Genetic diversity and population structure of Aedes aegypti after massive vector control for dengue fever prevention in Yunnan border areas.
ABSTRACT: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus. Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti) is considered the primary vector of Dengue virus transmission in Yunnan Province, China. With increased urbanization, Ae. aegypti populations have significantly increased over the last 20 years. Despite all the efforts that were made for controlling the virus transmission, especially on border areas between Yunnan and Laos, Vietnam, and Myanmar (dengue-endemic areas), the epidemic has not yet been eradicated. Thus, further understanding of the genetic diversity, population structure, and invasive strategies of Ae. aegypti populations in the border areas was vital to uncover the vector invasion and distribution dynamic, and essential for controlling the infection. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and population structure of eight adult Ae. Aegypti populations collected along the border areas of Yunnan Province in 2017 and 2018. Nine nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were used to achieve a better understanding of the genetic diversity and population structure. One hundred and fourteen alleles were found in total. The polymorphic information content value, together with the expected heterozygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) values showed high genetic diversity in all mosquito populations. The clustering analysis based on Bayesian algorithm, the UPGMA and DAPC analysis revealed that all the eight Ae. aegypti populations can be divided into three genetic groups. Based on the mtDNA results, all Ae. aegypti individuals were divided into 11 haplotypes. The Ae. aegypti populations in the border areas of Yunnan Province presented with high genetic diversity, which might be ascribed to the continuous incursion of Ae. aegypti.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue fever, was first reported in Yunnan in 2002. Now, this species is found in nine counties in border areas of south-west Yunnan. Related dengue fever outbreaks have been reported since 2013. The population genetics of Ae. aegypti in these areas were studied to explain the expansion history of this species. METHODS:Fifteen natural populations of Ae. aegypti were sampled from six counties of Yunnan, and two laboratory populations from Guangdong and Hainan were also included in this study. A total of 12 microsatellite loci and three mitochondrial genes were analysed. RESULTS:The results indicate that Ae. aegypti populations from Yunnan show similar genetic diversity. The 17 populations could be divided into three groups: the first group included populations from Longchuan, Ruili and Gengma, which are located in the southwest of Yunnan; the second group included populations from Jinghong and Menghai, in the south of Yunnan; and the third group included populations from Mengla and the two laboratory populations from Guangdong and Hainan. Both microsatellite and mtDNA data revealed that the genetic relationships of the populations corresponded to their geographic relationships. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggested that the expansion of Ae. aegypti from northern Myanmar and Laos to southern and southwestern Yunnan was a natural process. The effect of human activity on expansion was not obvious. Surveillance efforts should still be focused on border areas where Ae. aegypti does not occur, and a powerful control strategy should be applied to prevent outbreaks of dengue fever.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There was no record of Aedes aegypti in Yunnan Province, China, until 2002, but this species is now continuously found in nine cities (or counties). Until now, little was known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this invasive species. Thus, a detailed understanding of the invasion strategies, colonisation and dispersal of this mosquito from a population genetics perspective is urgently needed for controlling and eliminating this disease vector.<h4>Methods</h4>The genetic diversity and population structure of Ae. aegypti communities were analysed by screening nine microsatellite loci from 833 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes sampled from 28 locations in Yunnan Province.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 114 alleles were obtained, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.672. The value of the alleles per locus ranged from 2.90 to 5.18, with an average of 4.04. The value of He ranged from 0.353 to 0.681, and the value of Ho within populations ranged from 0.401 to 0.689. Of the 28 locations, two showed significant departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) with P-values less than 0.05, and a bottleneck effect was detected among locations from Ruili and the border areas with the degree of 60% and 50%, respectively. Combined with the F-statistics (F<sub>IT</sub> = 0.222; F<sub>CT</sub> = 0.145), the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that there was substantial molecular variation among individuals, accounting for 77.76% of the sample, with a significant P-value (<0.0001). The results suggest that genetic differences in Ae. aegypti originated primarily among individuals rather than among populations. Furthermore, the STRUCTURE and UPGMA cluster analyses showed that Ae. aegypti from the border areas were genetically isolated compared to those from the cities Ruili and Jinghong, consistent with the results of the Mantel test (R <sup>2</sup> = 0.245, P < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Continuous invasion contributes to the maintenance of Ae. aegypti populations' genetic diversity and different invasion accidents result in the genetic difference among Ae. aegypti populations of Yunnan Province.