Bacterial Cyclodipeptides Target Signal Pathways Involved in Malignant Melanoma.
ABSTRACT: Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that utilizes multiple signaling pathways, including those that involve oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, and tumor suppressors. It has been suggested that melanoma formation requires cross-talk of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras-ERK pathways. This pathway cross-talk has been associated with aggressiveness, drug resistance, and metastasis; thus, simultaneous targeting of components of the different pathways involved in melanoma may aid in therapy. We have previously reported that bacterial cyclodipeptides (CDPs) are cytotoxic to HeLa cells and inhibit Akt phosphorylation. Here, we show that CDPs decreased melanoma size and tumor formation in a subcutaneous xenografted mouse melanoma model. In fact, CDPs accelerated death of B16-F0 murine melanoma cells. In mice, antitumor effect was improved by treatment with CDPs using cyclodextrins as drug vehicle. In tumors, CDPs caused nuclear fragmentation and changed the expression of the Bcl-2 and Ki67 apoptotic markers and promoted restoration of hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Additionally, elements of several signaling pathways such as the Ras-ERK, PI3K/JNK/PKA, p27Kip1/CDK1/survivin, MAPK, HIF-1, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cell pathways were also modified by treatment of xenografted melanoma mice with CDPs. The findings indicate that the multiple signaling pathways implicated in aggressiveness of the murine B16-F0 melanoma line are targeted by the bacterial CDPs. Molecular modeling of CDPs with protein kinases involved in neoplastic processes suggested that these compounds could indeed interact with the active site of the enzymes. The results suggest that CDPs may be considered as potential antineoplastic drugs, interfering with multiple pathways involved in tumor formation and progression.
Project description:2'-hydroxyflavanone (2HF) is a dietary flavonoid with anticancer activity towardsmultiple cancers. Here, we report that topically applied 2HF inhibits the growth of intradermalimplants of melanoma in immunocompetent mice. 2HF induced apoptosis and inhibited the growthof the human SK-MEL-24 as well as murine B16-F0 and B16-F10 melanoma cell lines in vitro.Apoptosis was associated with depletion of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1 in B16-F0 and SKMEL-24 cells. Caspase-9 and MEKK-15 were undetected even in untreated B16-F10 cells. Signalingproteins TNF?, and phospho-PDGFR-? were depleted in all three cell lines; MEKK-15 was depletedby 2HF in SK-MEL-24 cells. 2HF enhanced sunitinib (an MEK and PDGFR-? inhibitor) and AZD2461 (a PARP1 inhibitor) cytotoxicity. 2HF also depleted the Ral-regulated, stress-responsive,antiapoptotic endocytic protein RLIP76 (RALBP1), the inhibition of which has previously beenshown to inhibit B16-F0 melanoma growth in vivo. Functional inhibition of RLIP76 was evidentfrom inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) endocytosis by 2HF. We found that topicallyapplied 2HF-Pluronic Lecithin Organogel (PLO) gel inhibited B16-F0 and B16-F10 tumorsimplanted in mice and caused no overt toxicity despite significant systemic absorption. 2HFtreatment reduced phospho-AKT, vimentin, fibronectin, CDK4, cyclinB1, and BCL2, whereas itincreased BIM and phospho-AMPK in excised tumors. Several cancer signals are controlled byendocytosis, a process strongly inhibited by RLIP76 depletion. We conclude that 2HF-PLO gel maybe useful for topical therapy of cutaneous metastases of melanoma and could enhance theantineoplastic effects of sunitinib and PARP1 inhibitors. The mechanism of action of 2HF inmelanoma overlaps with RLI76 inhibitors.
Project description:Melanoma is a highly metastatic and deadly disease. An agent simultaneously targeting the COX-2, PI3K/Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that are deregulated in up to 70% of sporadic melanomas might be an effective treatment, but no agent of this type exists. To develop a single drug inhibiting COX-2 and PI3K/Akt signaling (and increasing MAPK pathway activity to inhibitory levels as a result of Akt inhibition), a selenium-containing glutathione (GSH) analogue of celecoxib, called selenocoxib-1-GSH was synthesized. It killed melanoma cells with an average IC(50) of 7.66 ?mol/L compared with control celecoxib at 55.6 ?mol/L. The IC(50) range for normal cells was 36.3 to 41.2 ?mol/L compared with 7.66 ?mol/L for cancer cells. Selenocoxib-1-GSH reduced development of xenografted tumor by approximately 70% with negligible toxicity by targeting COX-2, like celecoxib, and having novel inhibitory properties by acting as a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (and MAPK pathway activator to inhibitory levels due to Akt inhibition). The consequence of this inhibitory activity was an approximately 80% decrease in cultured cell proliferation and an approximately 200% increase in apoptosis following 24-hour treatment with 15.5 ?mol/L of drug. Thus, this study details the development of selenocoxib-1-GSH, which is a nontoxic agent that targets the COX-2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in melanomas to inhibit tumor development.
