LncRNA SNHG9 is downregulated in osteoarthritis and inhibits chondrocyte apoptosis by downregulating miR-34a through methylation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Our preliminary RNA-Seq data revealed altered expression of small nucleolar RNA host gene 9 (SNHG9) in osteoarthritis (OA) and its reverse correlation with miR-34a, which can regulate chondrocyte apoptosis in rat OA model. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential interaction between SNHG9 and miR-34a in OA. METHODS:A total of 60 healthy volunteers (Control group) as well as 60 OA patients (OA group) were enrolled in this study. Transfections, RT-qPCR, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and cell apoptosis assay were performed. RESULTS:We found that SNHG9 was downregulated in OA and its expression was reversely correlated with the expression of miR-34a only across OA samples but not healthy control samples. In chondrocytes from OA patients, overexpression of SNHG9 led to downregulation of miR-34a and increased methylation of miR-34a gene. In contrast, in chondrocytes from healthy controls, overexpression of SNHG9 did not affect the expression of miR-34a and the methylation of miR-34a gene. Cell apoptosis analysis showed that overexpression of SNHG9 led to decreased apoptotic rate of chondrocytes from OA patients but not chondrocytes from the healthy controls through miR-34a. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, SNHG9 is downregulated in OA and inhibits chondrocyte apoptosis by downregulating miR-34a through methylation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized via destruction of cartilage. Chondrocyte damage is associated with cartilage destruction during OA. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of chondrocyte damage in OA progression. This study aims to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of lncRNA homeobox antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in OA chondrocyte injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-three OA patients and healthy controls without OA were recruited. Chondrocytes were isolated from OA cartilage tissues. HOTAIR, microRNA-107 (miR-107) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation were measured using cell counting kit-8, flow cytometry and western blot. The target interaction was explored by bioinformatics, luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays.<h4>Results</h4>HOTAIR expression was enhanced, and miR-107 level was reduced in OA cartilage samples. HOTAIR overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, but induced cell apoptosis and ECM degradation in chondrocytes. HOTAIR knockdown caused an opposite effect. MiR-107 was sponged and inhibited via HOTAIR, and knockdown of miR-107 mitigated the effect of HOTAIR silence on chondrocyte injury. CXCL12 was targeted by miR-107. CXCL12 overexpression attenuated the roles of miR-107 overexpression or HOTAIR knockdown in the proliferation, apoptosis and ECM degradation. CXCL12 expression was decreased by HOTAIR silence, and restored by knockdown of miR-107.<h4>Conclusion</h4>HOTAIR knockdown promoted chondrocyte proliferation, but inhibited cell apoptosis and ECM degradation in OA chondrocytes by regulating the miR-107/CXCL12 axis.
Project description:Chondrocyte apoptosis is an important factor in the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Cryptotanshinone (CTS) can inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis, but the specific mechanism remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore how CTS may affect chondrocyte apoptosis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to validate microRNA (miR)‑574‑5p, YY1‑associated factor 2 (YAF2), Bcl‑2 and Bax expression levels. H&E, Safranin O and TUNEL staining assays were used to evaluate the apoptosis of arthritic chondrocytes <i>in vivo</i>. A Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry were performed to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis of chondrocytes <i>in vitro</i>. The methylation level of the miR‑574‑5p promoter was measured via methylation specific PCR. The degree of chondrocyte apoptosis and the expression levels of YAF2 and Bcl‑2 were decreased in the mice with OA, and were increased in the OA + CTS mice, while the expression levels of miR‑574‑5p and Bax showed opposite changes. Furthermore, the degree of chondrocyte apoptosis and the expression levels of the aforementioned key factors in chondrocytes were consistent with those observed <i>in vivo</i>. The methylation degree of the miR‑574‑5p promoter was increased by the addition of CTS, and was reduced after the addition of a methylation inhibitor, 5‑aza‑CdR, indicating that CTS could regulate the methylation of miR‑574‑5p promoter. The present study suggested that CTS could downregulate the expression of miR‑574‑5p by regulating its methylation, and thus, could improve YAF2 expression and affect chondrocyte apoptosis.