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. The history of Ae. aegypti in Brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. After cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several dengue outbreaks reported during the last 30 years. Brazil can be considered the country suffering the most from the yellow fever mosquito, given the high number of dengue, chikungunya and Zika cases reported in the country, after having once been declared "free of Ae. aegypti". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We used 12 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic structure of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, genetic variability, genetic affinities with neighboring geographic areas, and the timing of their arrival and spread. This enabled us to reconstruct their recent history and evaluate whether the reappearance in Brazil was the result of re-invasion from neighboring non-eradicated areas or re-emergence from local refugia surviving the eradication program. Our results indicate a genetic break separating the northern and southern Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, with further genetic differentiation within each cluster, especially in southern Brazil. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Based on our results, re-invasions from non-eradicated regions are the most likely scenario for the reappearance of Ae. aegypti in Brazil. While populations in the northern cluster are likely to have descended from Venezuela populations as early as the 1970s, southern populations seem to have derived more recently from northern Brazilian areas. Possible entry points are also revealed within both southern and northern clusters that could inform strategies to control and monitor this important arbovirus vector.
Project description:Aedes aegypti is the most important vector of dengue fever in Brazil, where severe epidemics have recently taken place. Ae. aegypti in Brazil was the subject of an intense eradication program in the 1940s and 50s to control yellow fever. Brazil was the largest country declared free of this mosquito by the Pan-American Health Organization in 1958. Soon after relaxation of this program, Ae. aegypti reappeared in this country, and by the early 1980s dengue fever had been reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the present-day genetic patterns of Ae. aegypti populations in Brazil.We studied the genetic variation in samples of 11 widely spread populations of Ae. aegypti in Brazil based on 12 well-established microsatellite loci. Our principal finding is that present-day Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations form two distinct groups, one in the northwest and one in the southeast of the country. These two groups have genetic affinities to northern South American countries and the Caribbean, respectively. This is consistent with what has been reported for other genetic markers such as mitochondrial DNA and allele frequencies at the insecticide resistance gene, kdr.We conclude that the genetic patterns in present day populations of Ae. aegypti in Brazil are more consistent with a complete eradication of the species in the recent past followed by re-colonization, rather than the alternative possibility of expansion from residual pockets of refugia. At least two colonizations are likely to have taken place, one from northern South American countries (e.g., Venezuela) that founded the northwestern group, and one from the Caribbean that founded the southeastern group. The proposed source areas were never declared free of Ae. aegypti.
Project description:Dengue is a highly endemic disease in Southeast Asia and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The National Capital Region (NCR) of the Philippines, or Metropolitan Manila, is a highly urbanized area that is greatly affected by this arboviral disease. Urbanization has been shown to increase the dispersal of this mosquito vector. For this reason, we conducted a fine-scale population genetic study of Ae. aegypti in this region. We collected adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (n = 526 individuals) within the region (n = 21 study areas) and characterized the present population structure and the genetic relatedness among mosquito populations. We genotyped 11 microsatellite loci from all sampled mosquito individuals and analyzed their genetic diversity, differentiation and structure. The results revealed low genetic differentiation across mosquito populations which suggest high gene flow and/or weak genetic drift among mosquito populations. Bayesian analysis indicated multiple genetic structures (K = 3-6), with no clear genetically distinct population structures. This result implies the passive or long-distance dispersal capability nature Ae. aegypti possibly through human-mediated transportation. The constructed dendrogram in this study describes the potential passive dispersal patterns across Metropolitan Manila. Furthermore, spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the limited and active dispersal capability (<1km) of the mosquito vector. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that investigated the genetic structure and dual (active and passive) dispersal capability of Ae. aegypti in a fine-scale highly urbanized area.