Project description:Malignant conversion of BRAF- or NRAS-mutated melanocytes into melanoma cells can be promoted by PI3'-lipid signaling. However, the mechanism by which PI3'-lipid signaling cooperates with mutationally activated BRAF or NRAS has not been adequately explored. Using human NRAS- or BRAF-mutated melanoma cells that co-express mutationally activated PIK3CA, we explored the contribution of PI3'-lipid signaling to cell proliferation. Despite mutational activation of PIK3CA, melanoma cells were more sensitive to the biochemical and antiproliferative effects of broader spectrum PI3K inhibitors than to an ?-selective PI3K inhibitor. Combined pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2 and PI3K signaling elicited more potent antiproliferative effects and greater inhibition of the cell division cycle compared to single-agent inhibition of either pathway alone. Analysis of signaling downstream of MEK1/2 or PI3K revealed that these pathways cooperate to regulate cell proliferation through mTORC1-mediated effects on ribosomal protein S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in an AKT-dependent manner. Although PI3K inhibition resulted in cytostatic effects on xenografted NRASQ61H /PIK3CAH1047R melanoma, combined inhibition of MEK1/2 plus PI3K elicited significant melanoma regression. This study provides insights as to how mutationally activated PIK3CA acts in concert with MEK1/2 signaling to cooperatively regulate mTORC1/2 to sustain PIK3CA-mutated melanoma proliferation.
Project description:Sur8 (also known as Shoc2) is a Ras-Raf scaffold protein that modulates signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Although Sur8 has been shown to be a scaffold protein of the Ras-ERK pathway, its interaction with other signaling pathways and its involvement in tumor malignancy has not been reported. We identified that Sur8 interacts with the p110? subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as with Ras and Raf, and these interactions are increased in an epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and oncogenic Ras-dependent manner. Sur8 regulates cell migration and invasion via activation of Rac and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Interestingly, using inhibitors of MEK and PI3K we found Sur8 mediates these cellular behaviors predominantly through PI3K pathway. We further found that human metastatic melanoma tissues had higher Sur8 content followed by activations of Akt, ERK, and Rac. Lentivirus-mediated Sur8-knockdown attenuated metastatic potential of highly invasive B16-F10 melanoma cells indicating the role of Sur8 in melanoma metastasis. This is the first report to identify the role of scaffold protein Sur8 in regulating cell motility, invasion, and metastasis through activation of both ERK and PI3K pathways.
Project description:Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis have been used as herbal medicine and natural sweetener. By activity-guided phytochemical investigation of the extracts from G.uralensis root, ten flavonoids, namely GF-1?GF-10, of which five were prenylated flavonoids, were found to show antiproliferative effects in melanoma B16-F10 cells. Three of the prenylated flavonoids, namely GF-1, GF-4 and GF-9, significantly induced the differentiation of B16-F10 cells; the inductions included increase of tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase protein, and melanin content. In GF-1 and GF-9 induced melanoma differentiation, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (mitogen activated potein kinase) was identified; while GF-4 could trigger the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B) signaling. However, application of GF-6 to the melanoma cells did not induce differentiation; but which promoted cell apoptotic signaling, i.e., increase levels of cleaved-PRAP, cleaved-caspase 3, and cleaved-caspase 9. These results suggested that different types of prenylated flavonoids from G.uralensis might have potential anticancer effects against melanoma cells by acting through different signaling pathways.
Project description:The zebrafish has become an important model for cancer research. Several cancer models have been established by transgenic expression of human or mouse oncogenes in zebrafish. Since it is amenable to efficient transgenesis, zebrafish have immense potential to be used for studying interaction of oncogenes and pathways at the organismal level. Using the Gal4VP16-UAS binary transgenic expression approach, we established stable transgenic lines expressing an EGFP fusion protein of an activated zebrafish Smoothened (Smoa1-EGFP). Expression of the zebrafish Smoa1-EGFP itself did not lead to tumor formation either in founder fish or subsequent generations, however, co-expressing a constitutively active human AKT1 resulted in several tumor types, including spindle cell sarcoma, rhabdomyoma, ocular melanoma, astrocytoma, and myxoma. All tumor types showed GFP expression and increased Patched 1 levels, suggesting involvement of zebrafish Smoa1 in tumorigenesis. Immunofluorescence studies showed that tumors also expressed elevated levels of phosphorylated AKT, indicating activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that co-activation of the hedgehog and AKT pathways promote tumorigenesis, and that the binary transgenic approach is a useful tool for studying interaction of oncogenes and oncogenic pathways in zebrafish.