Project description:Excessive chondrocyte apoptosis is mostly responsible for the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). It has been shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are differentially expressed in OA cartilage and participate in various pathological processes during OA. Here, this study was designed to explore the effect and molecular mechanism of hsa_circ_0005567 on IL-1?-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. The results showed that hsa_circ_0005567 knockdown aggravated the IL-1?-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. In contrast, hsa_circ_0005567 overexpression attenuated the IL-1?-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, but this effect could be abrogated by 3-methyladenine (an inhibitor of autophagy), suggesting that hsa_circ_0005567 overexpression inhibited chondrocyte apoptosis by inducing autophagy. Furthermore, hsa_circ_0005567 competitively bound to miR-495 and derepressed the expression of ATG14, an early autophagy marker that was a direct target of miR-495. Moreover, both miR-495 mimic and ATG14 knockdown counteracted the autophagy-promoting and anti-apoptotic effects of hsa_circ_0005567 overexpression in IL-1?-treated chondrocytes. Taken together, hsa_circ_0005567 activates autophagy by regulating the miR-495/ATG14 axis and thereby suppresses IL-1?-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. These findings suggest that hsa_circ_0005567 may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of OA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA), a refractory disease, is one of the leading contributors for disability worldwide. Since chondrocyte is the only resident cell in cartilage, this study aims to explore the roles of miR-129-3p and CPEB1 in chondrocyte apoptosis in knee joint fracture-induced OA. METHODS:Cartilage was collected from 20 OA patients who underwent total knee replacement (OA group) and 20 patients with knee contusion (normal group). Then, miR-129-3p and CPEB1 levels in the cartilage were quantified by qRT-PCR. Primary rat chondrocytes in the knee were isolated and identified by toluidine blue staining and immunofluorescent staining of type II collagen. OA cellular models were induced by TNF-? treatment, in which miR-129-3p and CPEB1 expressions were assessed. Subsequently, cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression levels of apoptotic protein and caspase-3 were measured. Dual luciferase reporter assay identified the interaction between miR-129-3p and CPEB1. RESULTS:Patients in the OA group had decreased miR-129-3p expression and increased CPEB1 expression than those in the normal group. TNF-? treatment successfully induced the OA cellular model. Downregulated miR-129-3p and upregulated CPEB1 expressions were found in OA-treated chondrocytes. miR-129-3p overexpression or CPEB1 knockdown improved chondrocyte viability and attenuated apoptosis, and vice versa. miR-129-3p negatively regulated CPEB1, thus ameliorating apoptosis and enhancing cell viability. CONCLUSION:miR-129-3p negatively targeted CPEB1 to facilitate chondrocyte viability and hamper apoptosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases of which clinical symptoms includes swelling, synovitis and inflammatory pain, affect patients' daily life. It was reported that non-coding RNAs play vital roles in OA. However, the regulation mechanism of ncRNA in OA pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. METHODS:The expression of SNHG7, miR-34a-5p and SYVN1 was detected using qRT-PCR in tissues, serum and cells. The protein expression of SYVN1, PCNA, cleavage-caspase 3, beclin1 and LC3 were measured using western blot. The RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pulldown, and luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the relationship between SNHG7, miR-34a-5p and SYVN1. The MTT and flow cytometry assay was performed to detected cell proliferation and cell apoptosis respectively. RESULTS:In this study, SNHG7 and SYVN1 expression were down-regulated, but miR-34a-5p was up-regulated in OA tissues and IL-1? treated cells compared with normal tissues and chondrocyte. Functional investigation revealed that up-regulated SNHG7 or down-regulated miR-34a-5p could promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis and autophagy in OA cells. More than that, RIP, pulldown and luciferase reporter assay was applied to determine that miR-34a-5p was a target miRNA of SNHG7 and SYVN1 was a target mRNA of miR-34-5p. Rescue experiments showed that overexpression of miR-34a reversed high expression of SNHG7-mediated suppression of apoptosis and autophagy as well as promotion of proliferation, while its knockdown inhibited cell apoptosis and autophagy and promoted cell proliferation which could be impaired by silencing SYVN1. In addition, SNHG7 regulated SYVN1 through sponging miR-34a-5p. CONCLUSION:SNHG7 sponged miR-34a-5p to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy through targeting SYVN1 which provides a novel sight into the pathogenesis of OA.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease characterized by articular cartilage degeneration and uncontrolled chondrocyte apoptosis. At present, accumulating evidence introduces that circular RNA (circRNA) is involved in the development of OA. The aim of our study was to explore the role and the functional mechanism of circ_0020093 in OA cell model. Human chondrocytes were treated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) to construct OA model. The expression of circ_0020093, miR-23b, and Sprouty 1 (SPRY1) mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated markers and SPRY1 protein level was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Bioinformatics analysis-predicted relationship between miR-23b and circ_0020093 or SPRY1 was further verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay. In this study, we found that the expression of circ_0020093 and SPRY1 was declined, while miR-23b expression was elevated in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes. IL-1β induced chondrocyte apoptosis and ECM degradation, while these negative effects were alleviated by circ_0020093 overexpression or miR-23b inhibition. MiR-23b was a target of circ_0020093, and SPRY1 was a downstream target of miR-23b. Rescue experiments showed that miR-23b enrichment reversed the role of circ_0020093 overexpression, and SPRY1 knockdown also reversed the effects of miR-23b inhibition. Importantly, circ_0020093 positively regulated SPRY1 expression by targeting miR-23b. In conclusion, circ_0020093 ameliorates IL-1β-induced apoptosis and ECM degradation of human chondrocytes by regulating the miR-23b/SPRY1 axis.
