Recruitment, Retention, and Engagement Strategies for Exercise Interventions With Rural Antenatal Adolescents: Qualitative Interviews With WIC Providers.
ABSTRACT: Public health stakeholder engagement is integral to developing effective public health interventions. The perspectives of women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutritional Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) have often been sought when designing WIC-based interventions; however, the perspectives of WIC providers are underrepresented. The goal of this investigation was to explore the experiences of WIC providers who counsel adolescent clients and to identify strategies for recruitment, retention, and engagement of adolescents in an antenatal exercise intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with WIC providers (N = 9) in the Mississippi Delta, a rural, predominantly African American region in northwest Mississippi. From our data emerged 4 themes and 4 hypothesized strategies for recruitment, retention, and engagement of adolescent WIC clients and their parents in a future antenatal exercise intervention that will be implemented through WIC. Engaging the perspectives of WIC providers was a critical first step in understanding the context for this intervention.
Project description:Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) redemption rates have been declining in many low-income urban settings, potentially related to aspects of the food environment. B'more Healthy Corner Stores for Moms and Kids was a feasibility trial in Baltimore City that aimed to test multiple behavioral economic (BE) strategies in 10 corner stores (intervention = eight stores, comparison = two stores), to evaluate their influence on the stocking and redemptions of WIC foods. Tested strategies included in-person storeowner training, point of purchase promotion, product placement, and grouping of products in a display. All four strategies were feasible and implemented with high reach, dose delivered, and fidelity. Additionally, text messaging was found to be an acceptable form of intervention reinforcement for storeowners. Analyses to assess change in stocking of WIC foods, total sales of WIC foods, and sales of WIC foods to WIC clients, revealed consistent positive changes after implementation of the store owner training strategy, while changes after the implementation of other strategies were mixed. Furthermore, WIC food sales to WIC clients significantly increased after the simultaneous implementation of two strategies, compared to one (p > 0.05). Results suggest that store owner training was the most influential strategy and that the implementation of more BE strategies does not necessarily lead to proportional increases in stocking and sales. Selected BE strategies appear to be an effective way of increasing stocking and sales of WIC foods in small urban food stores.
Project description:The US Surgeon General has recommended that peer counseling to support breastfeeding become a core service of the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). As of 2008, 50% of WIC clients received services from local WIC agencies that offered peer counseling. Little is known about the effectiveness of these peer counseling programs. Randomized controlled trials of peer counseling interventions among low-income women in the United States showed increases in breastfeeding initiation and duration, but it is doubtful that the level of support provided could be scaled up to service WIC participants nationally. We tested whether a telephone peer counseling program among WIC participants could increase breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity.We randomly assigned 1948 WIC clients recruited during pregnancy who intended to breastfeed or were considering breastfeeding to 3 study arms: no peer counseling, 4 telephone contacts, or 8 telephone contacts.We combined 2 treatment arms because there was no difference in the distribution of peer contacts. Nonexclusive breastfeeding duration was greater at 3 months postpartum for all women in the treatment group (adjusted relative risk: 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.34) but greater at 6 months for Spanish-speaking clients only (adjusted relative risk: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10-1.51). The likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding cessation was less among Spanish-speaking clients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68-0.89).A telephone peer counseling program achieved gains in nonexclusive breastfeeding but modest improvements in exclusive breastfeeding were limited to Spanish- speaking women.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides expert-chosen supplemental foods to improve the diets and health of low-income infants and children <5 y of age, but dietary behaviors of WIC participants are not well characterized.<h4>Objective</h4>The purpose of this analysis was to examine differences in food consumption patterns between WIC participants and nonparticipants.<h4>Methods</h4>FITS 2016 is a nationwide cross-sectional study of children <4 y (n = 3235). Data were weighted to provide US population-representative results. Children were categorized as WIC participants or nonparticipants, with the latter divided into lower- and higher-income nonparticipants. Group differences were assessed via the Wald test (demographics) and Rao-Scott modified chi-square test (breastfeeding prevalence). Differences in percentage consuming WIC-provided and selected other foods between WIC participants and nonparticipants were evaluated with the use of ORs and 95% CIs.<h4>Results</h4>WIC infants were less likely to breastfeed than were higher-income nonparticipants at 0-5.9 mo (45% compared with 74%) and less likely than both nonparticipant groups at 6-11.9 mo (30% compared with 49-60%). WIC 6- to 11.9-mo-olds were more likely to consume infant cereals and vegetables than were lower-income nonparticipants. WIC 12 to 23.9-mo-olds were more likely to drink whole milk (which WIC provides at this age) than were nonparticipants (72% compared with 59-64%), whereas WIC participants 24-47.9 mo were more likely to drink low- and nonfat milks (which WIC provides at this age) than were nonparticipants (45% compared with 13-22%). WIC participants 6-47.9 mo were more likely to drink juice than were nonparticipants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Continued improvements in early dietary patterns are warranted for WIC and non-WIC children. Breastfeeding among WIC participants is a continuing challenge. Findings suggest that baby-food cereals, vegetables, and fruits (all provided by WIC) contribute importantly to WIC infants' diets, whereas WIC children are more likely to use lower-fat milks after 2 y of age than are non-WIC participants.
