CircRNA Hipk3 Induces Cardiac Regeneration after Myocardial Infarction in Mice by Binding to Notch1 and miR-133a.
ABSTRACT: The synergism between cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis is essential for cardiac regeneration. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play pivotal roles in cell growth and angiogenesis, but their functions in cardiac regeneration are not yet known. In this study, we investigated the role and underlying mechanisms of circRNA Hipk3 (circHipk3) in both cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis during cardiac regeneration. We found that circHipk3 was overexpressed in the fetal or neonatal heart of mice. The transcription factor Gata4 bound to the circHipk3 promoter and increased circHipk3 expression. Cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation in vitro and in vivo was inhibited by circHipk3 knockdown and increased by circHipk3 overexpression. Moreover, circHipk3 overexpression promoted coronary vessel endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube-forming capacity and subsequent angiogenesis. More importantly, circHipk3 overexpression attenuated cardiac dysfunction and decreased fibrotic area after myocardial infarction (MI). Mechanistically, circHipk3 promoted CM proliferation by increasing Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) acetylation, thereby increasing N1ICD stability and preventing its degradation. In addition, circHipk3 acted as a sponge for microRNA (miR)-133a to promote connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, which activated endothelial cells. Our findings suggested that circHipk3 might be a novel therapeutic target for preventing heart failure post-MI.
Project description:Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) are a novel mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) subpopulation derived from cardiac tissue, which are reported to be responsible for cardiac regeneration. Notch signaling is believed to aid in cardiac repair following myocardial injury. In this study, we have investigated the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from Notch1 engineered C-MSCs on angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation in ischemic myocardium. C-MSCs were isolated from Notch1flox mice (C-MSCNotch1 FF). Notch1 gene deletion was accomplished by adenoviral vector-mediated Cre recombination, and Notch1 overexpression was achieved by overexpression of Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD). EVs were isolated by using the size exclusion column method. Proteomic composition of EV was carried out by mass spectrometry. A mouse myocardial infarction (MI) model was generated by permanent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Intramyocardial transplantation of Notch1 knockout C-MSCs (C-MSCsNotch1 KO) did not have any effect on cardiac function and scar size. On the other hand, transplantation of N1ICD-overexpressing C-MSCs (C-MSCsN1ICD) showed significant improvement in cardiac function and attenuation of fibrosis as compared to the control (PBS) group and non-modified C-MSC groups. C-MSCsN1ICD differentiated into smooth muscle cells and formed new vessels. Proteomics profiling identified several proteins, such as lysyl oxidase homolog-2 and biglycan, as highly enriched proteins in EV-C-MSCsN1ICD. Go term analysis indicated that EV-C-MSCsN1ICD were enriched with bioactive factors, potent pro-repair proteins responsible for cell migration and proliferation. EV-C-MSCs Notch1FF and EV-C-MSCsN1ICD were strongly proangiogenic under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. EV-C-MSCsN1ICD caused dense tube formation in vitro and increased neovasculogenesis in the peri-infarct area in vivo. Furthermore, EV-C-MSCsN1ICD attenuated endothelial cell (EC) and CM apoptosis under oxidative stress and ischemic injury. Similarly, EV-C-MSCNotch1 FF and EV-C-MSCN1ICD treatment improved cardiac function and decreased fibrosis in mice post-MI. EV-C-MSCsN1ICD were very effective in improving cardiac function and decreasing fibrosis. Notch1 signaling is a strong stimulus for cardiac regeneration by C-MSCs. EVs secreted by Notch1-overexpressing C-MSCs were highly effective in preventing cell death, promoting angiogenesis and CM proliferation, and restoring cardiac function post-MI. Overall, these results suggest that Notch1 overexpression may further enhance the effectiveness of EVs secreted by C-MSCs in cell-free therapy.
