Identification of Novel Serum MicroRNAs in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:To identify circulating microRNAs (miRNA) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus differentially expressed serum miRNA could be used as AMD biomarkers. Methods:This study involved total RNA isolation from sera from patients with atrophic AMD (n = 10), neovascular AMD (n = 10), and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 10). A total of 377 miRNAs were coanalyzed using array technologies, and differentially regulated miRNAs were determined. Extensive validation studies (n = 90) of serum from AMD patients and controls confirmed initial results. Total RNA isolation was carried out from sera from patients with atrophic AMD (n = 30), neovascular AMD (n = 30), and controls (n = 30). Fourteen miRNAs from the discovery dataset were coanalyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate their presence. Results:Unsupervised hierarchical clustering indicated that AMD serum specimens have a different miRNA profile to healthy controls. We successfully identified and validated the differentially regulated miRNAs in serum from AMD patients versus controls. The biomarker potential of three miRNAs (miR-126, miR-19a, and miR-410) was confirmed by qRT-PCR, with significantly increased quantities in serum of AMD patients compared with healthy controls. Conclusions:Increased quantities of miR-126, miR-410, and miR-19a in serum from AMD patients indicate that these miRNAs could potentially serve as diagnostic AMD biomarkers. All three miRNAs significantly correlated with AMD pathogenesis. Translational Relevance:The discovery of new AMD miRNA may act as biomarkers in evaluating AMD diagnosis and prognosis.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) has posed a great health threat to a growing number of people all over the world. Detection of serum miRNAs, being sensitive, noninvasive, and easy to obtain, has a great potential of being a novel screening method for PC patients. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression levels in serum by qRT-PCR. The study was divided into four phases: the screening, training, testing, and external validation stage. We firstly chose candidate miRNAs using Exiqon panels in the screening phase. Then, a total of 129 PC serum samples and 107 normal controls (NCs) were further analyzed in the following training and testing phases to identify differently expressed miRNAs. A cohort of 30 PC serum samples vs 30 NCs was used to confirm the diagnostic value of the identified miRNAs in the external validation phase. Moreover, miRNA expressions in additional 44 PC tumor tissue samples and the matched adjacent normal tissue samples as well as 32 pairs of serum-derived exosomes samples were also further explored. As a result, we identified six significantly upregulated miRNAs in the serum of PC: let-7b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-25-3p. A six-miRNA panel in serum was then established. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for the panel was 0.910 for the combined training and testing phases, which showed higher diagnostic value than the individual miRNA. Prognostic value prediction using Cox's proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves showed that increased serum miR-19a-3p was closely related to worse overall survival (OS). In addition, significant upregulation of miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, and miR-19b-3p was observed in both PC tissue and serum-derived exosomes samples. In conclusion, we identified a six-miRNA (let-7b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-25-3p) panel in the serum for PC early and noninvasive diagnosis.
Project description:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs) which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV) AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected?=?5.6*10-5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected?=?8.0*10-4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected?=?9.6*10-3). A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p?=?1.2*10-8). To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA) were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGF?, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We used a screening strategy of global serum microRNA (miRNA) profiling, followed by a second stage of independent replication and exploration of liver expression of selected miRNAs to study: (1) the circulating miRNA signature associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression and predictive power, (2) the role of miRNAs in disease biology and (3) the association between circulating miRNAs and features of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS:The study used a case-control design and included patients with NAFLD proven through biopsy and healthy controls. RESULTS:Among 84 circulating miRNAs analysed, miR-122, miR-192, miR-19a and miR-19b, miR-125b, and miR-375 were upregulated >2-fold (p<0.05) either in simple steatosis (SS) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The most dramatic and significant fold changes were observed in the serum levels of miR-122 (7.2-fold change in NASH vs controls and 3.1-fold change in NASH vs SS) and miR-192 (4.4-fold change in NASH vs controls); these results were replicated in the validation set. The majority of serum miR-122 circulate in argonaute2-free forms. Circulating miR-19a/b and miR-125b were correlated with biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Liver miR-122 expression was 10-fold (p<0.03) downregulated in NASH compared with SS and was preferentially expressed at the edge of lipid-laden hepatocytes. In vitro exploration showed that overexpression of miR-122 enhances alanine aminotransferase activity. CONCLUSIONS:miR-122 plays a role of physiological significance in the biology of NAFLD; circulating miRNAs mirror the histological and molecular events occurring in the liver. NAFLD has a distinguishing circulating miRNA profile associated with a global dysmetabolic disease state and cardiovascular risk.