Characterization and selection of functional yeast strains during sourdough fermentation of different cereal wholegrain flours.
ABSTRACT: The increasing demand for healthy baked goods boosted studies on sourdough microbiota with beneficial metabolic traits, to be used as potential functional starters. Here, 139 yeasts isolated from cereal-based fermented foods were in vitro characterized for their phytase and antioxidant activities. The molecular characterization at strain level of the best 39 performing isolates showed that they did not derive from cross contamination by baker's yeast. Afterwards, the 39 isolates were in vivo analyzed for their leavening ability, phytase activity and polyphenols content using five different wholegrain flours, obtained from conventional and pigmented common wheat, emmer and hull-less barley. Combining these findings, through multivariate permutation analysis, we identified the 2 best performing strains, which resulted diverse for each flour. Doughs singly inoculated with the selected strains were further analyzed for their antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids, xanthophylls and anthocyanins content. All the selected yeasts significantly increased the total antioxidant activity, the soluble, free and conjugated, forms of phenolic acids and anthocyanins of fermented doughs. This study revealed the importance of a specific selection of yeast strains for wholegrain flours obtained from different cereals or cultivars, in order to enhance the pro-technological, nutritional and nutraceutical traits of fermented doughs.
Project description:Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.
Project description:Bakers use pure microorganisms and/or traditional sourdoughs as the leavening agent for making bread. The performance of each starter and the substances produced by the microorganisms greatly affect the dough rheology and features of breads. Modern sourdoughs inoculated with selected lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are microbiologically stable, safer than traditional sourdoughs, and easy to use. However, the commercial repertoire of baker's yeasts is still limited. Therefore, there is a demand for new strains of yeast species, capable of conferring distinctive traits to breads made from a variety of agri-food matrices, in the design of innovative starters. In this context, we report the first comprehensive study on yeasts isolated from a wide range of fermented doughs, cereal flours, and grains of Spain. Nine yeast species were identified from 433 isolates, which were distributed among separate clades. Moreover, phenotypic traits of potential technological relevance were identified in selected yeast strains. Mother doughs (MDs) showed the greatest yeast biodiversity, whereas commercial <i>Saccharomyces</i> starters or related and wild strains often dominated the bakery doughs. A metataxonomic analysis of wheat and tritordeum MDs revealed a greater richness of yeast species and percentage variations related to the consistency, flour type, and fermentation time of MDs.
Project description:The aim of this research was to study the effect of different gluten-free flours (yellow and white corn, rice, oat, teff, buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa) and starches (wheat, corn and potato) on the generation of volatile compounds in the fermented doughs and crumbs. Volatile compounds were analyzed by static headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SHS-GC/MS). Nine fermentation and lipid oxidation volatile compounds were evaluated, which were found to be the same from dough to crumb but vary in levels. Concentrations of compounds produced during fermentation were higher in doughs whereas those from lipid oxidation were higher in crumbs. The type of flour/starch affected the concentration of these volatile compounds. The proportions of ethanol and 2/3-methylbutanol (fermentation compounds) were higher in dough from yellow and white corn, rice and oat while the proportions of hexanal, 1-pentanol and 2,4-decadienal (lipid oxidation compounds) were higher in the doughs made with starches. The proportions of ethanol and 2/3-methylbutanol were higher in quinoa and amaranth crumbs whilst hexanal, 1-pentanol and 2,4-decadienal were higher in yellow and white corn crumbs.
Project description:Gluten is a fundamental ingredient in breadmaking, since is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of the dough. The lack of gluten has a critical effect on gluten-free dough, leading to less cohesive and less elastic doughs, and its replacement represents a challenge for bakery industry. However, dough rheology can be improved combining different ingredients with structural capacity and taking advantage from their interactions. Although acorn flour was used to bake bread even before Romans, nowadays is an underexploited resource. It presents good nutritional characteristics, particularly high fibre content and is naturally gluten free. The aim of this study was to use acorn flour as a gluten-free ingredient to improve dough rheology, following also market trends of sustainability and fibre-rich ingredients. Doughs were prepared with buckwheat and rice flours, potato starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Two levels of acorn flour (23% and 35% w/w) were tested and compared with control formulation. Micro-doughLAB was used to study mixing and pasting properties. Doughs were characterised using small amplitude oscillatory measurements (SAOS), with a controlled stress rheometer, and regarding Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) by a texturometer. Dietary fibre content and its soluble and insoluble fractions were also evaluated on the developed breads. Acorn flour showed promising technological properties as food ingredient for gluten-free baking (improved firmness, cohesiveness and viscoelasticity of the fermented dough), being an important fibre source.
Project description:Vegetables comprise a significant portion of our daily diet with their high content in nutrients including fiber, vitamins, minerals, as well as phenolic compounds. Vegetable consumption has been shown to be positively associated with the prevention of several degenerative diseases thanks to their bioactive compounds. Accordingly, five selected vegetables, namely, red chicory, red onion, eggplant, purple sweet potato, and black carrot were thoroughly assessed for their phenolic content in this study. For this purpose, the total phenolic and flavonoid content of these five vegetables and their antioxidant activities that are based on three common methods ABTS radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS), Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), and DPPH scavenging activity assay were determined. Additionally, HPLC-PDA/Electrospray ionization coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/-ESI+-MS)-based identification and quantification of the members belonging to polyphenols present in each vegetable were determined. Statistical correlations between antioxidant activities and the specific type of phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids were further elucidated. Phenolic acids (chlorogenic and syringic acids) were found to be the most abundant compounds that are present in all samples. Among the anthocyanins, cyaniding derivatives were present in all vegetables. In terms of their antioxidant activities, the analyzed vegetables were ranked as red chicory > purple sweet potato > black carrot > eggplant > red onion, in descending order. Superior antioxidant activities exhibited by red chicory and purple sweet potato were attributed to the high content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonols (quercetin-3,4-O-diglucoside) in red chicory and anthocyanins (peonidin-3-caffeoyl p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside) in purple sweet potato.
