The global burden of disease attributable to high body mass index in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: An analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Obesity represents an urgent problem that needs to be properly addressed, especially among children. Public and global health policy- and decision-makers need timely, reliable quantitative information to develop effective interventions aimed at counteracting the burden generated by high body mass index (BMI). Few studies have assessed the high-BMI-related burden on a global scale. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Following the methodology framework and analytical strategies used in the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017, the global deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to high BMI were analyzed by age, sex, year, and geographical location and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI). All causes of death and DALYs estimated in GBD 2017 were organized into 4 hierarchical levels: level 1 contained 3 broad cause groupings, level 2 included more specific categories within the level 1 groupings, level 3 comprised more detailed causes within the level 2 categories, and level 4 included sub-causes of some level 3 causes. From 1990 to 2017, the global deaths and DALYs attributable to high BMI have more than doubled for both females and males. However, during the study period, the age-standardized rate of high-BMI-related deaths remained stable for females and only increased by 14.5% for males, and the age-standardized rate of high-BMI-related DALYs only increased by 12.7% for females and 26.8% for males. In 2017, the 6 leading GBD level 3 causes of high-BMI-related DALYs were ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertensive heart disease, and low back pain. For most GBD level 3 causes of high-BMI-related DALYs, high-income North America had the highest attributable proportions of age-standardized DALYs due to high BMI among the 21 GBD regions in both sexes, whereas the lowest attributable proportions were observed in high-income Asia Pacific for females and in eastern sub-Saharan Africa for males. The association between SDI and high-BMI-related DALYs suggested that the lowest age-standardized DALY rates were found in countries in the low-SDI quintile and high-SDI quintile in 2017, and from 1990 to 2017, the age-standardized DALY rates tended to increase in regions with the lowest SDI, but declined in regions with the highest SDI, with the exception of high-income North America. The study's main limitations included the use of information collected from some self-reported data, the employment of cutoff values that may not be adequate for all populations and groups at risk, and the use of a metric that cannot distinguish between lean and fat mass. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we observed that the number of global deaths and DALYs attributable to high BMI has substantially increased between 1990 and 2017. Successful population-wide initiatives targeting high BMI may mitigate the burden of a wide range of diseases. Given the large variations in high-BMI-related burden of disease by SDI, future strategies to prevent and reduce the burden should be developed and implemented based on country-specific development status.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Statistical data on the incidence, mortality, and burden of breast cancer and the relevant risk factors are valuable for policy-making. We aimed to estimate breast cancer incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by country, gender, age group, and social-demographic status between 1990 and 2017. METHODS:We extracted breast cancer data from the 2017 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study from 1990 through 2017 in 195 countries and territories. Data about the number of breast cancer incident cases, deaths, DALYs, and the age-standardized rates were collected. We also estimated the risk factors attributable to breast cancer deaths and DALYs using the comparative risk assessment framework of the GBD study. RESULTS:In 2017, the global incidence of breast cancer increased to 1,960,681 cases. The high social-development index (SDI) quintile included the highest number of breast cancer death cases. Between 2007 and 2017, the ASDR of breast cancer declined globally, especially in high SDI and high middle SDI countries. The related DALYs were 17,708,600 in 2017 with high middle SDI quintile as the highest contributor. Of the deaths and DALYs, alcohol use was the greatest contributor in most GBD regions and other contributors included high body mass index (BMI) and high fasting plasma glucose. CONCLUSION:The increasing global breast cancer burden is mainly observed in lower SDI countries; in higher SDI countries, the breast cancer burden tends to be relieving. Therefore, steps against attributable risk factors should be taken to reduce breast cancer burden in lower SDI countries.