Project description:Background:This paper describes strategies and outcomes of techniques to recruit and retain low-income women served by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in a longitudinal dietary intervention trial. Methods:Community engagement strategies, methods to recruit and retain participants, and recruitment and retention rates are reported. Demographic and lifestyle predictors of loss to follow-up, contacts required to reach participants at each data collection point, participant reactions to the recruitment and retention strategies used, and reasons for drop out (assessed among those who discontinued their study involvement) also were examined. Results:Of 1281 eligible women, 744 were enrolled (58% recruitment rate); retention rates were 87%, 70%, and 55%, respectively, 2 weeks and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Being unmarried, younger, and having low baseline vegetable intake predicted loss to follow-up. Between 4 and 5 contact attempts and 1 and 2 completed contacts were required to reach participants at each data collection point. Participants endorsed recruiting women while waiting for WIC appointments (as they were accessible, perceived the information provided as informative, and wanted to pass the time) and by word of mouth. Lacking time and loss of interest were commonly reported reasons for not completing assessments and dropout. To improve retention, shortening telephone assessments, conducting the assessments in person, and increasing the amount of incentives were recommended. Conclusion:Despite using recommended strategies, recruitment and retention rates were modest. Research is needed to identify and test approaches to effectively engage WIC-enrolled adults in health intervention trials.
Project description:In this study, we examined the association between participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the 2009 revisions. Four-thousand-three-hundred-and-eight WIC-eligible children younger than 60 months were included from the 2005-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We compared two birth cohorts with regard to their associations between WIC participation and being ever-breastfed and breastfed at 6 months. We estimated the average effect of the treatment for the treated to assess the causal effect of WIC participation on breastfeeding based on propensity score matching. The results showed that WIC-eligible participating children born between 2000 and 2008 were significantly less likely than WIC-eligible nonparticipating children to ever receive breastfeeding (p < 0.05) or to be breastfed at 6 months (p < 0.05). Among children born between 2009 and 2014, WIC-eligible participating children were no longer less likely to ever receive breastfeeding compared to WIC-eligible nonparticipating children; the gap remained in breastfeeding at 6-months (p < 0.05). The disparities in prevalence of ever breastfed between WIC-eligible participants and nonparticipants have been eliminated since the 2009 WIC revision. More efforts are needed to improve breastfeeding persistence among WIC-participating mother-infant dyads.
Project description:Breastfeeding rates among mothers in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are lower than for other mothers in the United States. The objective of this study was to test the acceptability and feasibility of the Lactation Advice thru Texting Can Help intervention. Mothers were enrolled at 18-30 weeks gestation from two WIC breastfeeding peer counselling (PC) programmes if they intended to breastfeed and had unlimited text messaging, more than fifth-grade literacy level, and fluency in English or Spanish. Participants were randomized to the control arm (PC support without texting) or the intervention arm (PC support with texting). The two-way texting intervention provided breastfeeding education and support from peer counsellors. Primary outcomes included early post-partum (PP) contact and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates at 2 weeks PP. Feasibility outcomes included text messaging engagement and mother's satisfaction with texting platform. Fifty-eight women were enrolled, 52 of whom were available for intention-to-treat analysis (n = 30 texting, n = 22 control). Contact between mothers and PCs within 48 hr of delivery was greater in the texting group (86.6% vs. 27.3%, p < .001). EBF rates at 2 weeks PP among participants in the texting intervention was 50% versus 31.8% in the control arm (p = .197). Intervention group mothers tended to be more likely to meet their breastfeeding goals (p = .06). Participants were highly satisfied with the Lactation Advice thru Texting Can Help intervention, and findings suggest that it may improve early post-delivery contact and increase EBF rates among mothers enrolled in WIC who receive PC. A large, multicentre trial is feasible and warranted.
Project description:A large body of literature documents positive effects of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on birth outcomes, and separately connects health at birth and future outcomes. But little research investigates the link between prenatal WIC participation and childhood outcomes. We explore this question using a unique data set from South Carolina that links administrative birth, Medicaid, and education records. We find that relative to their siblings, prenatal WIC participants have a lower incidence of ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and other common childhood mental health conditions and a lower incidence of grade repetition. These findings demonstrate that a "WIC start" results in persistent improvements in child outcomes across a range of domains.