Project description:There is an increasing interest toward the use of legumes in food industry, mainly due to the quality of their protein fraction. Many legumes are cultivated and consumed around the world, but few data is available regarding the chemical or technological characteristics, and especially on their suitability to be fermented. Nevertheless, sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria has been recognized as the most efficient tool to improve some nutritional and functional properties. This study investigated the presence of lunasin-like polypeptides in nineteen traditional Italian legumes, exploiting the potential of the fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the native concentration. An integrated approach based on chemical, immunological and ex vivo (human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell cultures) analyses was used to show the physiological potential of the lunasin-like polypeptides.Italian legume varieties, belonging to Phaseulus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were milled and flours were chemically characterized and subjected to sourdough fermentation with selected Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7, expressing different peptidase activities. Extracts from legume doughs (unfermented) and sourdoughs were subjected to western blot analysis, using an anti-lunasin primary antibody. Despite the absence of lunasin, different immunoreactive polypeptide bands were found. The number and the intensity of lunasin-like polypeptides increased during sourdough fermentation, as the consequence of the proteolysis of the native proteins carried out by the selected lactic acid bacteria. A marked inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was observed using extracts from legume sourdoughs. In particular, sourdoughs from Fagiolo di Lamon, Cece dell'Alta Valle di Misa, and Pisello riccio di Sannicola flours were the most active, showing a decrease of Caco-2 cells viability up to 70 %. The over-expression of Caco-2 filaggrin and involucrin genes was also induced. Nine lunasin-like polypeptides, having similarity to lunasin, were identified.The features of the sourdough fermented legume flours suggested the use for the manufacture of novel functional foods and/or pharmaceuticals preparations.
Project description:The present study examined the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Apple juice was fermented and examined of its antioxidant activity using chemical models and cellular antioxidant assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented apple juice was characterized by LC-MS/MS. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation showed an increase in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity as well as cellular antioxidant activity of apple juice. However, fermentation decreased the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of the phenolic profile indicated that the content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), quercetin, and phloretin with strong antioxidant activity was increased significantly after fermentation. The modified phenolic composition may contribute to the increased antioxidant activity of fermented apple juice. Our findings showed that Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and to protect cells from oxidative stress.
Project description:Grape pomace is one of the major waste products generated by the wine-making process and it contains seeds and skins still rich in bioactive compounds. Skins can be separated from the seeds and valorised for the recovery of antioxidant extracts with different potential applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the addition of an extract obtained from waste grape skins and encapsulated in maltodextrins on the antioxidant properties and sensory acceptability of whole wheat cocoa biscuits. Different levels of enrichment (1.2, 2.3, and 3.5% on dough weight) were tested, and the obtained doughs and biscuits were analysed for total phenols content and antioxidant capacity (based on different radical assays). Extract addition increased the phenolic content (up to 134% increase) and antioxidant capacity (up to 244%) of both doughs and biscuits. Extract containing biscuits were also characterised by a different colour. However, oxidation stability, evaluated at accelerated temperature and oxygen conditions, was not improved by the extract incorporation. Cooking led to an average (not always significant) 16% decrease in phenolic content for both enriched and reference recipes. The enrichment level significantly influenced the sensory acceptability, with identification of two clusters of consumers, with one cluster preferring the biscuits with the highest enrichment level and one cluster preferring the biscuits with the lowest level. The results showed that whole wheat cacao biscuits represent an appropriate food matrix to develop pleasant novel products enriched in phenolic compounds from waste grape skins and likeable for regular biscuits consumers.
Project description:A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were subjected to reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Thirty-seven fractions were collected and assayed in vitro. The most active fractions were resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Twenty-five peptides of 8 to 57 amino acid residues were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Almost all of the sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. All of the purified fractions showed ex vivo antioxidant activity on mouse fibroblasts artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the capacity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through the proteolysis of native cereal proteins.
Project description:A diverse panel of 245 wheat genotypes, derived from crosses between landraces from the Watkins collection representing global diversity in the early 20th century and the modern wheat cultivar Paragon, was grown at two field sites in the UK in 2015-16 and the concentrations of zinc and iron determined in wholegrain using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Zinc concentrations in wholegrain varied from 24-49 mg kg-1 and were correlated with iron concentration (r = 0.64) and grain protein content (r = 0.14). However, the correlation with yield was low (r = -0.16) indicating little yield dilution. A sub-set of 24 wheat lines were selected from 245 wheat genotypes and characterised for Zn and Fe concentrations in wholegrain and white flour over two sites and years. White flours from 24 selected lines contained 8-15 mg kg-1 of zinc, which was positively correlated with the wholegrain Zn concentration (r = 0.79, averaged across sites and years). This demonstrates the potential to exploit the diversity in landraces to increase the concentration of Zn in wholegrain and flour of modern high yielding bread wheat cultivars.