9 and 0.5% of the total screening population), leading to additional treatment as indicated. The prevalences of HPV infection and CIN2+ were substantially higher (40.5 and 2.5%, respectively) among WLWH. Colposcopic impression led to over- and under-treatment compared to the histopathology reference standard. Conclusion A cervical cancer screening program using self-sampled HPV testing, with colposcopic immediate management of women positive for HPV, proved feasible in Nigeria. Based on the collected specimens and images, we are now evaluating the use of a combination of partial HPV typing and automated visual evaluation (AVE) of cervical images to improve the accuracy of the screening program.
Project description:Women living with HIV experience higher risk of cervical cancer, but screening rates in the United States are lower than recommended. The purpose of this study was to examine whether an intervention using self-sampling of cervicovaginal cells for human papillomavirus (HPV) with results counseling would increase cervical cytology ("Pap") testing among women with HIV.This was a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an intervention of self-sampling for HPV and results counseling. Participants were 94 women older than 18 years, with HIV infection, attending an HIV clinic for a primary care visit, whose last cervical cancer screening was 18 months or more before baseline. Women were assigned to the intervention or information-only group. The primary outcome was completion of cervical cytology testing within 6 months of baseline. The secondary outcome was the women's perceived threat of developing cervical cancer.A total of 94 women were enrolled and analyzed in the study. The cytology completion rate overall was 35% by 6 months from baseline. There were no differences in comparing HPV-positive with HPV-negative women nor comparing them with the information-only group. In the intervention group, a positive HPV test increased perceived threat of cervical cancer.The intervention did not improve cytology test attendance, although education about HPV and cervical cancer risk as part of study procedures was associated with testing for 35% of this group of women whose previous cytology occurred an average of 3.6 years before the baseline appointment. Self-sampling for HPV testing was feasible.