Paediatric, pedestrian road traffic injuries in the city of Mashhad in north-eastern Iran 2015-2019: a data note.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The leading factors of paediatric, pedestrian road traffic injuries (PPRTIs) are associated with the characteristics of immediate environment. Spatial analysis of data related to PPRTIs could provide useful knowledge for public health specialists to prevent and decrease the number of accidents. Therefore, we aim to release the datasets which have been used to conduct a multiple-scale spatial analysis of PPRTIs in the city of Mashhad, Iran, between 2015-2019. DATA DESCRIPTION:The data include four datasets. The base PPRTIs dataset includes motor vehicle accidents and their attributes in the city of Mashhad between March 2015 and March 2019. The attribute data includes the month, day of the week, hour of the day, place (longitude and latitude) of each accident, age range of the child and gender. Furthermore, three spatial datasets about the city of Mashhad are introduced; (1) the digital boundaries of Neighbourhood, (2) road network dataset (street lines) and (3) urban suburbs of Mashhad.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer across the world that multiple risk factors together contribute to CRC development. There is a limited research report on impact of nutritional risk factors and spatial variation of CRC risk. Geographical information system (GIS) can help researchers and policy makers to link the CRC incidence data with environmental risk factor and further spatial analysis generates new knowledge on spatial variation of CRC risk and explore the potential clusters in the pattern of incidence. This spatial analysis enables policymakers to develop tailored interventions. This study aims to release the datasets, which we have used to conduct a spatial analysis of CRC patients in the city of Mashhad, Iran between 2016 and 2017. DATA DESCRIPTION:These data include five data files. The file CRCcases_Mashhad contains the geographical locations of 695 CRC cancer patients diagnosed between March 2016 and March 2017 in the city of Mashhad. The Mashhad_Neighborhoods file is the digital map of neighborhoods division of the city and their population by age groups. Furthermore, these files include contributor risk factors including average of daily red meat consumption, average of daily fiber intake, and average of body mass index for every of 142 neighborhoods of the city.
Project description:The World Health Organisation reports that road traffic accidents (accidents) could become the seventh leading cause of death globally by 2030. Accidents often occur in spatial clusters and, generally, there are more accidents in less advantaged areas. Infrastructure changes, such as new roads, can affect the locations and magnitude of accident clusters but evidence of impact is lacking. A new 5-mile motorway extension was opened in 2011 in Glasgow, Scotland. Previous research found no impact on the number of accidents but did not consider their spatial location or socio-economic setting. We evaluated impacts on these, both locally and city-wide.We used STATS19 data covering the period 2008 to 2014 and describing the location and details of all reported accidents involving a personal injury. Poisson-based continuous scan statistics were used to detect spatial clusters of accidents and any change in these over time. Change in the socio-economic distribution of accident cluster locations during the study period was also assessed.In each year accidents were strongly clustered, with statistically significant clusters more likely to occur in socio-economically deprived areas. There was no significant shift in the magnitude or location of accident clusters during motorway construction or following opening, either locally or city-wide. There was also no impact on the socio-economic patterning of accident cluster locations.Although urban infrastructure changes occur constantly, all around the world, this is the first study to evaluate the impact of such changes on road accident clusters. Despite expectations to the contrary from both proponents and opponents of the M74 extension, we found no beneficial or adverse change in the socio-spatial distribution of accidents associated with its construction, opening or operation. Our approach and findings can help inform urban planning internationally.