Project description:Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy affecting women in developed countries. Recently, the EC disease burden has changed; therefore, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 was used to comprehensively analyze the global, regional, and national burden of EC between 1990 and 2017. General GBD cancer estimation methods were used with the data input from vital registration systems and cancer registries. Annual percent changes were calculated to quantify the trends of EC burden estimates during the study period. Furthermore, the sociodemographic index (SDI) was used to assess the relationship between the EC burden estimates and development level. From 1990 to 2017, the age-standardized incidence and prevalence rate of EC increased globally by 0.58 and 0.89% per year, respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized death rate and disability-adjusted-life years (DALYs) decreased by 1.19 and 1.21% per year, respectively. Increasing trends in both the incidence and prevalence were observed in all SDI quintiles, except for the low SDI quintiles, whereas decreasing trends were observed in all SDI quintiles for mortality and DALYs. Additionally, a non-linear association existed for the level of mortality rate, DALYs, and SDI. Of note, there was a strong positive association between a high body mass index and DALYs across all SDI quintiles. In conclusion, EC incidence and prevalence rates are growing globally, whereas the death rate and DALYs decreased between 1990 and 2017. Greater efforts, particularly detailed prevention strategies for reducing obesity, should be performed to reverse this phenomenon.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been improved dramatically in the past two decades, but survival levels of CML patients varied in regions. Comprehensive epidemiological research is necessary to evaluate the global burden of CML.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>All data used in our study came from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2017. Incidence cases, death cases, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and its corresponding age-standardized rate between 1990 to 2017 were used to describe the distribution of CML burden, according to age, sex, social-demographic index (SDI), and countries. Data about attributable risk factors contributing to CML deaths and DALYs were also extracted and analyzed.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Globally, the disease burden of CML gradually decreased from 1990 to 2017. Higher SDI countries achieved a remarkable effect on diminishing the CML burden. Conversely, due to population growth, the incidence cases, death cases, and DALYs of CML in lower SDI quintiles showed an upward trend. India had the most incidence cases and death cases of CML in the world. Additionally, smoking was the most significant attributable risk factor contributing to CML deaths and DALYs, followed by high body mass index.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The disease burden of CML decreased globally, especially in higher SDI countries in the past 28 years. The increasing incidence cases and death cases were mainly observed in lower SDI countries. Additionally, strategies to control modifiable risk factors such as smoking and high body mass index might be useful in diminishing mortality and DALYs.
Project description:Background Hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, and its impact in Brazil should be assessed in order to better address the issue. We aimed to describe trends in prevalence and burden of disease attributable to high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) among Brazilians ? 25?years old according to sex and federal units (FU) using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment developed for the GBD study to estimate trends in attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), by sex, and FU for HSBP from 1990 to 2017. This study included 14 HSBP-outcome pairs. HSBP was defined as ? 140?mmHg for prevalence estimates, and a theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL) of 110–115?mmHg was considered for disease burden. We estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs attributed to HSBP. We also explored the drivers of trends in HSBP burden, as well as the correlation between disease burden and sociodemographic development index (SDI). Results In Brazil, the prevalence of HSBP is 18.9% (95% uncertainty intervals [UI] 18.5–19.3%), with an annual 0.4% increase rate, while age-standardized death rates attributable to HSBP decreased from 189.2 (95%UI 168.5–209.2) deaths to 104.8 (95%UI 94.9–114.4) deaths per 100,000 from 1990 to 2017. In spite of that, the total number of deaths attributable to HSBP increased 53.4% and HSBP raised from 3rd to 1st position, as the leading risk factor for deaths during the period. Regarding total DALYs, HSBP raised from 4th in 1990 to 2nd cause in 2017. The main driver of change of HSBP burden is population aging. Across FUs, the reduction in the age-standardized death rates attributable to HSBP correlated with higher SDI. Conclusions While HSBP prevalence shows an increasing trend, age-standardized death and DALY rates are decreasing in Brazil, probably as results of successful public policies for CVD secondary prevention and control, but suboptimal control of its determinants. Reduction was more significant in FUs with higher SDI, suggesting that the effect of health policies was heterogeneous. Moreover, HSBP has become the main risk factor for death in Brazil, mainly due to population aging.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and mortality of bladder cancer (BCa) using data obtained in the Global Burden of Disease study performed in 2017 (GBD 2017).<h4>Methods</h4>Data on BCa for 2017, including prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), were obtained from GBD 2017 at the global, regional, and national levels. We also analyzed the association of BCa burden with the country development level.<h4>Results</h4>There were 2.63 million BCa cases estimated from the GBD 2017 data, with 200,000 persons dying of BCa, resulting in 3.60 million DALYs in 2017. The age-standardized prevalence (ASP) of BCa was 32.91/100,000 persons, and age-standardized death rate (ASDR) was 2.57/100,000 persons. The ASP and ASDR of BCa were higher in males than in females, and higher in people older than 60?years. The ASP and ASDR of BCa were higher in Western Europe and Central Europe than in South Asia, Andean Latin America, and Central Latin America, and higher in countries with a higher sociodemographic index (SDI). Correlation analysis identified that the ASP and ASDR of BCa were positively correlated with the country SDI (P?<?0.0001 and ??=?0.68 for ASP, and P?=?0.0048 and ??=?0.20 for ASDR). In addition, 33.72% deaths and 36.80% DALYs caused by BCa could be attributed to smoking globally.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The prevalence and mortality of BCa were very high in 2017, especially in high-SDI countries. Smoking-cessation strategies should be strengthened to control the burden associated with BCa.