Project description:During heart development and regeneration, coronary vascularization is tightly coupled with cardiac growth. Although inhibiting vascularization causes defects in the innate regenerative response of zebrafish to heart injury, angiogenic signals are not known to be sufficient for triggering regeneration events. Here, by using a transgenic reporter strain, we found that regulatory sequences of the angiogenic factor vegfaa are active in epicardial cells of uninjured animals, as well as in epicardial and endocardial tissue adjacent to regenerating muscle upon injury. Additionally, we find that induced cardiac overexpression of vegfaa in zebrafish results in overt hyperplastic thickening of the myocardial wall, accompanied by indicators of angiogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cardiomyocyte regeneration programs. Unexpectedly, vegfaa overexpression in the context of cardiac injury enabled ectopic cardiomyogenesis but inhibited regeneration at the site of the injury. Our findings identify Vegfa as one of a select few known factors sufficient to activate adult cardiomyogenesis, while also illustrating how instructive factors for heart regeneration require spatiotemporal control for efficacy.
Project description:Physiological hypertrophy in the developing heart has been considered the product of an increase in volume of preexisting fetal cardiomyocytes in the absence of myocyte formation.In this study, we tested whether the mouse heart at birth has a pool of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) that differentiate into myocytes contributing to the postnatal expansion of the parenchymal cell compartment.We have found that the newborn heart contains a population of c-kit-positive CSCs that are lineage negative, self-renewing, and multipotent. CSCs express the Notch1 receptor and show the nuclear localization of its active fragment, N1ICD. In 60% of cases, N1ICD was coupled with the presence of Nkx2.5, indicating that the commitment of CSCs to the myocyte lineage is regulated by Notch1. Importantly, overexpression of N1ICD in neonatal CSCs significantly expanded the proportion of transit-amplifying myocytes. To establish whether these in vitro findings had a functional counterpart in vivo, the Notch pathway was blocked in newborn mice by administration of a gamma-secretase inhibitor. This intervention resulted in the development of a dilated myopathy and high mortality rates. Ventricular decompensation was characterized by a 62% reduction in amplifying myocytes, which resulted in a 54% decrease in myocyte number. After cessation of Notch blockade and recovery of myocyte regeneration, cardiac anatomy and function were largely restored.Notch1 signaling is a critical determinant of CSC growth and differentiation; when this cascade of events is altered, cardiomyogenesis is impaired, physiological cardiac hypertrophy is prevented, and a life-threatening myopathy supervenes.
Project description:The current evidence suggests that beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward myocardial repair are largely due to paracrine actions of several factors. Although Monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is involved in the regulation of inflammatory response, apoptosis and angiogenesis, whether MCPIP1 plays any role in stem cell-induced cardiac repair has never been examined. By employing retroviral (RV)-transduced overexpression of MCPIP1, we investigated the impact of MCPIP1 on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, metabolic activity, proteome, secretome and differentiation capacity of murine bone marrow (BM) - derived MSCs. MCPIP1 overexpression enhanced angiogenic and cardiac differentiation of MSCs compared with controls as indicated by elevated expression of genes accompanying angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in vitro. The proangiogenic activity of MCPIP1-overexpressing MSCs (MCPIP1-MSCs) was also confirmed by increased capillary-like structure formation under several culture conditions. This increase in differentiation capacity was associated with decreased proliferation of MCPIP1-MSCs when compared with controls. MCPIP1-MSCs also expressed increased levels of proteins involved in angiogenesis, autophagy, and induction of differentiation, but not adverse inflammatory agents. We conclude that MCPIP1 enhances endothelial and cardiac differentiation of MSCs. Thus, modulating MCPIP1 expression may be a novel approach useful for enhancing the immune-regulatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity of BM-derived MSCs for myocardial repair and regeneration of ischemic tissues.