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating neurologic disorder with poor survival rates and no clear biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS:We compared serum microRNA (miRNA) expression from patients with ALS with healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer disease. We also correlated miRNA expression in cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts of ALS patients with clinical parameters. RESULTS:We identified 7 miRNAs (miR-192-5p, miR-192-3p, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b, miR-144-5p, miR-19a-3p) that were upregulated and 6 miRNAs (miR-320c, miR-320a, let-7d-3p, miR-425-5p, miR-320b, miR-139-5p) that were downregulated in patients with ALS compared with healthy controls, patients with Alzheimer disease, and patients with multiple sclerosis. Changes in 4 miRNAs (miR-136-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR-331-3p, miR-496) correlated positively and change in 1 miRNA (miR-2110) correlated negatively with changes in clinical parameters in longitudinal analysis. DISCUSSION:Our findings identified serum miRNAs that can serve as biomarkers for ALS diagnosis and progression. Muscle Nerve 58: 261-269, 2018.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; many of them act in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and RPE degeneration is known to be a critical factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Repeated injections with anti-VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) are the only effective therapy in wet AMD. We investigated the correlation between the expression of 18 miRNAs involved in the regulation of the VEGFA gene in serum of 76 wet AMD patients and 70 controls. Efficacy of anti-VEGFA treatment was evaluated by counting the number of injections delivered up to 12 years. In addition, we compared the relative numbers of deaths in patient with AMD and control groups. We observed a decreased expression of miR-34-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-205-5p in wet AMD patients as compared with controls. These miRNAs are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, cytoprotection and protein clearance. No miRNA was significantly correlated with the treatment outcome. Wet AMD patients had greater mortality than controls, and their survival was inversely associated with the number of anti-VEGFA injections per year. No association was observed between miRNA expression and mortality. Our study emphasizes the need to clarify the role of miRNA regulation in AMD pathogenesis.
Project description:Functional microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes have been recognised as potential stable biomarkers in cancers. The aim of this study is to identify specific miRNAs in exosome as serum biomarkers for the early detection of recurrence in human colorectal cancer (CRC).Serum samples were sequentially obtained from six patients with and without recurrent CRC. The miRNAs were purified from exosomes, and miRNA microarray analysis was performed. The miRNA expression profiles and copy number aberrations were explored using microarray and array CGH analyses in 124 CRC tissues. Then, we validated exosomal miRNAs in 2 serum sample sets (90 and 209 CRC patients) by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.Exosomal miR-17-92a cluster expression level in serum was correlated with the recurrence of CRC. Exosomal miR-19a expression levels in serum were significantly increased in patients with CRC as compared with healthy individuals with gene amplification. The CRC patients with high exosomal miR-19a expression showed poorer prognoses than the low expression group (P<0.001).Abundant expression of exosomal miR-19a in serum was identified as a prognostic biomarker for recurrence in CRC patients.
Project description:Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as promising biomarkers for human cancer. In the current study, we investigated the potential use of serum miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in a cohort of Chinese astrocytoma patients.An initial screening of the circulating miRNA expression profile was performed on pooled serum samples from 10 preoperative patients and 10 healthy controls using a TaqMan low-density array. The selected serum miRNAs were then validated in 90 preoperative patients and 110 healthy controls who were randomly divided into a training set and a validation set. An additional double-blind test was performed in 50 astrocytomas and 50 controls to assess the serum miRNA-based biomarker accuracy in predicting astrocytoma. The differentially expressed miRNAs were evaluated in paired preoperative and postoperative serum samples from 73 astrocytoma patients. The correlation of the miRNA levels with survival in astrocytoma samples was estimated.Nine serum miRNAs were significantly increased in the astrocytoma patients. The biomarker composed of these 9 miRNAs had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. These 9 miRNAs were markedly decreased in the serum after operation. The upregulation of miR-20a-5p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-181b-5p was associated with advanced clinical stages of astrocytoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the high expression of miR-19a-3p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-181b-5p was significantly associated with poor patient survival. Finally, the combined 3-miRNAs panel was an important prognostic predictor, independent of other clinicopathological factors.The results indicated the potential of serum miRNAs as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for human astrocytoma.
