Alpha-lipoic acid protects against pressure overload-induced heart failure via ALDH2-dependent Nrf1-FUNDC1 signaling.
ABSTRACT: Alpha-lipoic acid (?-LA), a well-known antioxidant, was proved to active ALDH2 in nitrate tolerance and diabetic animal model. However, the therapeutic advantage of ?-LA for heart failure and related signaling pathway have not been explored. This study was designed to examine the role of ?-LA-ALDH2 in heart failure injury and mitochondrial damage. ALDH2 knockout (ALDH2-/-) mice and primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were subjected to assessment of myocardial function and mitochondrial autophagy. Our data demonstrated ?-LA significantly reduced the degree of TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction in wild-type mice, not in ALDH2-/- mice. In molecular level, ?-LA significantly restored ALDH2 activity and expression as well as increased the expression of a novel mitophagy receptor protein FUNDC1 in wild-type TAC mice. Besides, we confirmed that ALDH2 which was activated by ?-LA governed the activation of Nrf1-FUNDC1 cascade. Our data suggest that ?-LA played a positive role in protecting the heart against adverse effects of chronic pressure overload.
Project description:Brief episodes of ischaemia and reperfusion render the heart resistant to subsequent prolonged ischaemic insult, termed ischaemic preconditioning. Here, we hypothesized that transient non-ischaemic stress by hypertrophic stimulation would induce endogenous cardioprotective signalling and enhance cardiac resistance to subsequent ischaemic damage. Transient transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang-Ⅱ treatment was performed for 3-7 days in male mice and then withdrawn for several days by either aortic debanding or discontinuing Ang-Ⅱ treatment, followed by subsequent exposure to regional myocardial ischaemia by in situ coronary artery ligation. Following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, myocardial infarct size and apoptosis were markedly reduced and contractile function was significantly improved in the TAC preconditioning group compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in mice receiving Ang-Ⅱ infusion. Mechanistically, TAC preconditioning enhanced ALDH2 activity, promoted AMPK activation and improved mitochondrial energy metabolism by increasing myocardial OXPHOS complex expression, elevating the mitochondrial ATP content and improving viable myocardium glucose uptake. Moreover, TAC preconditioning significantly mitigated I/R-induced myocardial iNOS/gp91<sup>phox</sup> activation, inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress and ameliorated mitochondrial impairment. Using a pharmacological approach to inhibit AMPK signalling in the presence or absence of preconditioning, we demonstrated AMPK-dependent protective mechanisms of TAC preconditioning against I/R injury. Furthermore, treatment with adenovirus-encoded ALDH2 partially emulated the actions of hypertrophic preconditioning, as evidenced by improved mitochondrial metabolism, inhibited oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage and attenuated cell death through an AMPK-dependent mechanism, whereas genetic ablation of ALDH2 abrogated the aforementioned actions of TAC preconditioning. The present study demonstrates that preconditioning with hypertrophic stress protects the heart from I/R injury via mechanisms that improve mitochondrial metabolism, reduce oxidative/nitrative stress and inhibit apoptosis. ALDH2 is obligatorily required for the development of cardiac hypertrophic preconditioning and acts as the mediator of this process.
Project description:Evidences abound that HSF1 and ALDH2 are of cardioprotective effect, yet there is still no report on whether HSF1 can regulate ALDH2 to delay the occurrence of heart failure. We first established the pressure overload-induced heart failure model of mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and discovered that, in the forming period of heart failure, changes of HSF1 and ALDH2 expression recorded the consistent trend. When HSF1 was upregulated/downregulated to delay/promote the occurrence of heart failure, PKC and ALDH2 also showed increased/decreased expression. And when ALDH2 was upregulated/downregulated, the role of HSF1 in delaying the occurrence of heart failure strengthened/weakened. Next, we used mechanical stretch to establish a pressure-stimulated myocardial hypertrophy model and discovered an increased expression of both HSF1 and ALDH2. When HSF1 was upregulated/downregulated to increase/decrease the expression of myocardial hypertrophy gene beta-MHC, PKC and ALDH2 recorded an increased/decreased expression. When an inhibitor was used to downregulate the expression of PKC in cardiomyocytes, we found that the role of HSF1 in upregulating ALDH2 beta-MHC weakened. These findings suggest that HSF1 can upregulate the expression of ALDH2 via PKC to promote pressure-stimulated myocardial compensatory hypertrophy, which is an important molecular pathway for HSF1 to ameliorate heart failure.