Project description:Purpose:Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury primarily causes myocardial infarction (MI), which is manifested by cell death. Angiogenesis is essential for repair and regeneration in cardiac tissue after MI. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of exosomes derived from the serum of MI patients in angiogenesis and its related mechanism. Patients and Methods:Exosomes, isolated from serum, were collected from MI (MI-exosome) and control (Con-exosome) patients. After coculturing with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, MI-exosome promoted cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Results:The results revealed that the production and release of MI-exosome were associated with cardiomyocytes. Moreover, microarray assays demonstrated that miRNA-143 was significantly decreased in MI-exosome. Meanwhile, the overexpression and knockdown of miRNA-143 could inhibit and enhance angiogenesis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of exosomal miRNA-143 on angiogenesis was mediated by its targeting gene, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), and was associated with the production of nitric oxide (NO). Conclusion:Taken together, exosomes derived from the serum of patients with MI promoted angiogenesis through the IGF-IR/NO signaling pathway. The results provide novel understanding of the function of exosomes in MI.
Project description:Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of endogenous noncoding RNAs that are demonstrated to be potent regulators in the development of various types of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, the level of circRNA-HIPK3 were measured by Taq-man based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in both NSCLC patient specimens and cells, which showed that circRNA-HIPK3 was upregulated in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), migration and flow-cytometry assays indicated that circRNA-HIPK3 participated in the regulation of the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of NSCLC cells. MiR-193a expression was increased by circHIPK3 silencing. We then showed that miR-149 interacts with FOXM1 by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Further, ectopic overexpression of miR-149 by transfecting miR-149 mimics significantly inhibited growth, migration and invasion of HSCLCs, which was found to be mediated through FOXM1. Moreover, miR-149 overexpression decreases the viability and proliferation of HSCLCs. Therefore, our data suggest that circHIPK3 regulates the function of NSCLCs through miR-149-mediated FOXM1 expression regulation, potentially providing a novel insight into the pathogenesis of NSCLC.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI) due to blockage of coronary arteries is a major public health issue. MI results in massive loss of cardiac muscle due to ischemia. Unfortunately, the adult mammalian myocardium presents a low regenerative potential, leading to two main responses to injury: fibrotic scar formation and hypertrophic remodeling. To date, complete heart transplantation remains the only clinical option to restore heart function. In the last two decades, tissue engineering has emerged as a promising approach to promote cardiac regeneration. Tissue engineering aims to target processes associated with MI, including cardiomyogenesis, modulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and fibrosis. Tissue engineering dogmas suggest the utilization and combination of two key components: bioactive molecules and biomaterials. This chapter will present current therapeutic applications of biomaterials in cardiac regeneration and the challenges still faced ahead. The following biomaterial-based approaches will be discussed: Nano-carriers for cardiac regeneration-inducing biomolecules; corresponding matrices for their controlled release; injectable hydrogels for cell delivery and cardiac patches. The concept of combining cardiac patches with controlled release matrices will be introduced, presenting a promising strategy to promote endogenous cardiac regeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously found that loss of lncRNA-AZIN2 splice variant (AZIN2-sv) increases cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation and attenuates adverse ventricular remodelling post-myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether inhibition of AZIN2-sv can simultaneously induce angiogenesis and thus improve prognosis after MI is unclear. METHODS:We used in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR to determine AZIN2-sv expression in endothelial cells. Knockdown and overexpression were performed to detect the role of AZIN2-sv in endothelial cell function, angiogenesis and prognosis after MI. RNA pulldown, RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were used to determine the interaction with talin1 (Tln1) protein and miRNA-214 (miR-214). DNA pulldown and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to study AZIN2-sv binding to upstream transcription factors. FINDINGS:AZIN2-sv was enriched in cardiac endothelial cells. The loss of AZIN2-sv reduced endothelial cell apoptosis and promoted endothelial sprouting and capillary network formation in vitro. Moreover, in vivo, the loss of AZIN2-sv induced angiogenesis and improved cardiac function after MI. Mechanistically, AZIN2-sv reduced Tln1 and integrin ?1 (ITGB1) protein levels to inhibit neovascularization. AZIN2-sv activated the ubiquitination-dependent degradation of Tln1 mediated by proteasome 26S subunit ATPase 5 (PSMC5). In addition, AZIN2-sv could bind to miR-214 and suppress the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)/Akt pathway to inhibit angiogenesis. With regard to the upstream mechanism, Bach1, a negative regulator of angiogenesis, bound to the promoter of AZIN2-sv and increased its expression. INTERPRETATION:Bach1-activated AZIN2-sv could participate in angiogenesis by promoting the PSMC5-mediated ubiquitination-dependent degradation of Tln1 and blocking the miR-214/PTEN/Akt pathway. Inhibition of AZIN2-sv induced angiogenesis and myocardial regeneration simultaneously, thus, AZIN2-sv could be an ideal therapeutic target for improving myocardial repair after MI. FUND: National Natural Science Foundations of China.
