E-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury, (EVALI) - A diagnosis of exclusion.
ABSTRACT: Inhalation of aerosolized products generated by different electronic devices is called vaping. E-cigarettes or Vaping product use Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) outbreak peaked in August-September 2019 and gradually declined. EVALI remains a diagnosis of exclusion which presents as an acute lung injury in the vaping population. Vitamin E acetate and its products are implicated as one of the cytotoxic agents causing airway centered pneumonitis. Lipid laden macrophages are found in samples of BAL fluid but their role in cytopathology of the disease remains unclear. We present a 57 years old man who came to the emergency department at Monmouth Medical Center, New Jersey in fall, 2019. Reportedly he has been vaping THC about 100g every day for past three days. At initial presentation, he had fever, shortness of breath and hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen. He was empirically treated with levofloxacin 500 mg for five days without a significant improvement in his symptoms. Non-contrast chest CT scan showed bilateral ground-glass opacities, indicative of diffuse alveolar damage. He underwent flexible bronchoscopy to rule out infective pneumonia followed by auto-immune work-up that was non-conclusive. He was given 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone with a quick taper of oral steroids leading to the resolution of symptoms. At six months follow-up, imaging showed near resolution of ground-glass opacities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>E-cigarette or vaping has become an increasingly popular alternative to smoking tobacco. In September 2019 multiple cases of confirmed E-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury were published. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the pathologic mechanism of this condition.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic literature review in PubMed and EMBASE aiming to obtain additional clinical data on confirmed E-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury cases with lung biopsy results. With this information we hope to determine whether this condition is related to a histopathological pattern of acute lung injury instead of lipid deposits.<h4>Results</h4>Seven articles were reviewed and a total of 27 cases were included. Imaging findings predominantly showed presence of diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities. A majority of patients had complete resolution of the disease. The most common histopathological pattern was organizing pneumonia present in almost half of the patients. Other frequently occurring patterns included diffuse alveolar damage and acute fibrinous pneumonitis; lipoid pneumonia was found in one case.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The underlying pathophysiological mechanism in E-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury is most likely acute lung injury related to direct inhalant-mediated parenchymal inflammation.
Project description:Vitamin E acetate (VEA) is strongly linked to the outbreak of electronic-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). It has been proposed that VEA decomposition to ketene-a respiratory poison that damages lungs at low ppm levels-may play a role in EVALI. However, there is no information available on the temperature at which VEA decomposes and how this correlates with the vaping process. We have studied the temperature-dependent kinetics of VEA decomposition using quantum chemical and statistical mechanical modelling techniques, developing a chemical kinetic model of the vaping process. This model predicts that, under typical vaping conditions, the use of VEA contaminated e-cigarette products is unlikely to produce ketene at harmful levels. However, at the high temperatures encountered at low e-cigarette product levels, which produce 'dry hits', ketene concentrations are predicted to reach acutely toxic levels in the lungs (as high as 30 ppm). We therefore hypothesize that dry hit vaping of e-cigarette products containing VEA contributes to EVALI.
Project description:Since the appearance of the E-Cigarette in the early 2000s, its industry, popularity, and prevalence have risen dramatically. In the past, E-Cigarette use with the vaping of nicotine or cannabis products had been associated with a few reported cases of lung injury. However, in 2019, thousands of cases of E-Cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) were reported in the United States. Evidence linked this outbreak with vaping of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We report two confirmed cases of EVALI and their associated clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. This report supports the growing body of information regarding EVALI. It also discusses various substances, particularly vitamin E acetate, which has been suggested as a causative agent.
Project description:Several cases have recently been reported concerning the development of a syndrome of acute lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarettes, leading to respiratory failure and several deaths. We present a case of a young veteran who presented with e-cigarette vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) to a primary care clinic and who required subsequent inpatient admission and home oxygen therapy after discharge. The patient afterwards improved after a three-month course of steroids and cessation of THC-containing electronic cigarettes, consistent with previously reported cases. Furthermore, evidence on bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated intracellular lipid droplets in the patient's macrophages. This outpatient case of EVALI prompts primary care providers to raise suspicion of this condition, and enquire about the use of e-cigarettes, particularly THC-containing vaping products. Furthermore, in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, similar clinical and radiographic presentations between COVID-19 and EVALI can be seen.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:E-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) has become a recent concern among public health officials. Factors that contribute to the concern include an increasing number of cases over time, the severity of the illness, and an unknown understanding of the pathophysiology and etiology of the illness. CASE SERIES:We cared for three adolescent patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to EVALI. All three patients were treated with high-dose steroids in addition to antimicrobials, which resulted in clinical improvement and resolution of their respiratory failure. Pulmonary function testing was performed on these previously healthy patients both acutely and subacutely. Additionally, we report the results from the laboratory analysis of one vaping device fluid which revealed previously unpublished components within these products. DISCUSSION:EVALI is a recent public health concern without a known etiology which can cause life-threatening lung injury in patients without prior lung pathology. We hope these cases will highlight the importance of return precautions in adolescents with vague respiratory symptoms and provide a cautionary tale to providers while they counsel patients regarding the use of these products.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung.<h4>Methods</h4>BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes.<h4>Results</h4>State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
Project description:The NHLBI convened a working group on October 23, 2019, to identify the most relevant and urgent research priorities and prevailing challenges in e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Experts across multiple disciplines discussed the complexities of the EVALI outbreak, identified research priorities, and recommended strategies to address most effectively its causal factors and improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this disease. Many research priorities were identified, including the need to create national and international registries of patients with EVALI, to track accurately those affected and assess outcomes. The group concluded that biospecimens from subjects with EVALI are urgently needed to help define EVALI pathogenesis and that vaping has disease risks that are disparate from smoking, with the occurrence of EVALI highlighting the importance of broadening e-cigarette research beyond comparators to smoking-related diseases.