Project description:Pathological cardiac remodeling during heart failure is associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation products and lower abundance of several aldehyde detoxification enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). An emerging idea that could explain these findings concerns the role of electrophilic species in redox signaling, which may be important for adaptive responses to stress or injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically increasing ALDH2 activity affects pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 12 weeks developed myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, which were associated with diminished ALDH2 expression and activity. Cardiac-specific expression of the human ALDH2 gene in mice augmented myocardial ALDH2 activity but did not improve cardiac function in response to pressure overload. After 12 weeks of TAC, ALDH2 transgenic mice had larger hearts than their wild-type littermates and lower capillary density. These findings show that overexpression of ALDH2 augments the hypertrophic response to pressure overload and imply that downregulation of ALDH2 may be an adaptive response to certain forms of cardiac pathology.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to identify mRNA transcripts alteration in muscle from skeletal muscle-sepcific Fundc1-knockout mice. The following abstract from the submitted manuscript describes the major findings of this work. Mitophagy directs muscle-adipose crosstalk to alleviate dietary obesity. Tingting Fu, Zhisheng Xu, Lin Liu, Qiqi Guo, Hao Wu, Xijun Liang, Danxia Zhou, Liwei Xiao, Lei Liu, Yong Liu, Min-Sheng Zhu, Quan Chen and Zhenji Gan. The quality of mitochondria in skeletal muscle is essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis during adaptive stress responses. However, the precise control mechanism of muscle mitochondrial quality and its physiological impacts remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that FUNDC1, a mediator of mitophagy, plays a critical role in controlling muscle mitochondrial quality as well as metabolic homeostasis. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of FUNDC1 in mice resulted in LC3-mediated mitophagy defect, leading to impaired mitochondrial energetics. This caused decreased muscle fat utilization and endurance capacity during exercise. Interestingly, mice lacking muscle FUNDC1 were protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity with improved systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance despite reduced muscle mitochondrial energetics. Mechanistically, FUNDC1 deficiency elicited a retrograde response in muscle that upregulated FGF21 expression, thereby promoting the thermogenic remodeling of adipose tissue. Thus, these findings reveal a pivotal role of FUNDC1-dependent mitochondrial quality-control in mediating the muscle-adipose dialogue to regulate systemic metabolism.
Project description:Acetaldehyde is an ethanol-derived definite carcinogen that causes oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme that eliminates acetaldehyde, and impairment of ALDH2 increases the risk of ESCC. ALDH2 is produced in various tissues including the liver, heart, and kidney, but the generation and functional roles of ALDH2 in the oesophagus remain elusive. Here, we report that ethanol drinking increased ALDH2 production in the oesophagus of wild-type mice. Notably, levels of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage represented by N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine were higher in the oesophagus of Aldh2-knockout mice than in wild-type mice upon ethanol consumption. In vitro experiments revealed that acetaldehyde induced ALDH2 production in both mouse and human oesophageal keratinocytes. Furthermore, the N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine levels increased in both Aldh2-knockout mouse keratinocytes and ALDH2-knockdown human keratinocytes treated with acetaldehyde. Conversely, forced production of ALDH2 sharply diminished the N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. Our findings provide new insight into the preventive role of oesophageal ALDH2 against acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4> Cytokine storm is closely related to the initiation and progression of sepsis, and the level of IL-6 is positively correlated with mortality and organ dysfunction. Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) is one of the major complications. However, the role of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling in the SIMD remains unclear. <h4>Methods and Results</h4> Septic mice were induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg). Echocardiography, cytokines detection, and histologic examination showed that sepsis mice developed cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction, increase of inflammatory cytokines in serum, activated STAT3 and TLR4/NFκB pathway in heart, and raised myocardial apoptosis, which were attenuated by IL-6/STAT3 inhibitor, Bazedoxifene. In vitro, we found that LPS decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and activated STAT3. Western blot and immunofluorescence results indicated that STAT3 phosphorylation induced by LPS was inhibited by Bazedoxifene. Bazedoxifene also suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 transcription. sIL-6R caused LPS-induced p-STAT3 firstly decreased and then significantly increased. More importantly, we found STAT3-knockdown suppressed LPS-induced expression of FUNDC1, a protein located in mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). Overexpression of STAT3 led to an increase in FUNDC1 expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm that STAT3 was a potential transcription factor for FUNDC1. Moreover, we showed that LPS increased MAMs formation and intracellular Ca2+ levels, enhanced the expression of Cav1.2 and RyR2, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP levels, and promoted mitochondrial fragmentation, the expression of mitophagy proteins and ROS production in H9c2 cells, which were reversed by knockdown of FUNDC1 and IL-6/STAT3 inhibitor including Bazedoxifene and Stattic. <h4>Conclusions</h4> IL-6/STAT3 pathway plays a key role in LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction, through regulating the FUNDC1-associated MAMs formation and interfering the function of ER and mitochondria. IL-6/STAT3/FUNDC1 signaling could be a new therapeutic target for SIMD.
