Are prolonged sitting and sleep restriction a dual curse for the modern workforce? a randomised controlled trial protocol.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Prolonged sitting and inadequate sleep are a growing concern in society and are associated with impairments to cardiometabolic health and cognitive performance. However, the combined effect of prolonged sitting and inadequate sleep on measures of health and cognitive performance are unknown. In addition, the circadian disruption caused by shiftwork may further impact workers' cardiometabolic health and cognitive performance. This protocol paper outlines the methodology for exploring the impact of simultaneous exposure to prolonged sitting, sleep restriction and circadian disruption on cardiometabolic and cognitive performance outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This between-subjects study will recruit 208 males and females to complete a 7-day in-laboratory experimental protocol (1 Adaptation Day, 5 Experimental Days and 1 Recovery Day). Participants will be allocated to one of eight conditions that include all possible combinations of the following: dayshift or nightshift, sitting or breaking up sitting and 5?hour or 9?hour sleep opportunity. On arrival to the laboratory, participants will be provided with a 9?hour baseline sleep opportunity (22:00 to 07:00) and complete five simulated work shifts (09:00 to 17:30 in the dayshift condition and 22:00 to 06:30 in the nightshift condition) followed by a 9?hour recovery sleep opportunity (22:00 to 07:00). During the work shifts participants in the sitting condition will remain seated, while participants in the breaking up sitting condition will complete 3-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30?mins on a motorised treadmill. Sleep opportunities will be 9?hour or 5?hour. Primary outcome measures include continuously measured interstitial blood glucose, heart rate and blood pressure, and a cognitive performance and self-perceived capacity testing battery completed five times per shift. Analyses will be conducted using linear mixed models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The CQUniversity Human Ethics Committee has approved this study (0000021914). All participants who have already completed the protocol have provided informed consent. Study findings will be disseminated via scientific publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS:This study has been registered on Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (12619001516178) and is currently in the pre-results stage.
Project description:The negative impact of sleep loss on procedural memory is well established, yet it remains unclear how extended practice opportunities or daytime naps can modulate the effect of a night of sleep deprivation. Here, participants underwent three training and test conditions on a sequential finger tapping task (SFTT) separated by at least one week. In the first condition they were trained in the evening followed by a night of sleep. Two further conditions took place where evening training was followed by a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). One of the TSD conditions included a one-hour nap opportunity (15:00). Compared to the condition in which sleep was permitted, a night of TSD resulted in poorer performance across 4 practices the following day (10:00-19:00). The deleterious effect of a single night of TSD on procedural performance, was neither clearly alleviated by an afternoon nap nor by multiple practice opportunities. Interestingly, significant gains in performance were observed in all conditions after a one-week delay. Recovery sleep on subsequent nights thus appeared to nullify the effect of a single night of sleep deprivation, underscoring the importance of offline consolidation on the acquisition of procedural skill.
Project description:Nightshift workers go against the natural sleep-wake rhythm. Light can shift the circadian clock but can also induce acute alertness. This placebo-controlled exploratory field study examined the effectiveness of light glasses to improve alertness while reducing the sleep complaints of hospital nurses working nightshifts. In a crossover within-subjects design, 23 nurses participated, using treatment glasses and placebo glasses. Sleepiness and sleep parameters were measured. A linear mixed model analysis on sleepiness revealed no significant main effect of the light intervention. An interaction effect was found indicating that under the placebo condition, sleepiness was significantly higher on the first nightshift than on the last night, while under the treatment condition, sleepiness remained stable across nightshift sessions. Sleepiness during the commute home also showed a significant interaction effect, demonstrating that after the first nightshift, driver sleepiness was higher for placebo than for treatment. Subjective sleep quality showed a negative main effect of treatment vs. placebo, particularly after the first nightshift. In retrospect, both types of light glasses were self-rated as effective. The use of light glasses during the nightshift may help to reduce driver sleepiness during the commute home, which is relevant, as all participants drove home by car or (motor) bike.
Project description:Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most) is unclear.In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2) in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a) 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b) 2 minutes walking every hour; and c) 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models) were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size.Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second meal compared to the first meal (i.e., condition-matched 2-hour post-lunch glucose iAUC was lower than 2-hour post-breakfast glucose iAUC) that withstood Bonferroni correction (p = 0.0024 and p = 0.0084, respectively). Using allometrically scaled data, the 10-minute standing every hour condition resulted in an improved FMD response, which was significantly greater than the control condition after Bonferroni correction (p = 0.0033).This study suggests that brief interruptions in prolonged sitting time have modality-specific glucoregulatory and vascular benefits and are feasible in an older adult population. Larger laboratory and real-world intervention studies of pragmatic and effective methods to change sitting habits are needed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02743286.