Project description:In the past decade, vaping has become more prevalent globally. Since mid-2019, reports have linked the use of vaping devices to lung injury (EVALI). This is the first reported adult case outside the USA to require ECMO for a severe vaping complication. https://bit.ly/39hf2ZY.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>e-Cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) has caused more than 2800 illnesses and 68 deaths in the United States. Better characterization of this novel illness is needed to inform diagnosis and management.<h4>Objective</h4>To describe the clinical features, bronchoscopic findings, imaging patterns, and outcomes of EVALI.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This case series of 31 adult patients diagnosed with EVALI between June 24 and December 10, 2019, took place at an academic medical center in Salt Lake City, Utah.<h4>Exposures</h4>e-Cigarette use, also known as vaping.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Symptoms, laboratory findings, bronchoscopic results, imaging patterns, and clinical outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>Data from 31 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 24 [21-31] years) were included in the study. Patients were primarily men (24 [77%]) and White individuals (27 [87%]) who used e-cigarette products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (29 [94%]). Patients presented with respiratory (30 [97%]), constitutional (28 [90%]), and gastrointestinal (28 [90%]) symptoms. Serum inflammatory markers were elevated in all patients. Bronchoscopy was performed in 23 of 28 inpatients (82%) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed the presence of lipid-laden macrophages (LLMs) in 22 of 24 cases (91%). BAL samples tested positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii (3 patients [13%]), rhinovirus (2 patients [8%]), human metapneumovirus and Aspergillus (1 patient each [4%]); all except human metapneumovirus were determined to be false-positives or clinically inconsequential. The exclusive or dominant computed tomography (CT) pattern was organizing pneumonia in 23 of 26 cases (89%). Patients received antibiotics (26 [84%]) and corticosteroids (24 [77%]), and all survived; 20 patients (65%) seen in follow-up showed marked improvement, but residual symptoms (13 [65%]), radiographic opacities (8 [40%]), and abnormal pulmonary function tests (8 of 18 [44%]) were common.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this case series, patients with EVALI characteristically presented with a flu-like illness with elevated inflammatory markers, LLMs on BAL samples, and an organizing pneumonia pattern on CT imaging. Bronchoscopic testing for infection had a high incidence of false-positive results. Patients had substantial residual abnormal results at early follow-up. These data suggest a limited role for bronchoscopy in typical presentations of EVALI without risk factors for alternative diagnoses and the need for careful longitudinal follow-up.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Since August 2019, more than 2700 patients have been hospitalized with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) across the United States. This report describes the outbreak in California, a state with one of the highest case counts and with a legal adult-use (recreational) cannabis market.<h4>Objective</h4>To present clinical characteristics and vaping product exposures of patients with EVALI in California.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Case series describing epidemiologic and laboratory data from 160 hospitalized patients with EVALI reported to the California Department of Public Health by local health departments, who received reports from treating clinicians, from August 7 through November 8, 2019.<h4>Exposures</h4>Standardized patient interviews were conducted to assess vaping products used, frequency of use, and method of product acquisition. Vaping products provided by a subset of patients were tested for active ingredients and other substances.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Demographic and clinical characteristics, level of care, and outcomes of hospitalization were obtained from medical record review.<h4>Results</h4>Among 160 patients with EVALI, 99 (62%) were male, and the median age was 27 years (range, 14-70 years). Of 156 patients with data available, 71 (46%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, and 46 (29%) required mechanical ventilation. Four in-hospital deaths occurred. Of 86 patients interviewed, 71 (83%) reported vaping tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 36 (43%) cannabidiol (CBD)-containing products, and 39 (47%) nicotine-containing products. Sixty-five of 87 (75%) THC-containing products were reported as obtained from informal sources, such as friends, acquaintances, or unlicensed retailers. Of 87 vaping products tested from 24 patients, 49 (56%) contained THC. Vitamin E or vitamin E acetate was found in 41 (84%) of the THC-containing products and no nicotine products.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Patients' clinical outcomes and vaping behaviors, including predominant use of THC-containing products from informal sources, are similar to those reported by other states, despite California's legal recreational cannabis market. While most THC products tested contained vitamin E or vitamin E acetate, other underlying cause(s) of injury remain possible. The California Department of Public Health recommends that individuals refrain from using any vaping or e-cigarette products, particularly THC-containing products from informal sources, while this investigation is ongoing.