Project description:To promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake among participants, the USDA Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented a comprehensive food package revision in 2009. However, to our knowledge, no studies have systematically explored the factors related to FV purchases and/or consumption among WIC participants in the post-2009 revision era. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic literature review using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science using key search terms. Studies published from January 1, 2007, through February 28, 2019, were included, since an interim rule for the WIC food package revision was issued in 2007. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses format. The articles were grouped based on main themes or factors, settings, design, study years, and sample size. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven main themes or factors related to FV purchases and/or consumption in WIC participants were identified in these articles. The 2009 WIC food package revision was the most-studied factor (n = 9). National and state-level studies showed a consistently positive relation between the 2009 revision and FV purchases and/or consumption. However, some studies did not find a positive relation. State-level policy variations can be exploited as natural experiments to assess the causality of state-level factors in WIC participants' FV purchases or consumption. The majority of the included studies were limited in being local (n = 26, 66.7%), cross-sectional (n = 29, 74.4%), or having sample sizes <1000 (n = 25, 64.1%), which could explain the diverse results regarding the relation between FV purchases and/or consumption and various factors, including individual, store, and program characteristics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Less than one-third of women gain an appropriate amount of weight during pregnancy, which can influence the long-term health of both the mother and the child. Economically disadvantaged women are the most vulnerable to maternal obesity, excessive weight gain during pregnancy, and poor birth outcomes. Effective and scalable health care strategies to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy specifically tailored for these women are lacking. OBJECTIVE:This paper presents the design and protocol of a biphasic, community-based eHealth trial, SmartMoms in WIC, to increase the adherence to healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations in low-income mothers receiving women, infant, and children (WIC) benefits. METHODS:Phase 1 of the trial included using feedback from WIC mothers and staff and participants from 2 community peer advisory groups to adapt an existing eHealth gestational weight management intervention to meet the needs of women receiving WIC benefits. The health curriculum, the format of delivery, and incentive strategies were adapted to be culturally relevant and at an appropriate level of health literacy. Phase 2 included a pragmatic randomized controlled trial across the 9 health care regions in Louisiana with the goal of enrolling 432 women. The SmartMoms in WIC intervention is an intensive 24-week behavioral intervention, which includes nutrition education and exercise strategies, and provides the technology to assist with weight management, delivered through a professionally produced website application. RESULTS:Phase 1 of this trial was completed in July 2019, and recruitment for phase 2 began immediately thereafter. All data are anticipated to be collected by Spring 2023. CONCLUSIONS:The SmartMoms in WIC curriculum was methodically developed using feedback from community-based peer advisory groups to create a culturally relevant, mobile behavioral intervention for mothers receiving WIC benefits. The randomized clinical trial is underway to test the effectiveness of a sustainable eHealth program on the incidence rates of appropriate GWG. SmartMoms in WIC may be able to offer an innovative, cost-effective, and scalable solution for GWG management in women served by WIC. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04028843; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04028843. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/18211.
Project description:The Adolescent Friendly Health Clinic (AFHCs), a key component of the Government of India's National Adolescent Health Programme a.k.a. Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (RKSK), aims to increase the accessibility and utilization of sexual-reproductive health services by adolescents and youth. However, low quality of care provided at AFHCs by counsellors calls for attention. We, thus, explore both the clients' and providers' perspectives using the World Health Organization's (WHO) global standards for quality health-care services for adolescents to assess the quality of the sexual reproductive health service delivery at AFHCs in Rajasthan, India. We conducted a qualitative study, comprising observation of the service delivery using mystery clients (MCs) (n = 12) and in-depth interviews with the counsellors (n = 4) in four AFHCs. Interviews were transcribed in local language and were translated in English. The transcripts were coded thematically. Our study, using five of the eight WHO global standards for quality health-care services for adolescents highlighted several gaps in the quality-of-service delivery at AFHCs. We unearth various intricacies related to the quality of the services provided at the AFHCs by referring to the relevant input, process, and the output criteria of WHO global standards I, III, IV, V and VI. Our study calls for efforts to improve- (i) the counsellors' competencies to increase adolescents' health literacy on sensitive topics, (ii) the facilities at the clinic to ensure privacy, comfort and confidentiality of the adolescents seeking services, (iii) the referrals to improve appropriate package of services, and (iv) an overall environment to ensure an equity and non-discrimination for all the adolescents. Our findings unearth the barriers that both the service providers and the adolescents face at the AFHCs and underscore the need for regular monitoring and evaluation of the AFHCs to strengthen the facility-based intervention of the RKSK programme.