Observation of Enhanced Dissociative Photochemistry in the Non-Native Nucleobase 2-Thiouracil.
ABSTRACT: We present the first study to measure the dissociative photochemistry of 2-thiouracil (2-TU), an important nucleobase analogue with applications in molecular biology and pharmacology. Laser photodissociation spectroscopy is applied to the deprotonated and protonated forms of 2-TU, which are produced in the gas-phase using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Our results show that the deprotonated form of 2-thiouracil ([2-TU-H]-) decays predominantly by electron ejection and hence concomitant production of the [2-TU-H]· free-radical species, following photoexcitation across the UVA-UVC region. Thiocyanate (SCN-) and a m/z 93 fragment ion are also observed as photodecay products of [2-TU-H]- but at very low intensities. Photoexcitation of protonated 2-thiouracil ([2-TU·H]+) across the same UVA-UVC spectral region produces the m/z 96 cationic fragment as the major photofragment. This ion corresponds to ejection of an HS· radical from the precursor ion and is determined to be a product of direct excited state decay. Fragment ions associated with decay of the hot ground state (i.e., the ions we would expect to observe if 2-thiouracil was behaving like UV-dissipating uracil) are observed as much more minor products. This behaviour is consistent with enhanced intersystem crossing to triplet excited states compared to internal conversion back to the ground state. These are the first experiments to probe the effect of protonation/deprotonation on thionucleobase photochemistry, and hence explore the effect of pH at a molecular level on their photophysical properties.
Project description:Avobenzone (AB) is a widely used UVA filter known to undergo irreversible photodegradation. Here, we investigate the detailed pathways by which AB photodegrades by applying UV laser-interfaced mass spectrometry to protonated AB ions. Gas-phase infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra obtained with the free electron laser for infrared experiments, FELIX, (600-1800 cm-1) are also presented to confirm the geometric structures. The UV gas-phase absorption spectrum (2.5-5 eV) of protonated AB contains bands that correspond to selective excitation of either the enol or diketo forms, allowing us to probe the resulting, tautomer-dependent photochemistry. Numerous photofragments (i.e., photodegradants) are directly identified for the first time, with m/z 135 and 161 dominating, and m/z 146 and 177 also appearing prominently. Analysis of the production spectra of these photofragments reveals that that strong enol to keto photoisomerism is occurring, and that protonation significantly disrupts the stability of the enol (UVA active) tautomer. Close comparison of fragment ion yields with the TD-DFT-calculated absorption spectra give detailed information on the location and identity of the dissociative excited state surfaces, and thus provide new insight into the photodegradation pathways of avobenzone, and photoisomerization of the wider class of ?-diketone containing molecules.
Project description:A comparison of the fragmentation pathways of both protonated and deprotonated O-linked glycopeptides from fetuin and ?-casein obtained upon collision induced dissociation (CID) and 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) in a linear ion trap is presented. A strategy using non-specific pronase digestion, zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) solid phase extraction (SPE) enrichment, and nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) is employed. UVPD of deprotonated glycopeptides generally produced the greatest array of fragment ions, thus affording the most diagnostic information about both glycan structure and peptide sequence. In addition, UVPD generated unique fragment ion such as Y-type ions arising from cleavage at the N-terminus of proline. CID and UVPD of protonated glycopeptides produced fragment ions solely from glycan cleavages.
Project description:The intrinsic optical properties and photochemistry of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) dianions are investigated using a combination of tandem ion mobility spectrometry and action spectroscopy. Two principal isomers are observed, the more stable form being deprotonated on the isoalloxazine group and a phosphate (N-3,PO4 deprotomer), and the other on the two phosphates (PO4,PO4 deprotomer). Ion mobility data and electronic action spectra suggest that photo-induced proton transfer occurs from the isoalloxazine group to a phosphate group, converting the PO4,PO4 deprotomer to the N-3,PO4 deprotomer. Comparisons of the isomer selective action spectra of FAD dianions and flavin monoanions with solution spectra and gas-phase photodissociation action spectra suggests that solvation shifts the electronic absorption of the deprotonated isoalloxazine group to higher energy. This is interpreted as evidence for significant charge transfer in the lowest optical transition of deprotonated isoalloxazine. Overall, this work demonstrates that the site of deprotonation of flavin anions strongly affects their electronic absorptions and photochemistry.
