Phillyrin (KD-1) exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE:The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS:The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65, p-NF-?B p65, I?B?, and p-I?B? in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-?B pathway. RESULTS:KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-?B p65, NF-?B p65, and p-I?B?, while increasing the expression of I?B? in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS:KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.
Project description:In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, studies that work to understand SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. In turn, the less severe human coronaviruses such as HCoV-229E and OC43 are drawing newfound attention. These less severe coronaviruses can be used as a model to facilitate our understanding of the host immune response to coronavirus infection. SARS-CoV-2 must be handled under biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) conditions. Therefore, HCoV-229E and OC43, which can be handled at BSL-2 provide an alternative to SARS-CoV-2 for preclinical screening and designing of antivirals. However, to date, there is no published effective and efficient method to titrate HCoVs other than expensive indirect immunostaining. Here we present an improved approach using an agarose-based conventional plaque assay to titrate HCoV 229E and OC43 with mink lung epithelial cells, Mv1Lu. Our results indicate that titration of HCoV 229E and OC43 with Mv1Lu is consistent and reproducible. The titers produced are also comparable to those produced using human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. More importantly, Mv1Lu cells display a higher tolerance for cell-cell contact stress, decreased temperature sensitivity, and a faster growth rate. We believe that our improved low-cost plaque assay can serve as an easy tool for researchers conducting HCoV research.
Project description:Coronavirus replication takes place in the host cell cytoplasm and triggers inflammatory gene expression by poorly characterized mechanisms. To obtain more insight into the signals and molecular events that coordinate global host responses in the nucleus of coronavirus-infected cells, first, transcriptome dynamics was studied in human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)-infected A549 and HuH7 cells, respectively, revealing a core signature of upregulated genes in these cells. Compared to treatment with the prototypical inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-1, HCoV-229E replication was found to attenuate the inducible activity of the transcription factor (TF) NF-?B and to restrict the nuclear concentration of NF-?B subunits by (i) an unusual mechanism involving partial degradation of IKK?, NEMO and I?B? and (ii) upregulation of TNFAIP3 (A20), although constitutive IKK activity and basal TNFAIP3 expression levels were shown to be required for efficient virus replication. Second, we characterized actively transcribed genomic regions and enhancers in HCoV-229E-infected cells and systematically correlated the genome-wide gene expression changes with the recruitment of Ser5-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and prototypical histone modifications (H3K9ac, H3K36ac, H4K5ac, H3K27ac, H3K4me1). The data revealed that, in HCoV-infected (but not IL-1-treated) cells, an extensive set of genes was activated without inducible p65 NF-?B being recruited. Furthermore, both HCoV-229E replication and IL-1 were shown to upregulate a small set of genes encoding immunomodulatory factors that bind p65 at promoters and require IKK? activity and p65 for expression. Also, HCoV-229E and IL-1 activated a common set of 440 p65-bound enhancers that differed from another 992 HCoV-229E-specific enhancer regions by distinct TF-binding motif combinations. Taken together, the study shows that cytoplasmic RNA viruses fine-tune NF-?B signaling at multiple levels and profoundly reprogram the host cellular chromatin landscape, thereby orchestrating the timely coordinated expression of genes involved in multiple signaling, immunoregulatory and metabolic processes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The influence of previous viral symptoms on the level and duration of human milk antibodies reactive to SARS-CoV-2, and common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) was investigated.<h4>Study design</h4>Antibodies reactive to S1 and S2 subunits from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured via ELISA in human milk samples collected from March to June 2020 in mothers with and without viral symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>The presence of viral symptoms influenced the levels of SARS-CoV-2 S2-reactive SIgA/IgA and tended to influence SARS-CoV-2 S1 SIgA/IgA and S2-reactive SIgM/IgM in human milk but did not relate to IgG. HCoV-229E S1?+?S2-reactive SIgA/IgA and SIgM/IgM, as well as HCoV-OC43 S1?+?S2-reactive IgG were related to the symptoms. The duration of antibody levels in human milk in mothers with viral symptoms varied between 3 and 4 months post maternal report of viral symptoms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Previous viral symptoms and individual mothers may change the antibody cross-reactive levels to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs in human milk.