Project description:We report 301 dengue virus infections among cross-border travelers entering Yunnan Province, China, from Myanmar during 2017. Phylogenetic analysis of 99 strains found all 4 serotypes co-circulating; genetic characteristics have also changed. This finding highlights the urgent need for monitoring dengue virus cross-border transmission as early warning of severe dengue fever.
Project description:Dengue virus remains a major threat in Vietnam, while chikungunya virus is expected to become one. Surveillance was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in Vietnam to assess the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in patients hospitalized with acute fever in five Vietnam provinces neighboring Lao PDR and Cambodia. Surveillance was extended to mosquitoes present in the vicinity of the patients' households.A total 558 human serum samples were collected along with 1104 adult mosquitoes and 12,041 larvae from 2250 households. Dengue virus was found in 17 (3%) human serum samples and in 9 (0.8%) adult mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus was detected in 2 adult mosquitoes (0.18%) while no chikungunya virus was detected in humans. Differing densities of mosquito populations were found, with the highest in the Long An Province border with Cambodia. Long An Province also displayed the lowest rate of infection, despite a very high Breteau Index, high human population density and presence of the main cross border road system. The highest incidence was found in Dac Nong Province, where the Breteau and Container indices were the second lowest. Dengue virus was detected in five Aedes albopictus, three Aedes aegypti and one Culex vishnui. Chikungunya virus was detected in two Ae. aegypti. All infected mosquitoes belonged to haplotypes described in other parts of the world and a number of novel haplotypes were found among uninfected mosquitoes.Dengue is considered to be regularly introduced to Vietnam from Cambodia, mostly through human movement. The data reported here provides a complementary picture. Due to intensive international trade, long-distance transportation of mosquito populations may play a role in the regular importation of dengue in Vietnam through Ho Chi Minh City. It is important to decipher the movement of mosquitoes in Vietnam, not only at the Lao PDR and Cambodia borders but also through international trade routes. Mosquito surveillance programs should address and follow mosquito populations instead of mosquito species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV.<h4>Methods/findings</h4>Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African conspecific, and a second that may have been recently introduced and is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever and the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.
Project description:The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes aegypti is associated with dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. This vector is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas, and can also occur in temperate areas at higher latitudes. The geographical distribution of Ae. aegypti continues to spread due to human activities. This is the first study to examine the population genetic structure of this insect in El Salvador, Central America. METHODS:Aedes aegypti larvae were collected from six geographical regions of El Salvador: Sonsonate, San Salvador, Chalatenango, Usulután, San Miguel and Morazán. Larvae were raised into adults, identified and preserved. Two molecular markers, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequencing, were used to investigate population genetic structure. RESULTS:Structure analysis found two genetically distinct populations; one occurs predominantly in the north and west, and a mix of two populations occurs in the southeast of the country. Genetic distances ranged from 0.028 (2.8%) to 0.091 (9%), and an AMOVA analysis found 11% variation between populations. Mitochondrial DNA cox1 sequences produced a haplotype network which consisted of 3 haplogroups and 10 haplotypes. Haplogroup 1 had low haplotype and nucleotide diversity and was found in all six regions. Haplogroups 2 and 3 had higher haplotype and nucleotide diversity, and were less abundant; haplogroup 3 was found in only 3 of the six regions studied. Bottleneck tests were significant, suggesting that populations had undergone a recent bottleneck. A maximum likelihood tree, which combined samples from this study with available sequences in GenBank, suggested that two genetically divergent lineages had been introduced. CONCLUSIONS:Relatively high genetic diversity was found in Ae. aegypti in El Salvador. The mtDNA sequences clustered into two lineages, as found in previous studies. Samples in El Salvador may be introduced from regions in North and South America where past eradication was not complete. Future study of genotypes in surrounding countries would provide a more complete picture of the movement and potential source of introductions of this vector. The distribution of the lineages and haplogroups may further our understanding of the epidemiology of Ae. aegypti associated vector borne diseases.