Extensin arabinoside chain length is modulated in elongating cotton fibre.
ABSTRACT: Cotton fibre provides a unicellular model system for studying cell expansion and secondary cell wall deposition. Mature cotton fibres are mainly composed of cellulose while the walls of developing fibre cells contain a variety of polysaccharides and proteoglycans required for cell expansion. This includes hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) comprising the subgroup, extensins. In this study, extensin occurrence in cotton fibres was assessed using carbohydrate immunomicroarrays, mass spectrometry and monosaccharide profiling. Extensin amounts in three species appeared to correlate with fibre quality. Fibre cell expression profiling of the four cotton cultivars, combined with extensin arabinoside chain length measurements during fibre development, demonstrated that arabinoside side-chain length is modulated during development. Implications and mechanisms of extensin side-chain length dynamics during development are discussed.
Project description:The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolubilization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we have identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP.
Project description:Pectin, a major component of the primary cell walls of dicot plants, is synthesized in Golgi, secreted into the wall as methylesters and subsequently de-esterified by pectin methylesterase (PME). Pectin remodelling by PMEs is known to be important in regulating cell expansion in plants, but has been poorly studied in cotton. In this study, genome-wide analysis showed that PMEs are a large multi-gene family (81 genes) in diploid cotton (Gossypium raimondii), an expansion over the 66 in Arabidopsis and suggests the evolution of new functions in cotton. Relatively few PME genes are expressed highly in fibres based on EST abundance and the five most abundant in fibres were cloned and sequenced from two cotton species. Their significant sequence differences and their stage-specific expression in fibres within a species suggest sub-specialisation during fibre development. We determined the transcript abundance of the five fibre PMEs, total PME enzyme activity, pectin content and extent of de-methylesterification of the pectin in fibre walls of the two cotton species over the first 25-30 days of fibre growth. There was a higher transcript abundance of fibre-PMEs and a higher total PME enzyme activity in G. barbadense (Gb) than in G. hirsutum (Gh) fibres, particularly during late fibre elongation. Total pectin was high, but de-esterified pectin was low during fibre elongation (5-12 dpa) in both Gh and Gb. De-esterified pectin levels rose thereafter when total PME activity increased and this occurred earlier in Gb fibres resulting in a lower degree of esterification in Gb fibres between 17 and 22 dpa. Gb fibres are finer and longer than those of Gh, so differences in pectin remodelling during the transition to wall thickening may be an important factor in influencing final fibre diameter and length, two key quality attributes of cotton fibres.
Project description:In this study, the GhKNL1 (KNOTTED1-LIKE) gene, encoding a classical class II KNOX protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhKNL1 was preferentially expressed in developing fibres at the stage of secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. GhKNL1 was localized in the cell nucleus, and could interact with GhOFP4, as well as AtOFP1, AtOFP4, and AtMYB75. However, GhKNL1 lacked transcriptional activation activity. Dominant repression of GhKNL1 affected fibre development of cotton. The expression levels of genes related to fibre elongation and SCW biosynthesis were altered in transgenic fibres of cotton. As a result, transgenic cotton plants produced aberrant, shrunken, and collapsed fibre cells. Length and cell-wall thickness of fibres of transgenic cotton plants were significantly reduced compared with the wild type. Furthermore, overexpression and dominant repression of GhKNL1 in Arabidopsis resulted in a reduction in interfascicular fibre cell-wall thickening of basal stems of transgenic plants. Complementation revealed that GhKNL1 rescued the defective phenotype of Arabidopsis knat7 mutant in some extent. These data suggest that GhKNL1, as a transcription factor, participates in regulating fibre development of cotton.