Project description:Mitochondrial fragmentation due to imbalanced fission and fusion of mitochondria is a prerequisite for mitophagy, however, the exact "coupling" of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy remains unclear. We have previously identified that FUNDC1 recruits MAP1LC3B/LC3B (LC3) through its LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif to initiate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Here, we show that FUNDC1 interacts with both DNM1L/DRP1 and OPA1 to coordinate mitochondrial fission or fusion and mitophagy. OPA1 interacted with FUNDC1 via its Lys70 (K70) residue, and mutation of K70 to Ala (A), but not to Arg (R), abolished the interaction and promoted mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. Mitochondrial stress such as selenite or FCCP treatment caused the disassembly of the FUNDC1-OPA1 complex while enhancing DNM1L recruitment to the mitochondria. Furthermore, we observed that dephosphorylation of FUNDC1 under stress conditions promotes the dissociation of FUNDC1 from OPA1 and association with DNM1L. Our data suggest that FUNDC1 regulates both mitochondrial fission or fusion and mitophagy and mediates the "coupling" across the double membrane for mitochondrial dynamics and quality control.
Project description:FUN14 domain-containing protein 1 (Fundc1)-dependent mitophagy, mainly activated by ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning, benefits acute myocardial reperfusion injury and chronic metabolic syndrome via sustaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondrial fission plays a pathogenic role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) through perturbation of mitochondrial quality and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. The aim of our study was to explore the role of Fundc1 mitophagy in ischemia preconditioning (IPC)-mediated renoprotection. Proximal tubule-specific Fundc1 knockout (Fundc1PTKO) mice were subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and IPC prior to assessment of renal function, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and Drp1-related mitochondrial fission. Following exposure to IPC, Fundc1 mitophagy was activated through post-transcriptional phosphorylation at Ser17. Interestingly, IRI-mediated renal injury, inflammation, and tubule cell death were mitigated by IPC whereas proximal tubule-specific Fundc1 knockout (Fundc1PTKO) mice abolished IPC-offered renoprotection. Mechanistically, IRI-evoked mitochondrial damage was improved by IPC whereas Fundc1 deficiency provoked mitochondrial abnormality, manifested by impaired mitochondrial quality and hyperactivated Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission. Interestingly, Fundc1 deficiency-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission. In vivo, Fundc1 deletion-caused renal injury, severe pro-inflammatory response, and tubule cell death could be nullified by way of knockout Drp1 on Fundc1PTKO background. Finally, we also revealed that IPC triggered Fundc1 mitophagy activation through UNC-51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) and Ulk1 ablation interrupted IPC-mediated Fundc1 activation and thus attenuated IPC-induced renoprotection. Fundc1 mitophagy, primarily driven by IPC, confers resistance to AKI through reconciliation of mitochondrial fission, implicating the therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondrial homeostasis for AKI.
Project description:Ripk3-required necroptosis and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis are the predominant types of cell death that largely account for the development of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Here, we explored the effect of Ripk3 on mitochondrial apoptosis. Compared with wild-type mice, the infarcted area in Ripk3-deficient (Ripk3<sup>-/-</sup>) mice had a relatively low abundance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, the loss of Ripk3 protected the mitochondria against IRI and inhibited caspase9 apoptotic pathways. These protective effects of Ripk3 deficiency were relied on mitophagy activation. However, inhibition of mitophagy under Ripk3 deficiency enhanced cardiomyocyte and endothelia apoptosis, augmented infarcted area and induced microvascular dysfunction. Furthermore, ischemia activated mitophagy by modifying FUNDC1 dephosphorylation, which substantively engulfed mitochondria debris and cytochrome-c, thus blocking apoptosis signal. However, reperfusion injury elevated the expression of Ripk3 which disrupted FUNDC1 activation and abated mitophagy, increasing the likelihood of apoptosis. In summary, this study confirms the promotive effect of Ripk3 on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via inhibition of FUNDC1-dependent mitophagy in cardiac IRI. These findings provide new insight into the roles of Ripk3-related necroptosis, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and FUNDC1-required mitophagy in cardiac IRI.
Project description:Defective mitophagy is causally linked to obesity complications. Here, we identified an interaction between mitophagy protein FUNDC1 (FUN14 domain containing 1) and receptor subunit of human SCF (SKP1/cullin/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex FBXL2 as a gatekeeper for mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis through degradation of IP3R3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3). Loss of FUNDC1 in FUNDC1-/- mice accentuated high-fat diet-induced cardiac remodeling, functional and mitochondrial anomalies, cell death, rise in IP3R3, and Ca2+ overload. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed an interaction between FUNDC1 and FBXL2. Truncated mutants of Fbox (Delta-F-box) disengaged FBXL2 interaction with FUNDC1. Activation or transfection of FBXL2, inhibition of IP3R3 alleviated, whereas disruption of FBXL2 localization sensitized lipotoxicity-induced cardiac damage. FUNDC1 deficiency accelerated and decelerated palmitic acid-induced degradation of FBXL2 and IP3R3, respectively. Our data suggest an essential role for interaction between FUNDC1 and FBXL2 in preserving mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and cardiac function in obese hearts.