Project description:To provide comprehensive estimates of the global, regional, and national burden of infertility from 1990 to 2017, using findings from a 2017 study on the global burden of disease (GBD), we assessed the burden of infertility in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. DisMod-MR 2.1 is a Bayesian meta-regression method that estimates non-fatal outcomes using sparse and heterogeneous epidemiological data. Globally, the age-standardized prevalence rate of infertility increased by 0.370% per year for females and 0.291% per year for males from 1990 to 2017. Additionally, age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of infertility increased by 0.396% per year for females and 0.293% per year for males during the observational period. An increasing trend to these burden estimates was observed throughout the all socio-demographic index (SDI) countries. Interestingly, we found that high SDI countries had the lowest level of prevalence and DALYs in both genders. However, the largest increasing trend was observed in high-SDI countries for females. By contrast, low-SDI countries had the largest increasing trend in males. Negative associations were observed between these burden estimates and the SDI level. The global disease burden of infertility has been increasing throughout the period from 1990 to 2017.
Project description:BACKGROUND:China has more than 18% of the global population and over 770 million workers. However, the burden of disease attributable to occupational risks is unavailable in China. We aimed to estimate the burden of disease attributable to occupational exposures at provincial levels from 1990 to 2017. METHODS:We estimated the summary exposure values (SEVs), deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to occupational risk factors in China from 1990 to 2017, based on Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017. There were 18 occupational risks, 22 related causes, and 35 risk-outcome pairs included in this study. Meanwhile, we compared age-standardized death rates attributable to occupational risk factors in provinces of China by socio-demographic index (SDI). RESULTS:The SEVs of most occupational risks increased from 1990 to 2017. There were 323,833 (95% UI 283,780 - 369,061) deaths and 14,060,210 (12,022,974 - 16,125,763) DALYs attributable to total occupational risks in China, which were 27.9 and 22.1% of corresponding global levels, respectively. For attributable deaths, major risks came from occupational particulate matter, gases, and fumes (PGFs), and for the attributable DALYs, from occupational injuries. The attributable burden was higher in males than in females. Compared with high SDI provinces, low SDI provinces, especially Western China, had higher death rates attributable to total occupational risks, occupational PGFs, and occupational injuries. CONCLUSION:Occupational risks contribute to a huge disease burden in China. The attributable burden is higher in males, and in less developed provinces of Western China, reflecting differences in risk exposure, socioeconomic conditions, and type of jobs. Our study highlights the need for further research and focused policy interventions on the health of workers especially for less developed provinces in China to reduce occupational health losses effectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an important cause of fatal and non-fatal burden in Brazil. In this study, we present estimates for TB burden in Brazil from 1990 to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017). METHODS:This descriptive study used GBD 2017 findings to report years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TB in Brazil by sex, age group, HIV status, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2017. We also present the TB burden attributable to independent risk factors such as smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes. Results are reported in absolute number and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). RESULTS:In 2017, the number of DALYs due to TB (HIV-negative and HIV-positive combined) in Brazil was 284,323 (95% UI: 240,269-349,265). Among HIV-negative individuals, the number of DALYs was 196,366 (95% UI: 189,645-202,394), while 87,957 DALYs (95% UI: 50,624-146,870) were estimated among HIV-positive individuals. Between 1990 and 2017, the absolute number and age-standardized rates of DALYs due to TB at the national level decreased by 47.0% and 68.5%, respectively. In 2017, the sex-age-specific TB burden was highest among males and in children under-1 year and the age groups 45-59 years. The Brazilian states with the highest age-standardized DALY rates in 2017 were Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco, and Amazonas. Age-standardized DALY rates decreased for all 27 Brazilian states between 1990 and 2017. Alcohol use accounted for 47.5% of national DALYs due to TB among HIV-negative individuals in 2017, smoking for 17.9%, and diabetes for 7.7%. CONCLUSIONS:GBD 2017 results show that, despite the remarkable progress in reducing the DALY rates during the period, TB remains as an important and preventable cause of health lost to due premature death and disability in Brazil. The findings reinforce the importance of strengthening TB control strategies in Brazil through integrated and multisectoral actions that enable the access to prevention, early diagnosis, and timely treatment, with emphasis on high-risk groups and populations most vulnerable to the disease in the country.