Project description:Background:The occurrence of pathological cardiac fibrosis is attributed to tissue hypoxia. Circular RNAs play significant regulatory roles in multiple cardiovascular diseases and are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. CircHIPK3 has been identified as the one of the most crucial regulators in cardiac fibrosis. However, the mechanisms by which circHIPK3 regulates cardiac fibrosis under hypoxia remain unclear. Our study aimed to determine circHIPK3 expression in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and investigate the functions of circHIPK3 in hypoxia environment. Methods:The expression level of circHIPK3 in CFs under hypoxia (1% O2) was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The role of circHIPK3 on the proliferation and migration of CFs were determined by EdU, cell wound scratch assay and cell cycle. The expression of proteins associated with phenotypic transformation in CFs in vitro was examined by immunofluorescence assay and western blot. Bioinformatics analysis, dual luciferase activity assay and RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization assay revealed that miR-152-3p was identified as a target of circHIPK3 and that TGF-?2 was targeted by miR-152-3p. Results:CircHIPK3 expression was significantly upregulated in CFs in a hypoxic environment. In vitro, overexpressing circHIPK3 obviously promoted CF proliferation, migration and phenotypic changes under hypoxia, but those processes were suppressed by circHIPK3 silencing. CircHIPK3 acted as an endogenous miR-152-3p sponge and miR-152-3p aggravated circHIPK3 silencing induced inhibition of CF proliferation, migration, phenotypic transformation and TGF-?2 expression in vitro. In summary, circHIPK3 plays a pivotal role in the development of cardiac fibrosis by targeting the miR-152-3p/TGF-?2 axis. Conclusions:These findings demonstrated that circHIPK3 acted as a miR-152-3p sponge to regulate CF proliferation, migration and phenotypic transformation through TGF-?2, revealing that modulation of circHIPK3 expression may represent a potential target to promote the transition of hypoxia-induced CFs to myofibroblasts.
Project description:Background/Aims:this experimental design was based on HIPK3 to explore the pathogenesis of ESCC. Methods:RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of CircHIPK3 and miR-599 in ESCC tissues and cell lines.CCK-8, colony formation, flow cytometry and transwell assay were used to detect the effects of CircHIPK3 and miR-599 on tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration and invasion. Target gene prediction and screening, luciferase reporter assays were used to validate downstream target genes of CircHIPK3 and miR-599.mRNA and protein expression of c-MYC were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The tumor changes in mice were detected by in vivo experiments in nude mice. Results:HIPK3 was highly expressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines. In addition, HIPK3 expression levels were associated with advanced TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and tumor size. Moreover, HIPK3 was significantly promoted cell proliferation and migration of ESCC cells. In addition, HIPK3 was able to inhibit miRNA-599 expression and up-regulate the expression level of c-MYC. Finally, the results of in vivo animal models confirmed that HIPK3 promoted ESCC progression by modulating the miR-599/c-MYC axis. Conclusion:HIPK3 can regulate the proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by regulating miR-599/c-MYC axis, thereby inhibiting the occurrence and development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.