Project description:We previously reported that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is highly sensitive to UVC (254 nm), UVB (290 to 320 nm), and UVA (320 to 400 nm). Here we delineated the cellular response of MR-1 to UV radiation damage by analyzing the transcriptional profile during a 1-h recovering period after UVC, UVB, and UVA exposure at a dose that yields about a 20% survival rate. Although the SOS response was observed with all three treatments, the induction was more robust in response to short-wavelength UV radiation (UVB and UVC). Similarly, more prophage-related genes were induced by short-wavelength UV radiation. MR-1 showed an active detoxification mechanism in response to UVA, which included the induction of antioxidant enzymes and iron-sequestering proteins to scavenge reactive oxygen species. In addition, a great number of genes encoding multidrug and heavy metal efflux pumps were induced following UVA irradiation. Our data suggested that activation of prophages appears the major lethal factor in MR-1 following UVC or UVB irradiation, whereas oxidative damage contributes greatly to the high UVA sensitivity in MR-1.
Project description:We systematically investigated the physiological response as well as DNA damage repair and damage tolerance in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 following UVC, UVB, UVA, and solar light exposure. MR-1 showed the highest UVC sensitivity among Shewanella strains examined, with D37 and D10 values of 5.6 and 16.5% of Escherichia coli K-12 values. Stationary cells did not show an increased UVA resistance compared to exponential-phase cells; instead, they were more sensitive at high UVA dose. UVA-irradiated MR-1 survived better on tryptic soy agar than Luria-Bertani plates regardless of the growth stage. A 20% survival rate of MR-1 was observed following doses of 3.3 J of UVC m(-2), 568 J of UVB m(-2), 25 kJ of UVA m(-2), and 558 J of solar UVB m(-2), respectively. Photoreactivation conferred an increased survival rate to MR-1 of as much as 177- to 365-fold, 11- to 23-fold, and 3- to 10-fold following UVC, UVB, and solar light irradiation, respectively. A significant UV mutability to rifampin resistance was detected in both UVC- and UVB-treated samples, with the mutation frequency in the range of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Unlike in E. coli, the expression levels of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) component genes uvrA, uvrB, and uvrD were not damage inducible in MR-1. Complementation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UA11079 (uvrA deficient) with uvrA of MR-1 increased the UVC survival of this strain by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Loss of damage inducibility of the NER system appears to contribute to the high sensitivity of this bacterium to UVR as well as to other DNA-damaging agents.
Project description:11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2), and glucocorticoids (GC) and their receptor (GR) play a key role in tissue-specific regulation of GC action.To determine the expression of genes encoding 11?-HSD1 (HSD11B1), 11?-HSD2 (HSD11B2) and GR (GR?; also known as NC3R1) and their protein products, and levels of cortisol in human skin explants and/or cocultured keratinocytes/melanocytes after treatment with ultraviolet (UV) A, B or C wavebands.Skin from foreskins and/or cocultured human keratinocytes/melanocytes were irradiated with UVA, UVB or UVC (skin) and incubated for 12 and 24 h. Methods of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine expression and localization of corresponding genes or antigens.UVB enhanced the HSD11B1 gene and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, while UVA had no effect. Similarly, UVC increased 11?-HSD1 protein product as measured by IHC. UVB and UVC enhanced cortisol production and decreased epidermal GR expression, while UVA had no detectable effects. Although both UVA and UVB stimulated HSD11B2 gene expression, only UVA increased 11?-HSD2 protein product levels with UVB and UVC having no effect.We suggest that these differential, waveband-dependent effects of UV radiation on the expression of cutaneous HSD11B1, HSD11B2 and GR? genes and their corresponding protein products, and cortisol production are to protect and/or restore the epidermal barrier homeostasis against disruption caused by the elevated cortisol level induced by UVB and UVC.