Project description:This study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ?30 minutes the next morning.Participants learned object locations (declarative memory task comprising 15 card pairs) and a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory task comprising 5 digits) in the evening. After learning, participants either had a sleep opportunity of 8 hours (between ?23:00 and ?07:00, full sleep condition) or they could sleep between ?03:00 and ?07:00 (short sleep condition). Retrieval of both memory tasks was tested in the morning after each sleep condition, both before (?08:30) and after being stressed (?09:50).Sleep laboratory.15 healthy young men.The analyses demonstrated that oversleep memory changes did not differ between sleep conditions. However, in their short sleep condition, following stress hallmarked by increased subjective stress feelings, the men were unable to maintain their pre-stress performance on the declarative memory task, whereas their performance on the procedural memory task remained unchanged. While men felt comparably subjectively stressed by the stress intervention, overall no differences between pre- and post-stress recalls were observed following a full night of sleep.The findings suggest that 8-h sleep duration, within the range recommended by the US National Sleep Foundation, may not only help consolidate newly learned procedural and declarative memories, but also ensure full access to both during periods of subjective stress.
Project description:Background: Previous studies have reported impaired performance, sleepiness and sleep deprivation among night workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of color screen Light Filtering software on cognitive performance, alertness and sleep quality among night shift operators of a medical emergency operations center. Methods: This field trial interventional study was carried out among 30 nightshift operators of shiraz emergency control center. The baseline assessments were carried out under the existing computer screen light conditions in the week preceding the installation of f.lux software. The same measurements were repeated again 4 weeks after installing the software. The cognitive performance of the participants was measured using continuous performance test (CPT) and n-back, while their sleep quality was assessed through Pietersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Further, to assess their subjective and objective alertness, Stanford sleepiness index and go/nogo test were used, respectively. Results: The results of this study showed that Screen Light Filtering software significantly increased subjective (P<0.001) and objective alertness (P<0.05). Additionally, the performance of the working memory (P=0.008) and sleep quality (P=0.008) improved significantly after the intervention. Conclusion: The results revealed that using Screen Light Filtering software is an effective and low-cost method to improve sleep quality and cognitive performance since it filters the short wavelength part of the spectrum and helps body adaptation.
Project description:Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep.
Project description:Levels of sitting among adolescents are high, especially during the school day. The acute cognitive and health consequences associated with prolonged sitting are poorly understood in adolescents. This randomized crossover design study examined the acute effects of a simulated school day with reduced sitting or usual sitting on adolescents' cognitive function and cardiometabolic biomarkers.Eighteen healthy school aged adolescents were recruited from the community to the study (11 males; 7 females; mean age [SD] = 13.5 ± 0.9 years). Two protocols were developed to simulate an adolescent school day, the amount of time spent sitting was manipulated reflecting: a 'typical' day (65% of the time spent sitting with two sitting bouts sitting >20 min) and a 'reduced sitting' day (adolescents sat for 50% less time with no bouts of sitting >20 mins). The order that participants were exposed to each condition was randomized (via random number generator). Participants were not fully blinded as they could observe the difference between conditions. Energy intake and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were standardized for both conditions and monitored for 48 h post-condition for compensatory effects. Cognitive (working memory) and cardiometabolic outcomes (lipids, glucose, insulin, IL-6, apo-A1, apo-B, blood pressure,) were assessed pre and post for both conditions, BMI and body fat were assessed on the morning of the intervention. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Standardised effect sizes were calculated.Compared with the typical school day, the reduced sitting day demonstrated significant positive effects for apoB/apoA-1 ratio (adjusted difference ± SD) -0.02 ± 0.03; P = 0.03; effect size [Cohen's d] = -0.67. Findings for total cholesterol -0.19 ± 0.27; P = 0.28; d = -0.71; HDL cholesterol -0.23 ± 0.50; P = 0.12 d = -0.66; and total cholesterol/HDL ratio 0.25 ± 0.53; P = 0.25; d = 0.51 and for cognition 0.64 ± 0.15; P = 0.15; d = 0.54 were non-significant. There were no compensatory changes in participant energy expenditure or energy intake for 48 h post intervention.Reducing school day sitting time in adolescents' resulted in significant improvements in apoB/apoA-1 ratio with medium effect sizes for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Cognitive function results showed the equivalent of a 6 month improvement in effective mental-attentional capacity.The trial was registered as a clinical trial with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614001064695 ) on the 3rd of October 2014 - registered retrospectively.