Project description:Genetic and phylogenetic information on the HIV-1 epidemic in Middle-East Countries, and in particular in Iran, are extremely limited. By March 2004, the Iranian Ministry of Health officially reported a cumulative number of 6'532 HIV positive individuals and 214 AIDS cases in the Iranian HIV-1 epidemic. The intra-venous drug users (IDUs) represent the group at highest risk for HIV-1 infection in Iran, accounting for almost 63% of all HIV-infected population. In this regards, a molecular phylogenetic study has been performed on a sentinel cohort of HIV-1 seropositive IDUs enrolled at the end of 2005 at the University of Mashhad, the largest city North East of Tehran. The study has been performed on both gag and env subgenomic regions amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and characterized by direct DNA sequence analysis. The results reported here show that the HIV-1 subtype A is circulating in this IDUs sentinel cohort. Moreover, the single phylogenetic cluster as well as the intra-group low nucleotide divergence is indicative of a recent outbreak. Unexpectedly, the Iranian samples appear to be phylogenetically derived from African Sub-Saharan subtype A viruses, raising stirring speculations on HIV-1 introduction into the IDUs epidemic in Mashhad. This sentinel study could represent the starting point for a wider molecular survey of the HIV-1 epidemics in Iran to evaluate in detail the distribution of genetic subtypes and possible natural drug-resistant variants, which are extremely helpful information to design diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cats as a definitive host have an important role in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii infection and isolate and identify the genotypes of T. gondii in stray cats in the Mashhad suburb. METHODS:From April 2016 to August 2017, 175 fecal samples from stray cats and 31 brain samples from cats killed in driving accidents were collected. The fecal samples were examined by fecal flotation technique and T. gondii-specific PCR. The brain samples were investigated by T. gondii-specific PCR and consequently examined by mice bioassay. The DNA of T. gondii isolated was genotyped using SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 as PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) markers. RESULTS:In the present study, Toxoplasma-like oocysts were microscopically observed in 2.2% (4/175) fecal samples. The presence of Toxoplasma oocysts was confirmed in one microscopy-positive sample by PCR. In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in 4% (7/175) microscopy-negative samples using PCR. T. gondii was isolated from one brain PCR-positive sample by mice bioassay. The isolate was avirulent and many T. gondii cysts were observed in mice brain. The isolate was successfully genotyped by PCR-RLFP analysis. The isolated genotyped was type II. Besides, eight Toxoplasma-positive fecal samples contained insufficient DNA and only amplified at SAG-3 locus in PCR. These samples were also showed type II pattern at this locus. CONCLUSIONS:Parasitological and molecular results showed low frequency of Toxoplasma infection in the stray cats, and identified the genotype of T. gondii isolate as type II, for the first time in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi Province.
Project description:Todays, Climate change can be effect on the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and cause of many human diseases. In this cross-sectional study, changes of the intensity of UV ray were associated with the changes in latitude and longitude, height, climatic conditions, natural and human-made artifacts. Given that the highest radiation intensity was at the beginning of the summer, the radiation rate of UV ray in Mashhad was measured in the summer using a Hagner radiometer, the UV-A model. The radiation rate of the UV ray was determined in 2000 stations, which were 5?km far from each other. Data were analyzed using SPSSv16 software, T-test, and ANOVA tests. The results of this study showed that the radiation rate of UV ray in Mashhad was 0.49±0.143?mSv per year. The findings showed that latitudinal and longitudinal changes did not have a significant effect on the intensity of UV radiation (P > 0.001). The changes in the height above the sea level influenced the irradiance rate of UV and increasing the height above the sea level raised UV radiation (P < 0.001). Human artifacts significantly changed the rate of UV radiation (P < 0.001). Cloudy, semi-cloudy and sunny conditions had the most effects on UV radiation (P < 0.001). The results revealed that the average rate of UV ray in Mashhad was below the global standard (10?W/m2 for UV ray), and traffic in open air could not be risky.
Project description:Chronic diseases have spread around the world. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the most important of the chronic diseases and the leading cause of death in women of Mashhad, are impacted by environmental factors. Urban green spaces (UGSs) are important environmental factors playing a critical role in the prevention and control of CVD. Spatial analysis is useful in understanding the application of UGSs in CVD prevention. To identify the spatial distribution of CVD in Mashhad, Moran's index was used and 7539 home addresses of female patients with CVD were imported into ArcMap. Moran's coefficient was estimated to be 0.34, revealing a clustered distribution of CVD. The spatial autocorrelation between CVD and UGSs was analyzed using Moran's I. Moran's I index value was calculated to be -?0.15, and four types of clusters were identified in eight sub-districts of Mashhad municipality. To find the factors influencing the presence in UGSs among women affected by CVD, 607 female patients living in the selected sub-districts were asked to take part in a telephone survey. Data were analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) at block level (343 statistical blocks in total). Accordingly, the spatial diversity and effects of three variables of income, level of education, and access to UGSs among female patients with CVD were measured. According to OLS results and the standard residual, two clusters were removed. Finally, vulnerable blocks were identified that could be helpful in the development of prevention policies and place-based interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the third most common cause of death in the world, and mortality is highest for patients who require hospitalization. OBJECTIVES: This prospective observational study is an etiological survey of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) over a 12-month period in the Iranian city of Mashhad. To our knowledge, this is one of the first prospective hospital-based studies to comprehensively evaluate the epidemiological, demographical, clinical, and prognostic factors of patients with CAP in Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied all adult patients (aged ≥ 16 years) with CAP admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, between February 2013 and January 2014. The etiological diagnosis of CAP was made through conventional culturing and staining of respiratory secretions (i.e. sputum and pleural fluid), standard BACTEC™ Plus Aerobic/F bottles for blood cultures, and the immunochromatographic assays BinaxNOW(®) Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen and BinaxNOW(®) Legionella pneumophila antigen for the detection of S. pneumoniae antigen and L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen, respectively. RESULTS: Among 120 patients with CAP, the most common etiology was S. pneumoniae (24.4%), followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (17.5%), S. aureus (6.7%), polymicrobial agents including anaerobes (4.2%), complicated hydatid cyst (2.5%), Influenza A virus (4.2%; including 2 cases of mixed Influenza A-bacterial infection), and Klebsiella pneumoniae, Brucella melitensis, Mucor, and varicella, each in 0.8% of the patients. The diagnosis of pneumonia remained unknown in 49 (40%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis was an important cause of CAP in our region. Hence, it should be considered in all patients admitted with a CAP diagnosis.