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The epidemiology of esophageal cancer (EC) can elucidate its causes and risk factors and help develop prevention strategies. We aimed to provide an overview of the burden, trends, and risk factors of EC in China from 1990 to 2017. We also investigated the differences between China, Japan, and South Korea and discussed the possible causes of the disparities. METHODS:We used the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 to obtain data on incident cases, deaths, disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) cases, age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized death rate (ASDR), and age-standardized DALY rate of EC in China, Japan, and South Korea from 1990 to 2017. Trend analysis was performed using joinpoint analysis. We measured the associations between ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate and the socio-demographic index (SDI) for 1990-2017. We also analyzed the risk factors associated with EC deaths and DALYs. RESULTS:China recorded 234,624 (95% uncertainty intervals: 223,240-246,036) incident cases of and 212,586 (202,673-222,654) deaths from EC in 2017. The ASIR and ASDR declined from 1990 to 2017. Until 2017, the ASIR was 12.23, and ASDR was 11.25 per 100,000 persons. The DALYs were 4,464,980 (4,247,816-4,690,846) with an age-standardized rate of 222.58 per 100,000 persons in 2017. The ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate in China were twice those of Japan and South Korea. These three indicators showed a decreasing trend, whereas SDI increased, in all three countries from 1990 to 2017. Tobacco and alcohol use remained the major risk factors for EC death and DALYs, especially for men in China and women in Japan and South Korea. High body mass index (BMI) and low-fruit diet were the main risk factors for women in China. CONCLUSIONS:The incident cases and deaths of EC in China, Japan, and South Korea increased from 1990 to 2017, whereas the ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate declined. China had the greatest burden of EC among three countries. SDI and aging along with tobacco use, alcohol use, high BMI, and low-fruit diet were the main risk factors of death and DALYs and should be paid more attention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution is a major planetary health risk, with India estimated to have some of the worst levels globally. To inform action at subnational levels in India, we estimated the exposure to air pollution and its impact on deaths, disease burden, and life expectancy in every state of India in 2017. METHODS:We estimated exposure to air pollution, including ambient particulate matter pollution, defined as the annual average gridded concentration of PM2.5, and household air pollution, defined as percentage of households using solid cooking fuels and the corresponding exposure to PM2.5, across the states of India using accessible data from multiple sources as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. The states were categorised into three Socio-demographic Index (SDI) levels as calculated by GBD 2017 on the basis of lag-distributed per-capita income, mean education in people aged 15 years or older, and total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years. We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to air pollution exposure, on the basis of exposure-response relationships from the published literature, as assessed in GBD 2017; the proportion of total global air pollution DALYs in India; and what the life expectancy would have been in each state of India if air pollution levels had been less than the minimum level causing health loss. FINDINGS:The annual population-weighted mean exposure to ambient particulate matter PM2·5 in India was 89·9 ?g/m3 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 67·0-112·0) in 2017. Most states, and 76·8% of the population of India, were exposed to annual population-weighted mean PM2·5 greater than 40 ?g/m3, which is the limit recommended by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in India. Delhi had the highest annual population-weighted mean PM2·5 in 2017, followed by Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Haryana in north India, all with mean values greater than 125 ?g/m3. The proportion of population using solid fuels in India was 55·5% (54·8-56·2) in 2017, which exceeded 75% in the low SDI states of Bihar, Jharkhand, and Odisha. 1·24 million (1·09-1·39) deaths in India in 2017, which were 12·5% of the total deaths, were attributable to air pollution, including 0·67 million (0·55-0·79) from ambient particulate matter pollution and 0·48 million (0·39-0·58) from household air pollution. Of these deaths attributable to air pollution, 51·4% were in people younger than 70 years. India contributed 18·1% of the global population but had 26·2% of the global air pollution DALYs in 2017. The ambient particulate matter pollution DALY rate was highest in the north Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, and Rajasthan, spread across the three SDI state groups, and the household air pollution DALY rate was highest in the low SDI states of Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam in north and northeast India. We estimated that if the air pollution level in India were less than the minimum causing health loss, the average life expectancy in 2017 would have been higher by 1·7 years (1·6-1·9), with this increase exceeding 2 years in the north Indian states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana. INTERPRETATION:India has disproportionately high mortality and disease burden due to air pollution. This burden is generally highest in the low SDI states of north India. Reducing the substantial avoidable deaths and disease burden from this major environmental risk is dependent on rapid deployment of effective multisectoral policies throughout India that are commensurate with the magnitude of air pollution in each state. FUNDING:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; and Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.