Zinc for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and other acute viral respiratory infections: a rapid review.
ABSTRACT: Background:The global COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an urgent search for interventions to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2. Higher risk of infection and adverse outcomes coincide with populations with chronic diseases and elderly who are at risk of zinc deficiency. Through several mechanisms zinc may prevent, reduce severity and duration of symptoms. Method:An a priori protocol was registered with PROSPERO on 27th April 2020 (CRD42020182044). Eight databases (one Chinese) and four clinical trial registries (one Chinese) were searched for randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), evaluating single or adjunct zinc against placebo or active controls, for prevention and/or treatment of SARS-CoV-2, other coronaviruses or related infections. RR constraints included not searching bibliographies or contacting authors, single reviewers with calibration and second reviewer checking, meta-analyses and quality appraisal of critical and study primary outcomes only and reporting results as they became available. Results:118 publications of 1,627 records met the inclusion criteria (35 Chinese and 83 English publications), 32 for prevention, 78 for treatment and 8 for both. Four RCTs specific to SARS-CoV-2 are ongoing; two are investigating zinc for prevention and two for treatment. As of 7 July 2020, no results were available. A wide range of zinc forms, including nasal spray/gel, lozenges, liquid, tablets and intramuscular were investigated. Conclusion:Currently, indirect evidence suggests zinc may potentially reduce the risk, duration and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections, particularly for populations at risk of zinc deficiency including people with chronic disease co-morbidities and older adults. Direct evidence to determine if zinc is effective for either prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 is pending. In the interim, assessing zinc status of people with chronic diseases and older adults, as part of a SARS-CoV-2 clinical work-up, is reasonable as both groups have a higher risk of zinc deficiency/insufficiency and poorer outcomes from SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:Background:The global COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an urgent search for effective interventions. SARS-CoV-2 mortality/morbidity risk increases with age and for those chronic disease co-morbidities, both of which are associated with lower zinc status, as is the risk of infection. Methods:Rapid review methods will be applied to a systematic review of zinc for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and viral respiratory tract infections in humans. Included are published studies reporting randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compare zinc intervention to placebo and/or other comparator interventions. English and Chinese language databases will be searched for primary studies of viral respiratory tract infections and clinical trial registries for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Due to concerns about indirectness, studies evaluating non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infections will be rated down by one level, and non-specific or confirmed non-coronavirus viral infections will be rated down by two levels. Review constraints include (1) using Google translate when screening articles published in languages other than English or Chinese and limited translation (2) following calibration, only one reviewer will screen articles, extract data, appraise quality and conduct the analysis, (3) prioritising data extraction and meta-analyses of SARS-CoV-2 studies and critical outcomes of other viral infections, followed by high risk groups and (4) reporting important preliminary findings prior to peer review if necessary. Discussion:The application of these rapid review methods and broadening the inclusion criteria to include other coronavirus-related viral respiratory tract infections aims to enable a timely evidence appraisal of priority research questions and dissemination of results. Study registration:PROSPERO CRD42020182044.
Project description:Objective This narrative, non-systematic review provides an update on the genetic aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its interactions with the human genome within the context of COVID-19. Although the main focus is on the etiology of this new disease, the genetics of SARS-CoV-2 impacts prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and the development of therapies. Data source A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, BioRxiv, and SciELO, as well as a manual search on the internet (mainly in 2019 and 2020) using the keywords “COVID-19,” “SARS-CoV-2,” “coronavirus,” “genetics,” “molecular,” “mutation,” “vaccine,” “Brazil,” “Brasil,” and combinations of these terms. The keywords “Brazil” and “Brasil” were used to find publications that were specific to the Brazilian population’s molecular epidemiology data. Articles most relevant to the scope were selected non-systematically. Data synthesis A number of publications illustrate an expanding knowledge on the genetics and genomics of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for understanding COVID-19. Conclusions Knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence permits an in-depth investigation of the role its proteins play in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, which in turn will be enormously valuable for understanding the evolutionary, clinical, and epidemiological aspects of this disease and focusing on prevention and treatment.
Project description:In view of the emerging COVID?19 pandemic caused by SARS?CoV?2 virus, the search for potential protective and therapeutic antiviral strategies is of particular and urgent interest. Zinc is known to modulate antiviral and antibacterial immunity and regulate inflammatory response. Despite the lack of clinical data, certain indications suggest that modulation of zinc status may be beneficial in COVID?19. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Zn2+ possesses antiviral activity through inhibition of SARS?CoV RNA polymerase. This effect may underlie therapeutic efficiency of chloroquine known to act as zinc ionophore. Indirect evidence also indicates that Zn2+ may decrease the activity of angiotensin?converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), known to be the receptor for SARS?CoV?2. Improved antiviral immunity by zinc may also occur through up?regulation of interferon ? production and increasing its antiviral activity. Zinc possesses anti?inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF??B signaling and modulation of regulatory T?cell functions that may limit the cytokine storm in COVID?19. Improved Zn status may also reduce the risk of bacterial co?infection by improving mucociliary clearance and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium, as well as direct antibacterial effects against S. pneumoniae. Zinc status is also tightly associated with risk factors for severe COVID?19 including ageing, immune deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, since these are known risk groups for zinc deficiency. Therefore, Zn may possess protective effect as preventive and adjuvant therapy of COVID?19 through reducing inflammation, improvement of mucociliary clearance, prevention of ventilator?induced lung injury, modulation of antiviral and antibacterial immunity. However, further clinical and experimental studies are required.