Project description:High stability and disease-specific disarrangements suggest that microRNA molecules (miRNAs) present in body fluids are ideally suited for diagnostic applications, including gastric cancer (GC). However, the actual source of circulating miRNA biomarkers in GC has not been adequately evaluated, particularly in the Western populations that have some distinct characteristics compared with Asian patients.Twenty treatment-naive patients with GC along with 20 cancer-free controls were recruited. miRCURY LNA miRNA microarrays were used for miRNA expression profiling in primary tumours and adjacent healthy mucosa. Differentially expressed serum miRNAs were identified with a high throughput TaqMan OpenArray technology in tumour-draining veins of the portal system, as well as peripheral blood of the patients and controls.Tissue profiling identified 108 sequences differentially expressed between primary tumours and adjacent mucosa (87 upregulated and 21 downregulated). Twenty miRNAs found in serum of GC patients showed expression levels higher than in controls. However, only seven of these molecules were overexpressed in primary tumours (miR-130a, miR-331, miR-19a, miR-223, miR-106a, miR-21, and miR-374). Moreover, expression of miR-331 and miR-21 was significantly higher in the peripheral circulation compared to tumour-draining veins of the portal system.The results indicate that the majority of potential serum miRNA biomarkers may originate from tissues other than the primary tumour.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of plasma cells. Despite continuing advances, novel biomarkers are needed for diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In our study, we characterized the diagnostic and prognostic potential of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in MM. Serum miRNA levels were analyzed in 108 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients and 56 healthy donors (HDs). Our analysis identified 95 dysregulated miRNAs in newly diagnosed MM patients. Of the 95 dysregulated miRNAs, dysregulation of miR-19a, miR-92a, miR-214-3p, miR-135b-5p, miR-4254, miR-3658 and miR-33b was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a combination of miR-19a and miR-4254 can distinguish MM from HD with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 90.5%. Decreased expression of miR-19a was positively correlated with international staging system advancement, del(13q14) and 1q21 amplification. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-19a resulted in significantly decreased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Our analysis indicated that the poor prognostic correlation of miR-19a expression was independent of genetic abnormalities in MM. Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-19a was a significant predictor of shortened PFS and OS. Interestingly, although miR-19a levels portend a poor prognosis, patients with low miR-19a levels had an improved response to bortezomib compared to those with high miR-19a profile. Patients with downregulated miR-19a experienced a significantly extended survival upon bortezomib-based therapy. These data demonstrate that the expression patterns of serum microRNAs are altered in MM, and miR-19a levels are a valuable prognostic marker to identify high-risk MM.
Project description:Currently, none of the available colorectal adenocarcinoma (CAC) testing has been established as a well-accepted diagnosis tool, particularly for the early stage of CAC. The recent discovery of serum microRNA (miRNA) profile has provided a new auxiliary approach for tumour diagnosis. Our study is involved in the global analysis of serum miRNAs during the normal-colorectal adenoma (CA)-CAC sequence.Serum samples were collected from 307 CAC patients, 164 CA patients and 226 healthy controls. Differentially expressed serum miRNAs were screened with Miseq sequencing followed by the reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) validation. The miRNA panel was developed with a logistic regression model and validated using an independent cohort. The miRNA levels in CAC patients of different clinical stages and CA patients of different grades were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the panel.The Miseq sequencing results revealed 15 differentially expressed miRNAs in the intersection of CAC vs CA and CA vs healthy controls according to our criteria. After the selection and validation process via RT-qPCR, we identified a four-miRNA panel (miR-19a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-92a-3p and miR-422a) with a high diagnostic accuracy of CAC. Even in the low-carcinoembryonic antigen level group, the diagnostic accuracy of this miRNA panel was still acceptable (AUC=0.810). Surprisingly, our results indicated that the miRNA panel could differentiate stage I/II CAC from controls. In addition, this panel could also differentiate CA from CAC (AUC=0.886) and healthy controls (AUC=0.765).We established a serum four-miRNA panel with considerable clinical value in the early-stage diagnosis of CAC.