Project description:The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) at the cellular level is unclear. No human cell line was previously known to be susceptible to both SARS-CoV and other human coronaviruses. Huh7 cells were found to be susceptible to both SARS-CoV, associated with SARS, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), usually associated with the common cold. Highly lytic and productive rates of infections within 48 h of inoculation were reproducible with both viruses. The early transcriptional profiles of host cell response to both types of infection at 2 and 4 h postinoculation were determined by using the Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray (about 22,000 genes). Much more perturbation of cellular gene transcription was observed after infection by SARS-CoV than after infection by HCoV-229E. Besides the upregulation of genes associated with apoptosis, which was exactly opposite to the previously reported effect of SARS-CoV in a colonic carcinoma cell line, genes related to inflammation, stress response, and procoagulation were also upregulated. These findings were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR for mRNA of genes, and immunoassays for some encoded proteins. These transcriptomal changes are compatible with the histological changes of pulmonary vasculitis and microvascular thrombosis in addition to the diffuse alveolar damage involving the pneumocytes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Preexisting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 could be related to cross-reactive antibodies to common human-coronaviruses (HCoVs). This study aimed to evaluate whether human milk antibodies against to S1 and S2 subunits SARS-CoV-2 are cross-reactive to S1 and S2 subunits HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E in mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, in mothers with previous viral symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, and in unexposed mothers; Methods: The levels of secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA, secretory IgM (SIgM)/IgM, and IgG specific to S1 and S2 SARS-CoV-2, and reactive to S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured in milk from 7 mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, 20 mothers with viral symptoms, and unexposed mothers (6 Ctl1-2018 and 16 Ctl2-2018) using ELISA; Results: The S2 SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in the COVID-19 PCR (<i>p</i> = 0.014) and viral symptom (<i>p</i> = 0.040) groups than in the Ctl1-2018 group. We detected a higher number of positive correlations between the antigens and secretory antibodies in the COVID-19 PCR group than in the viral symptom and Ctl-2018 groups. S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43-reactive IgG was higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (<i>p</i> = 0.002) but did not differ for the other antibodies; Conclusions: Mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR and mothers with previous viral symptoms had preexisting human milk antibodies against S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. Human milk IgG were more specific to S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2 than other antibodies, whereas SIgA and SIgM were polyreactive and cross-reactive to S1 or S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:Recent research has shown that Coronavirus (CoV) replication depends on active immunophilin pathways. Here we demonstrate that the drug FK506 (Tacrolimus) inhibited strongly the growth of human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E at low, non-cytotoxic concentrations in cell culture. As shown by plaque titration, qPCR, Luciferase- and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression, replication was diminished by several orders of magnitude. Knockdown of the cellular FK506-binding proteins FKBP1A and FKBP1B in CaCo2 cells prevented replication of HCoV-NL63, suggesting the requirement of these members of the immunophilin family for virus growth.
Project description:The coronavirus (CoV) N protein oligomerizes via its carboxyl terminus. However, the oligomerization mechanism of the C-terminal domains (CTD) of CoV N proteins remains unclear. Based on the protein disorder prediction system, a comprehensive series of HCoV-229E N protein mutants with truncated CTD was generated and systematically investigated by biophysical and biochemical analyses to clarify the role of the C-terminal tail of the HCoV-229E N protein in oligomerization. These results indicate that the last C-terminal tail plays an important role in dimer-dimer association. The C-terminal tail peptide is able to interfere with the oligomerization of the CTD of HCoV-229E N protein and performs the inhibitory effect on viral titre of HCoV-229E. This study may assist the development of anti-viral drugs against HCoV.
Project description:We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3' end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E.The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in hipposiderid bats by analyzing a large sample of African bats and characterizing several bat viruses on a full-genome level. Our evolutionary analyses show that animal and human viruses are genetically closely related, can exchange genetic material, and form a single viral species. We show that the putative host switches leading to the formation of HCoV-229E were accompanied by major genomic changes, including deletions in the viral spike glycoprotein gene and loss of an open reading frame. We reanalyze a previously described genetically related alpaca virus and discuss the role of camelids as potential intermediate hosts between bat and human viruses. The evolutionary history of HCoV-229E likely shares important characteristics with that of the recently emerged highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus.
Project description:The 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the most promising targets for anti-SARS-CoV drugs due to its crucial role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a database containing structural information of more than 8,000 existing drugs was virtually screened by a docking approach to identify potential binding molecules of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. As a target for screening, both a homology model and the crystallographic structure of the binding pocket of the enzyme were used. Cinanserin (SQ 10,643), a well-characterized serotonin antagonist that has undergone preliminary clinical testing in humans in the 1960s, showed a high score in the screening and was chosen for further experimental evaluation. Binding of both cinanserin and its hydrochloride to bacterially expressed 3CLpro of SARS-CoV and the related human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance technology. The catalytic activity of both enzymes was inhibited with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5 microM, as tested with a fluorogenic substrate. The antiviral activity of cinanserin was further evaluated in tissue culture assays, namely, a replicon system based on HCoV-229E and quantitative test assays with infectious SARS-CoV and HCoV-229E. All assays revealed a strong inhibition of coronavirus replication at nontoxic drug concentrations. The level of virus RNA and infectious particles was reduced by up to 4 log units, with IC50 values ranging from 19 to 34 microM. These findings demonstrate that the old drug cinanserin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV replication, acting most likely via inhibition of the 3CL proteinase.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological, virological and pathogenetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection are under evaluation. A better understanding of the pathophysiology associated with COVID-19 is crucial to improve treatment modalities and to develop effective prevention strategies. Transcriptomic and proteomic data on the host response against SARS-CoV-2 still have anecdotic character; currently available data from other coronavirus infections are therefore a key source of information. METHODS:We investigated selected molecular aspects of three human coronavirus (HCoV) infections, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and HCoV-229E, through a network based-approach. A functional analysis of HCoV-host interactome was carried out in order to provide a theoretic host-pathogen interaction model for HCoV infections and in order to translate the results in prediction for SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. The 3D model of S-glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 was compared to the structure of the corresponding SARS-CoV, HCoV-229E and MERS-CoV S-glycoprotein. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, HCoV-229E and the host interactome were inferred through published protein-protein interactions (PPI) as well as gene co-expression, triggered by HCoV S-glycoprotein in host cells. RESULTS:Although the amino acid sequences of the S-glycoprotein were found to be different between the various HCoV, the structures showed high similarity, but the best 3D structural overlap shared by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the shared ACE2 predicted receptor. The host interactome, linked to the S-glycoprotein of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, mainly highlighted innate immunity pathway components, such as Toll Like receptors, cytokines and chemokines. CONCLUSIONS:In this paper, we developed a network-based model with the aim to define molecular aspects of pathogenic phenotypes in HCoV infections. The resulting pattern may facilitate the process of structure-guided pharmaceutical and diagnostic research with the prospect to identify potential new biological targets.