Project description:Breaking up prolonged periods of time spent sitting has a range of beneficial impacts on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The molecular mechanisms include regulation of skeletal muscle gene and protein expression controlling metabolic, inflammatory and cell development pathways. An active communication network exists between adipose and muscle tissue, but the effect of active breaks in prolonged sitting on adipose tissue have yet to be investigated. This study characterised the acute transcriptional events induced in adipose tissue by regular active breaks during prolonged sitting. In a subset of 8 overweight/obese adults participating in an acute randomised three-intervention crossover trial, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained after each condition. The three experimental conditions were conducted in the postprandial state and included: i) prolonged uninterrupted sitting; or prolonged sitting interrupted with 2-minute bouts of ii) light- or iii) moderate-intensity treadmill walking every 20 minutes. Microarrays identified 36 differentially expressed genes between the three conditions (fold change≥0.5 in either direction; p<0.05). Pathway analysis indicated that breaking up of prolonged sitting led to differential regulation of adipose tissue metabolic networks and inflammatory pathways, increased insulin signalling, increased adipocyte turnover, and facilitated cross-talk between adipose tissue and other organs. This study provides insight into the adipose tissue regulatory systems and transcriptional processes that contribute to the physiological benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue at the 3 different experimental condition from 8 participants.
Project description:Sleep problems are commonly reported during opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for opioid use disorders. Inpatient studies have found both sleep disturbances and improved sleep during OAT. Illicit opioids can also disrupt sleep, but it is unclear how they affect sleep in outpatients receiving OAT. Therefore, we used electronic diary entries and actigraphy to measure sleep duration and timing in opioid-dependent participants (n?=?37) treated with methadone (n?=?15) or buprenorphine (n?=?22). For 16?weeks, participants were assigned to attend our clinic under different operating hours in a crossover design: Early hours (07:00-09:00) vs. Late hours (12:00-13:00) for 4?weeks each in randomized order, followed for all participants by our Standard clinic hours (07:00-11:30) for 8?weeks. Throughout, participants made daily electronic diary self-reports of their sleep upon waking; they also wore a wrist actigraph for 6 nights in each of the three clinic-hour conditions. Drug use was assessed by thrice-weekly urinalysis. In linear mixed models controlling for other sleep-relevant factors, sleep duration and timing differed by drug use and by clinic hours. Compared to when non-using, participants slept less, went to bed later, and woke later when using illicit opioids and/or both illicit opioids and cocaine. Participants slept less and woke earlier when assigned to the Early hours. These findings highlight the role OAT clinic schedules can play in structuring the sleep/wake cycles of OAT patients and clarify some of the circumstances under which OAT patients experience sleep disruption in daily life.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Many adolescents are exposed to sleep restriction on school nights. We assessed how different apportionment of restricted sleep (continuous vs. split sleep) influences neurobehavioral function and glucose levels. METHODS:Adolescents, aged 15-19 years, were evaluated in a dormitory setting using a parallel-group design. Following two baseline nights of 9-hour time-in-bed (TIB), participants underwent either 5 nights of continuous 6.5-h TIB (n = 29) or 5-hour nocturnal TIB with a 1.5-hour afternoon nap (n = 29). After two recovery nights of 9-hour TIB, participants were sleep restricted for another three nights. Sleep was assessed using polysomnography (PSG). Cognitive performance and mood were evaluated three times per day. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were conducted on mornings after baseline sleep, recovery sleep, and the third day of each sleep restriction cycle. RESULTS:The split sleep group had fewer vigilance lapses, better working memory and executive function, faster processing speed, lower level of subjective sleepiness, and more positive mood, even though PSG-verified total sleep time was less than the continuous sleep group. However, vigilance in both sleep-restricted groups was inferior to adolescents in a prior sample given 9-hour nocturnal TIB. During both cycles of sleep restriction, blood glucose during the OGTT increased by a greater amount in the split sleep schedule compared with persons receiving 6.5-hour continuous sleep. CONCLUSIONS:In adolescents, modest multinight sleep restriction had divergent negative effects on cognitive performance and glucose levels depending on how the restricted sleep was apportioned. They are best advised to obtain the recommended amount of nocturnal sleep. TRIAL REGISTRATION:https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03333512.