Project description:High-quality cotton fibre equates to a more comfortable textile. Fibre length is an important index of fibre quality. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signalling molecule in the regulation of fibre elongation. Results from in vitro ovule culture suggest that the alteration of fibre cell H2O2 levels affects fibre development. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzyme, and we found that GhAPX1AT/DT encoded one member of the previously unrealized group of cytosolic APXs (cAPXs) that were preferentially expressed during the fibre elongation stage. Transgenic cottons with up- and down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT were generated to control fibre endogenous levels of H2O2 Suppression of all cAPX (IAO) resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in H2O2 level in fibres and oxidative stress, which significantly suppressed fibre elongation. The fibre length of transgenic lines with over-expression or specific down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT did not show any obvious change. However, the fibres in the over-expression lines exhibited higher tolerance to oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in fibres at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) of IAO lines identified by RNA-seq were related to redox homeostasis, signalling pathways, stress responses and cell wall synthesis, and the DEGs that were up-regulated in IAO lines were also up-regulated in the 10 DPA and 20 DPA fibres of wild cotton compared with domesticated cotton. These results suggest that optimal H2O2 levels and redox state regulated by cytosolic APX are key mechanisms regulating fibre elongation, and dysregulation of the increase in H2O2 induces oxidative stress and results in shorter fibres by initiating secondary cell wall-related gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Flavonoids have essential roles in flower pigmentation, fibre development and disease resistance in cotton. Previous studies show that accumulation of naringenin in developing cotton fibres significantly affects fibre growth. This study focused on determining the effects of the flavonoids naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, dihydroquerectin and eriodictyol on fibre development in an in vitro system. RESULTS:20??M eriodictyol treatment produced a maximum fibre growth, in terms of fibre length and total fibre units. To gain insight into the associated transcriptional regulatory networks, RNA-seq analysis was performed on eriodictyol-treated elongated fibres, and computational analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone signaling pathways were differentially modulated. Eriodictyol treatment also promoted the biosynthesis of quercetin and dihydroquerectin in ovules and elongating fibres through enhanced expression of genes encoding chalcone isomerase, chalcone synthase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. In addition, auxin biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes were differentially expressed in eriodictyol-driven in vitro fibre elongation. In absence of auxin, eriodictyol predominantly enhanced fibre growth when the localized auxin gradient was disrupted by the auxin transport inhibitor, triiodobenzoic acid. CONCLUSION:Eriodictyol was found to significantly enhance fibre development through accumulating and maintaining the temporal auxin gradient in developing unicellular cotton fibres.
Project description:Brown cotton fibres are the most widely used naturally coloured raw materials for the eco-friendly textile industry. Previous studies have indicated that brown fibre pigments belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs) or their derivatives, and fibre coloration is negatively associated with cotton productivity and fibre quality. To date, the molecular basis controlling the biosynthesis and accumulation of brown pigments in cotton fibres is largely unknown. In this study, based on expressional and transgenic analyses of cotton homologs of ArabidopsisPA regulator TRANSPARENT TESTA 2 (TT2) and fine-mapping of the cotton dark-brown fibre gene (Lc1), we show that a TT2 homolog, GhTT2-3A, controls PA biosynthesis and brown pigmentation in cotton fibres. We observed that GhTT2-3A activated GhbHLH130D, a homolog of ArabidopsisTT8, which in turn synergistically acted with GhTT2-3A to activate downstream PA structural genes and PA synthesis and accumulation in cotton fibres. Furthermore, the up-regulation of GhTT2-3A in fibres at the secondary wall-thickening stage resulted in brown mature fibres, and fibre quality and lint percentage were comparable to that of the white-fibre control. The findings of this study reveal the regulatory mechanism controlling brown pigmentation in cotton fibres and demonstrate a promising biotechnological strategy to break the negative linkage between coloration and fibre quality and/or productivity.
Project description:Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes.