Project description:The retinal photocycle dynamics of the fluorescent voltage sensor QuasAr1 (Archaerhodopsin 3 P60S-T80S-D95H-D106H-F161V mutant from Halorubrum sodomense) in pH 8 Tris buffer was studied. The samples were photoexcited to the first absorption band of the protonated retinal Schiff base (PRSB) Ret_580 (absorption maximum at ?max ? 580 nm), and the retinal Schiff base photoisomerization and protonation state changes were followed by absorption spectra recordings during light exposure and after light exposure. Ret_580 turned out to be composed of two protonated retinal Schiff base isomers, namely Ret_580I and Ret_580II. Photoexcitation of Ret_580I resulted in barrier-involved isomerization to Ret_540 (quantum yield ? 0.056) and subsequent retinal proton release leading to Ret_410 deprotonated retinal Schiff base (RSB). In the dark, Ret_410 partially recovered to Ret_580I and partially stabilized to irreversible Ret_400 due to apoprotein restructuring (Ret_410 lifetime ? 2 h). Photoexcitation of Ret_580II resulted in barrier-involved isomerization to Ret_640 (quantum yield ? 0.00135) and subsequent deprotonation to Ret_370 (RSB). In the dark, Ret_370 partially recovered to Ret_580II and partially stabilized to irreversible Ret_350 due to apoprotein restructuring (Ret_370 lifetime ? 10 h). Photocycle schemes and reaction coordinate diagrams for Ret_580I and Ret_580II were developed and photocyle parameters were determined.
Project description:Protonated tryptic peptides, somatostatin-14, and oxytocin have been subjected to reactions with doubly deprotonated 4-formyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (FBDSA) in the gas phase. The major product is a negatively-charged complex comprised of the peptide and the reagent. Upon dehydration of the complex, all peptides show evidence for Schiff base formation involving a primary amine of the peptide. Some peptides also show evidence for the formation of a relatively strong electrostatic interaction without Schiff base formation (i.e., a mixture of isomeric precursor ions is generated upon dehydration of the complex). Ion trap collision-induced dissociation of the dehydration products from all peptides examined gave distinct product ion spectra relative to the deprotonated and protonated forms of the peptides. The distinct behavior of the modified ions is attributed to the highly stable charge carrying sulfonate group, which tends to inhibit intramolecular proton transfer in negatively charged species. Modified anions of the peptides with an intramolecular disulfide linkage show evidence for cleavage of both the disulfide linkage and an amide bond in the loop defined by the disulfide bond. Modification of protonated peptides via charge inversion with FBDSA is a useful means for generating novel and distinct ion-types that can provide complementary structural information upon subsequent activation to that obtained from dissociation of protonated or deprotonated forms of the peptide.
Project description:The selective covalent modification of singly protonated peptides in the gas-phase via ion/ion charge inversion reactions is demonstrated. Doubly deprotonated 4-formyl-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid serves as a reagent anion for forming a Schiff base via the reaction of a primary amine on the peptide and the aldehyde functionality of the reagent anion. The process is initiated by the formation of an ion/ion complex comprised of the two reactants. Ion trap collisional activation of the complex results in loss of water from the intermediate that gives rise to Schiff base formation. N-terminally acetylated peptides with no lysine residues do not undergo covalent bond formation upon reaction with the reagent anion. Rather, the adduct species simply loses the reagent either as a neutral species or as a deprotonated species. The ability to modify singly protonated peptide ions covalently and selectively opens up new possibilities for the analysis of peptides and, possibly, other analyte species with primary amine functionalities.
Project description:Rhodopsins are light-activated chromoproteins that mediate signaling processes via transducer proteins or promote active or passive ion transport as ion pumps or directly light-activated channels. Here, we provide spectroscopic characterization of a rhodopsin from the Chlamydomonas eyespot. It belongs to a recently discovered but so far uncharacterized family of histidine kinase rhodopsins (HKRs). These are modular proteins consisting of rhodopsin, a histidine kinase, a response regulator, and in some cases an effector domain such as an adenylyl or guanylyl cyclase, all encoded in a single protein as a two-component system. The recombinant rhodopsin fragment, Rh, of HKR1 is a UVA receptor (?(max) = 380 nm) that is photoconverted by UV light into a stable blue light-absorbing meta state Rh-Bl (?(max) = 490 nm). Rh-Bl is converted back to Rh-UV by blue light. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the Rh-UV chromophore is in an unusual 13-cis,15-anti configuration, which explains why the chromophore is deprotonated. The excited state lifetime of Rh-UV is exceptionally stable, probably caused by a relatively unpolar retinal binding pocket, converting into the photoproduct within about 100 ps, whereas the blue form reacts 100 times faster. We propose that the photochromic HKR1 plays a role in the adaptation of behavioral responses in the presence of UVA light.