Project description:Nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and ammonia (NH3) are among the main contributors to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM2.5), which represent a severe risk to human health. Even if important improvements have been achieved worldwide, traffic, industrial activities, and the energy sector are mostly responsible for NOx and SOx release; instead, the agricultural sector is mainly responsible for NH3 emissions. Due to the emergency of coronavirus disease, in Italy schools and universities have been locked down from late February 2020, followed in March by almost all production and industrial activities as well as road transport, except for the agricultural ones. This study aims to analyze NH3, PM2.5 and NOx emissions in principal livestock provinces in the Lombardy region (Brescia, Cremona, Lodi, and Mantua) to evaluate if and how air emissions have changed during this quarantine period respect to 2016-2019. For each province, meteorological and air quality data were collected from the database of the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment, considering both data stations located in the city and the countryside. In the 2020 selected period, PM2.5 reduction was higher compared to the previous years, especially in February and March. Respect to February, PM2.5 released in March in the city stations reduced by 19%-32% in 2016-2019 and by 21%-41% in 2020. Similarly, NOx data of 2020 were lower than in the 2016-2019 period (reduction in March respect to February of 22-42% for 2016-2019 and of 43-62% for 2020); in particular, this can be observed in city stations, because of the current reduction in anthropogenic emissions related to traffic and industrial activities. A different trend with no reductions was observed for NH3 emissions, as agricultural activities have not stopped during the lockdown. Air quality is affected by many variables, for which making conclusions requires a holistic perspective. Therefore, all sectors must play a role to contribute to the reduction of harmful pollutants.
Project description:PURPOSE:Vehicle-pedestrian conflicts are common at road intersections when traffic lights change. However, the impact of traffic light on transportation safety and efficiency remains poorly understood. METHODS:A two-stage study was used to survey the proportion of intersections with conflicting traffic lights and the related transportation efficiency and safety were evaluated as well. First, a cross-sectional study estimated the proportion of signalized intersections with conflicting left-turning vehicle-pedestrian traffic lights in Changsha city, China. Second, a natural experiment compared transportation efficiency and safety between intersections with and without conflicting left-turning vehicle-pedestrian traffic lights. Risky conflicts, where motor vehicles violated laws and failed to yield to pedestrians in crosswalk were used as a surrogate for transportation safety. The number of motor vehicles and pedestrians passing through the intersections per second and per meter were used to estimate transportation efficiency. Data were collected and analyzed in 2015 (from March to December). A search of online news from domestic media sources was also conducted to collect pedestrian injury data occurring at the intersections. RESULTS:About one-fourth (57/216) intersections had conflicting left-turning traffic lights (95% CI: 20.5%, 32.3%). Risky vehicle-pedestrian conflicts were more frequently observed at intersections with conflicting lights compared to those without (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.13; pedestrians: IRR = 4.02), after adjusting for type of day (weekday vs. weekend), the time period of observation, and motor vehicles traffic flow. Intersections without conflicting vehicle-pedestrian traffic lights had similar transportation efficiency to those with conflicting lights after controlling for covariates (p > 0.05). The systematic review of news media reports yielded 10 left-turning vehicle-pedestrian crash events between 2011 and 2017, involving 11 moderate or severe pedestrian injuries and 3 fatal pedestrian injuries. CONCLUSION:Over one-fourth of road intersections in Changsha city, China have conflicting left-turning traffic lights. Conflicting traffic lights cannot improve transportation efficiency, but increase risky conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) describe the topography and chronology of events in a defined vector space. GIS may also be used for an integrated analysis of environmental and road-related risk factors for traffic accidents. METHODS: In a retrospective study, various features of 165 road crashes were linked to a GIS-generated digital map of an area close to a national highway in India. By overlay tools, clusters of accidents were identified, and color-coded according to accident mechanisms and injury patterns. RESULTS: Spatial analysis revealed a cluster with a high incidence of motorbike injuries resulting in fractures. Examination of the spot demonstrated the risky combination of a speed breaker and a broken traffic light. After fixing the light, no further accidents occurred at the site. CONCLUSION: GIS is a promising technology for geo-referencing accident data, and may be a valuable tool to identify areas of priority for injury prevention in India.