Project description:Protecting Health Care Workers (HCWs) during routine care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is of paramount importance to halt the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2) pandemic. The WHO, ECDC and CDC have issued conflicting guidelines on the use of respiratory filters (N95) by HCWs. We searched PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library from the inception to March 21, 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing N95 respirators versus surgical masks for prevention of COVID-19 or any other respiratory infection among HCWs. The grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Four RCTs involving 8736 HCWs were included. We did not find any trial specifically on prevention of COVID-19. However, wearing N95 respirators can prevent 73 more (95% CI 46-91) clinical respiratory infections per 1000 HCWs compared to surgical masks (2 RCTs; 2594 patients; low quality of evidence). A protective effect of N95 respirators in laboratory-confirmed bacterial colonization (RR = 0.41; 95%CI 0.28-0.61) was also found. A trend in favour of N95 respirators was observed in preventing laboratory-confirmed respiratory viral infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, and influenza like illness. We found no direct high quality evidence on whether N95 respirators are better than surgical masks for HCWs protection from SARS-CoV-2. However, low quality evidence suggests that N95 respirators protect HCWs from clinical respiratory infections. This finding should be contemplated to decide the best strategy to support the resilience of healthcare systems facing the potentially catastrophic SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Project description:This study was conducted to assess the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia and the adaptation of the population to the virus in March to June 2020. Two groups were investigated: 1) 12 082 individuals already proven positive for SARS-CoV-2 (clinical information was studied); 2) 7864+4458 individuals with suspected respiratory infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] tests and clinical information were studied). In the latter, SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals comprised 5.37% in March and 11.42% in June 2020. Several viral co-infections were observed for SARS-CoV-2. Rhinoviruses accounted for the largest proportion of co-infections (7.91% of samples were SARS-CoV-2-positive); followed by respiratory syncytial virus (7.03%); adenoviruses (4.84%); metapneumoviruses (3.29%); parainfluenza viruses (2.42%); enterovirus D68 (1.10%) and other viruses (entero-, echo-, parecho-) (<1%). Average SARS-CoV-2 case fatality rate in the group of 12 537 individuals was determined to be 0.6% (in contrast to official Russian government statistics of 1.5% mortality). This rate is within the range of mortality caused by other common seasonal respiratory viruses (0.01-2.21% in Russia in 2012 to 2020). Most fatalities occurred in individuals with comorbidities, as for other respiratory viruses. The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic carriers was 56.68% in March and 70.67% in June 2020. This new pathogen presents a substantial risk to human beings as it was not contained at the start of its outbreak in Wuhan and spread worldwide. However, surveillance, prevention and treatment must be strictly evidence-based and not dictated by fear.
Project description:Background The ongoing global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused over 4.7 million infections greatly challenging healthcare workers (HCW) and medical institutions worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown to significantly impact mental and physical health of HCW. Thus, implementation of testing facilities supporting HCW are urgently needed. Methods A low-threshold SARS-CoV-2 testing facility was introduced at the University Hospital Bonn, Germany, in March 2020. Irrespective of clinical symptoms employees were offered a voluntary and free SARS-CoV-2 test. Furthermore, employees returning from SARS-CoV-2 risk regions and employees after risk contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected patients or employees were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pharyngeal swabs were taken and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 was performed, test results being available within 24 h. Profession, symptoms and reason for SARS-CoV-2 testing of employees were recorded. Results Between 9th March and April 30, 2020, a total of 1510 employees were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. 1185 employees took advantage of the low-threshold testing facility. One percent (n = 11) were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 18% being asymptomatic, 36% showing mild and 36% moderate/severe symptoms (missing 10%). Furthermore, of 56 employees returning from SARS-CoV-2 risk regions, 18% (10/56) were tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. After risk contact tracking by the hospital hygiene 6 patient-to-employee transmissions were identified in 163 employees with contact to 55 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Conclusion In the absence of easily accessible public SARS-CoV-2 testing facilities low-threshold SARS-CoV-2 testing facilities in hospitals with rapid testing resources help to identify SARS-CoV-2 infected employees with absent or mild symptoms, thus stopping the spread of infection in vulnerable hospital environments. High levels of professional infection prevention training and implementation of specialized wards as well as a perfectly working hospital hygiene network identifying and tracking risk contacts are of great importance in a pandemic setting. Highlights • Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections are higher in employees of a hospital environment compared to the general population.• Low-threshold testing facility helps to identify SARS-CoV-2 positive employees with absent or mild clinical symptoms.