Project description:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a key role in orchestrating the tumor malignant biological properties within tumor microenvironment and evidences demonstrate that CAFs are a critical regulator of tumoral immunosuppression of the T cell response. However, the functions and regulation of CAFs in the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in melanoma and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are not completely understood. Herein, by scrutinizing the expression of α-SMA and PD-L1 in melanoma and CRC tissues, we found that CAFs was positive correlated with PD-L1 expression. Further analyses showed that CAFs promoted PD-L1 expression in mice tumor cells. By detecting a majority of cytokines expression in normal mice fibroblasts and CAFs, we determined that CXCL5 was abnormal high expression in CAFs and the immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization confirmed that were CAFs which were expressing CXCL5. In addition, CXCL5 promoted PD-L1 expression in B16, CT26, A375 and HCT116. The silencing of CXCR2, the receptor of CXCL5, inhibited the PD-L1 expression induced by CAFs in turn. Functionally, CXCL5 derived by CAFs promoted PD-L1 expression in mice tumor cells through activating PI3K/AKT signaling. LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K, confirmed that CXCL5 forested an immunosuppression microenvironment by promoting PD-L1 expression via PI3K/AKT signaling. Meanwhile, the B16/CT26 xenograft tumor models were used and both CXCR2 and p-AKT were found to be positively correlated with PD-L1 in the xenograft tumor tissues. The immunosuppressive action of CAFs on tumor cells is probably reflective of them being a potential therapeutic biomarker for melanoma and CRC.
Project description:Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) showed unprecedented clinical benefits. But the overall efficacy of ICBs is limited to a small subset of cancer patients due to therapeutic resistance. Concerted efforts from our group and others have identified that loss of IFN-g signaling genes in melanoma is a major mechanism of resistance to ICBs. We therefore generated B16 melanoma model with IFNgR1 knocked out by CRISPR-Cas9. We sequenced the whole transcriptomes and identified activated PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in IFNgR1 knocked out cells. This may represent an attractive target for therapeutic interventions to bypassing ICB resistance in melanoma lacking functional IFN-g signaling. Overall design: Scramble and IFNγR1KO B16 melanoma cells were sent for transcriptomic analysis by paired-end RNAseq analysis to find the activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in IFNγR1 knocked out cells.
Project description:Background : Lunasin is a naturally occurring peptide present in soybean that has both chemopreventive and therapeutic activities that can prevent cellular transformation and inhibit the growth of several human cancer types. Recent studies indicate that Lunasin has several distinct potential modes of action including suppressing integrin signaling and epigenetic effects driven by modulation of histone acetylation. In addition to direct effects on cancer cells, Lunasin also has effects on innate immunity that may contribute to its ability to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Methods: Standard assays for cell proliferation and colony formation were used to assess Lunasin's in vitro activity against murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16-F0 melanoma cells. Lunasin's in vivo activity was assessed by comparing the growth of tumors initiated by subcutaneous implantation of LLC or B16-F0 cells in Lunasin-treated and untreated C57BL/6 mice. Results: Lunasin was found to inhibit growth of murine LLC cells and murine B16-F0 melanoma cells in vitro and in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. The effects of Lunasin in these two mouse models were very similar to those previously observed in studies of human non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma cell lines. Conclusions: We have now validated two established syngeneic mouse models as being responsive to Lunasin treatment. The validation of these two in vivo syngeneic models will allow detailed studies on the combined therapeutic and immune effects of Lunasin in a fully immunocompetent mouse model.
Project description:Malignant melanoma is a difficult cancer to treat due to the rapid development of resistance to drugs targeting single proteins. One response to this observation is to identify single pharmacologic agents that, due to a unique mechanism of action, simultaneously target multiple key pathways involved in melanoma development. Leelamine has been identified as functioning in this manner but has poor bioavailability in animals and causes lethality when administered intravenously. Therefore, a nanoliposomal-based delivery system has been developed, called Nanolipolee-007, which stably loads 60% of the compound. The nanoparticle was as effective at killing melanoma cells as leelamine dissolved in DMSO and was more effective at killing cultured melanoma compared with normal cells. Mechanistically, Nanolipolee-007 inhibited PI3K/Akt, STAT3, and MAPK signaling mediated through inhibition of cholesterol transport. Nanolipolee-007 inhibited the growth of preexisting xenografted melanoma tumors by an average of 64% by decreasing cellular proliferation, reducing tumor vascularization, and increasing cellular apoptosis, with negligible toxicity. Thus, a unique clinically viable nanoparticle-based drug has been developed containing leelamine for the treatment of melanoma that acts by inhibiting the activity of major signaling pathways regulating the development of this disease.