Project description:Cotton fibres are unusually long, single-celled epidermal seed trichomes and a model for plant cell growth, but little is known about the regulation of fibre cell elongation. Here we report that a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor, GhHOX3, controls cotton fibre elongation. GhHOX3 genes are localized to the 12th homoeologous chromosome set of allotetraploid cotton cultivars, associated with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre length. Silencing of GhHOX3 greatly reduces (>80%) fibre length, whereas its overexpression leads to longer fibre. Combined transcriptomic and biochemical analyses identify target genes of GhHOX3 that also contain the L1-box cis-element, including two cell wall loosening protein genes GhRDL1 and GhEXPA1. GhHOX3 interacts with GhHD1, another homeodomain protein, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity, and with cotton DELLA, GhSLR1, repressor of the growth hormone gibberellin (GA). GhSLR1 interferes with the GhHOX3-GhHD1 interaction and represses target gene transcription. Our results uncover a novel mechanism whereby a homeodomain protein transduces GA signal to promote fibre cell elongation.
Project description:The molecular characteristics of soluble extensin from tomato have been investigated. An apparent molecular mass greater than 240 kDa has been previously observed with the shape-dependent method of gel-filtration chromatography [Brownleader and Dey (1993) Planta (Berlin) 191, 457-469]. Tomato extensin is a heavily glycosylated protein that does not migrate into SDS/polyacrylamide gels. This shape-dependent behaviour raises doubts about agreement between the observed apparent mass and the absolute value. The molecular mass measured with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was 72.3 kDa, with no evidence of any other species except a doubly charged ion. The sample was therefore considered to be monodisperse under the conditions used. Electron microscopy of soluble extensin showed the presence of particles 40-50 nm in length and 2.0-2.5 nm in width. A minority of these particles showed a central 'kink'. A number of smaller and generally wider particles (20 nm x 2-4 nm) were considered to be folded monomers and larger particles were thought to be dimers. Sedimentation analysis showed that extensin exists in a rapid monomer-dimer equilibrium in the concentration range and buffer used. Sedimentation equilibrium data gave a Kd of 8.5 microM and sedimentation velocity data generated a Kd between 1 and 10 microM. The concentration dependence of the measured sedimentation coefficient was used, together with hydrodynamic bead modelling, to define plausible shapes for monomer and dimer. This suggests that monomeric extensin is an elongated rod of length 40 nm and width 2 nm, which forms staggered dimers of average length 50 nm and width 3 nm. Extensin is an integral component of the primary cell wall. The physical characteristics (size, shape and form) of the rod-like extensin have been evaluated in this paper so that the role that extensin plays in primary cell wall architecture and during plant disease resistance can be more fully understood.
Project description:Background:The increasing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by more sustainable materials in the packaging sector gives relevance to cellulose as a biodegradable natural resource. Moreover, its properties can be modified physically, chemically or biotechnologically in order to obtain new bioproducts. Refined cotton linters with high cellulose content were treated with hydrolytic (cellulases) and oxidative (LPMO and Laccase_Tempo) enzymes to evaluate their effect on fibre properties and in improving mechanical fibrillation. Results:Cellulases released cellooligosaccharides, reducing fibre length and partially degrading cellulose. They also improved mechanical fibrillation yielding up to 18% of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). LPMO introduced a slight amount of COOH groups in cellulose fibres, releasing cellobionic acid to the effluents. The action of cellulases was improved after LPMO treatment; however, the COOH groups created disappeared from fibres. After mechanical fibrillation of LPMO-cellulase-treated cotton linters a 23% yield of NFC was obtained. Laccase_Tempo treatment also introduced COOH groups in cellulose fibres from cotton, yielding 10% of NFC. Degree of polymerization was reduced by Laccase_Tempo, while LPMO treatment did not significantly affect it but produced a higher reduction in fibre length. The combined treatment with LPMO and cellulase provided films with higher transparency (86%), crystallinity (92%), smoothness and improved barrier properties to air and water than films casted from non-treated linters and from commercial NFC. Conclusions:The combined enzymatic treatment with LPMO and cellulases boosted mechanical fibrillation of cotton linters, improving the NFC production and providing bioproducts with high transparency and high barrier properties.