• Tracking of risk contacts by the hospital hygiene prevent distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PURPOSE:To examine the burden of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV on HCWs and risk factors for infection, using rapid and living review methods. DATA SOURCES:Multiple electronic databases, including the WHO database of publications on coronavirus disease and the medRxiv preprint server (2003 through 27 March 2020, with ongoing surveillance through 24 April 2020), and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION:Studies published in any language reporting incidence of or outcomes associated with coronavirus infections in HCWs and studies on the association between risk factors (demographic characteristics, role, exposures, environmental and administrative factors, and personal protective equipment [PPE] use) and HCW infections. New evidence will be incorporated on an ongoing basis by using living review methods. DATA EXTRACTION:One reviewer abstracted data and assessed methodological limitations; verification was done by a second reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS:64 studies met inclusion criteria; 43 studies addressed burden of HCW infections (15 on SARS-CoV-2), and 34 studies addressed risk factors (3 on SARS-CoV-2). Health care workers accounted for a significant proportion of coronavirus infections and may experience particularly high infection incidence after unprotected exposures. Illness severity was lower than in non-HCWs. Depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were common in HCWs during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. The strongest evidence on risk factors was on PPE use and decreased infection risk. The association was most consistent for masks but was also observed for gloves, gowns, eye protection, and handwashing; evidence suggested a dose-response relationship. No study evaluated PPE reuse. Certain exposures (such as involvement in intubations, direct patient contact, or contact with bodily secretions) were associated with increased infection risk. Infection control training was associated with decreased risk. LIMITATION:There were few studies on risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, the studies had methodological limitations, and streamlined rapid review methods were used. CONCLUSION:Health care workers experience significant burdens from coronavirus infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Use of PPE and infection control training are associated with decreased infection risk, and certain exposures are associated with increased risk. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:World Health Organization.
Project description:PURPOSE:This scoping review evaluated the currently available data related to abdominal imaging in the SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD:A systematic review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science was performed from inception to July 15, 2020 using PRISMA-ScR guidelines. The review included case reports and series discussing radiologic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in abdominal imaging studies. Studies published from inception to March 31, 2020, were independently screened and reviewed by one author, and another author reviewed studies published after March 31 to July 15, 2020. Study screening and full-text review for publications before March 31, 2020, was performed by one author, and another author for publications after March 31 to July 15, 2020. RESULTS:Thirty-six studies were included in qualitative synthesis. The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms is roughly 18% and includes loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Sixteen percent of COVID-19 cases may only present with gastrointestinal symptoms. Many patients presenting this way demonstrate evidence of COVID-19 incidentally through abdominal CT imaging at the lung bases. Studies published to date have also reported abdominal imaging findings including small and large bowel wall thickening, fluid-filled colon, pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumoperitoneum, intussusception, and ascites. CONCLUSION:Gastrointestinal manifestations and imaging manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasingly reported and warrant specific attention during abdominal imaging.
Project description:To optimize diagnostic workup of the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we systematically reviewed neurological and neuroradiological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 and all other known human coronavirus species (HCoV). Which lessons can we learn? We identified relevant publications (until 26 July 2020) using systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and Ovid EMBASE with predefined search strings. A total of 4571 unique publications were retrieved, out of which 378 publications were selected for in-depth analysis by two raters, including a total of 17549 (out of which were 14418 SARS-CoV-2) patients. Neurological complications and associated neuroradiological manifestations are prevalent for all HCoVs (HCoV-229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2). Moreover there are similarities in symptomatology across different HCoVs, particularly between SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Common neurological manifestations include fatigue, headache, and smell/taste disorders. Additionally, clinicians need to be attentive for at least five classes of neurological complications: (1) Cerebrovascular disorders including ischemic stroke and macro/micro-hemorrhages, (2) encephalopathies, (3) para-/postinfectious immune-mediated complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, (4) (meningo-)encephalitis, potentially with concomitant seizures, and (5) neuropsychiatric complications such as psychosis and mood disorders. Our systematic review highlights the need for vigilance regarding neurological complications in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and other HCoVs, especially since some complications may result in chronic disability. Neuroimaging protocols should be designed to specifically screen for these complications. Therefore, we propose practical imaging guidelines to facilitate the diagnostic workup and monitoring of patients infected with HCoVs.
Project description:Previously, we showed that 3% (31/1032)of asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) from a large teaching hospital in Cambridge, UK, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in April 2020. About 15% (26/169) HCWs with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (Rivett et al., 2020). Here, we show that the proportion of both asymptomatic and symptomatic HCWs testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 rapidly declined to near-zero between 25th April and 24th May 2020, corresponding to a decline in patient admissions with COVID-19 during the ongoing UK 'lockdown'. These data demonstrate how infection prevention and control measures including staff testing may help prevent hospitals from becoming independent 'hubs' of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and illustrate how, with appropriate precautions, organizations in other sectors may be able to resume on-site work safely.