Project description:BACKGROUND Growing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as decoys of microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in osteoarthritis (OA) progression, but the potential mechanism of lncRNA SNHG15 in OA remains unknown. Thus, the present study explored the molecular mechanism of SNHG15 in OA progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS OA chondrocytes were created by 20 ng/ml IL-1ß stimulation, and the experimental OA model was created by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Cartilage histomorphology was observed by safranin and fast green double dyeing. The relationships between SNHG15 and miR-7, KLF4, and miR-7 were determined by dual-luciferase assay or RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP). Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expressions of Ki67, collagen II, and Aggrecan. Moreover, SNHG15, miR-7, KLF4, MMP3, ADAMTS5, COL2A1, Aggrecan, and ß-catenin expressions were assessed by qRT-PCR or Western blot. The methylation status of SNHG15 promoter was evaluated by MS-PCR. RESULTS Underexpression of KLF4 and SHNG15 and overexpression of miR-7 were found in human OA knee cartilage tissues and IL-1ß-stimulated OA chondrocytes. SHNG15 overexpression significantly inhibited ECM degradation and promoted chondrocyte formation of OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, SNHG15 regulated KLF4 expression by sponging miR-7. Further analysis found that SNHG15 significantly inhibited b-catenin in OA chondrocytes. SNHG15 had a higher level of methylation in human OA tissues than in normal cartilage tissues. CONCLUSIONS Our results revealed that SNHG15 alleviated OA progression by regulating ECM homeostasis, which provides a promising target for OA therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been shown to promote cartilage regeneration. This study aimed to explore whether exosomal lncRNA-KLF3-AS1 derived from hMSCs can promote chondrocyte proliferation via miR-206/GIT1 axis in osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS:hMSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exo) were prepared for morphological observation and identification by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry. IL-1?-induced OA chondrocytes and collagenase-induced mouse OA model were established for the further experiments. Luciferase activity assay was performed to test whether miR-206 could bind to KLF3-AS1 or GIT1. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS:MSC-Exos increased chondrogenic genes Col2a1 (type II collagen alpha 1) and aggrecan, decreased hondrocyte hypertrophy markers MMP-13 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) and Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) in chondrocytes isolated from OA model mice. Furthermore, MSC-Exos attenuated IL-1?-induced chondrocyte proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Moreover, MSCKLF3-AS1-Exos (exosomes derived from KLF3-AS1-overexpressing-MSCs) ameliorated IL-1?-induced chondrocyte injury. Results also demonstrated that KLF3-AS1 acted as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by sponging miR-206 to facilitate GIT1 expression. In addition, miR-206 overexpression and GIT1 knockdown reversed MSCKLF3-AS1-Exos-mediated attenuation of chondrocyte injury. CONCLUSION:Exosomal KLF3-AS1 derived from MSCs involved in MSC-Exos-mediated chondrocyte proliferation induction and chondrocyte apoptosis inhibition via miR-206/GIT1 axis. Abbreviation: G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1).
Project description:Apoptosis of articular chondrocytes is associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2?, encoded by Epas1, causes OA cartilage destruction by regulating the expression of various matrix-degrading enzymes. Here, we investigated the involvement of HIF-2? in chondrocyte apoptosis and OA cartilage destruction. HIF-2? levels in human and mouse OA chondrocytes were markedly elevated in association with increased apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. Overexpression or knockdown of HIF-2? alone did not cause chondrocyte apoptosis. However, HIF-2? expression markedly increased chondrocyte apoptosis in the presence of an agonistic anti-Fas (CD95) antibody. HIF-2? enhanced Fas expression and potentiated downstream signaling pathways, increasing the activity of initiator and executioner caspases. Overexpression of HIF-2? in mouse cartilage tissue, either by intra-articular injection of Epas1 adenovirus (Ad-Epas1) or in the context of chondrocyte-specific Epas1 transgenic mice, increased chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage destruction. In contrast, chondrocyte-specific knockout of Epas1 in mice suppressed DMM (destabilization of the medial meniscus)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and inhibited OA cartilage destruction. Moreover, Fas-deficient mice exhibited diminished chondrocyte apoptosis and OA cartilage destruction in response to Ad-Epas1 injection or DMM surgery. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HIF-2? potentiates Fas-mediated chondrocyte apoptosis, which is associated with OA cartilage destruction.
Project description:Hydrostatic pressure (HP) modulates chondrocytes metabolism, however, its ability to regulate oxidative stress and microRNAs (miRNA) has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-34a, miR-146a, and miR-181a as possible mediators of HP effects on oxidative stress in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were exposed to cyclic low HP (1-5 MPa) and continuous static HP (10 MPa) for 3 hrs. Metalloproteinases (MMPs), disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTS)-5, type II collagen (Col2a1), miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-181a, antioxidant enzymes, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction qRT-PCR, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species ROS production by cytometry, and ?-catenin by immunofluorescence. The relationship among HP, the studied miRNA, and oxidative stress was assessed by transfection with miRNA specific inhibitors. Low cyclical HP significantly reduced apoptosis, the gene expression of MMP-13, ADAMTS5, miRNA, the production of superoxide anion, and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. Conversely, an increased Col2a1 and BCL2 genes was observed. ?-catenin protein expression was reduced in cells exposed to HP 1-5 MPa. Opposite results were obtained following continuous static HP application. Finally, miRNA silencing enhanced low HP and suppressed continuous HP-induced effects. Our data suggest miRNA as one of the mechanisms by which HP regulates chondrocyte metabolism and oxidative stress, via Wnt/?-catenin pathway.