Integrating GWAS, linkage mapping and gene expression analyses reveals the genetic control of growth period traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).
ABSTRACT: Background:Brassica napus is one of the most important oilseed crops, and also an important biofuel plant due to its low air pollution and renewability. Growth period are important traits that affect yield and are crucial for its adaptation to different environments in B. napus. Results:To elucidate the genetic basis of growth period traits, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) and linkage mapping were employed to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for days to initial flowering (DIF), days to final flowering (DFF), flowering period (FP), maturity time (MT), and whole growth period (GP). A total of 146 SNPs were identified by association mapping, and 83 QTLs were identified by linkage mapping using the RIL population. Among these QTLs, 19 were pleiotropic SNPs related to multiple traits, and six (q18DFF.A03-2, q18MT.A03-2, q17DFF.A05-1, q18FP.C04, q17DIF.C05 and q17GP.C09) were consistently detected using both mapping methods. Additionally, we performed RNA sequencing to analyze the differential expression of gene (DEG) transcripts between early- and late-flowering lines selected from the RIL population, and the DEGs were integrated with association mapping and linkage analysis to confirm their roles in the growth period. Consequently, 12 candidate genes associated with growth period traits were identified in B. napus. Among these genes, seven have polymorphic sites in the coding sequence and the upstream 2-kb sequence based on the resequencing data. The haplotype BnaSOC1.A05-Haplb and BnaLNK2.C06-Hapla showed more favorable phenotypic traits. Conclusions:The candidate genes identified in this study will contribute to our genetic understanding of growth period traits and can be used as targets for target mutations or marker-assisted breeding for rapeseed adapted to different environments.
Project description:A high-density linkage map is crucial for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), positional cloning, and physical map assembly. Here, we report the development of a high-density linkage map based on specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) for adzuki bean and the identification of flowering time-related QTLs. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, a total of 4425 SLAF markers were developed and assigned to 11 linkage groups (LGs). After binning the SLAF markers that represented the same genotype, the final linkage map of 1628.15?cM contained 2032 markers, with an average marker density of 0.80?cM. Comparative analysis showed high collinearity with two adzuki bean physical maps and a high degree of synteny with the reference genome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using this map, one major QTL on LG03 and two minor QTLs on LG05 associated with first flowering time (FLD) were consistently identified in tests over a two-year period. These results provide a foundation that will be useful for future genomic research, such as identifying QTLs for other important traits, positional cloning, and comparative mapping in legumes.
Project description:Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a major legume crop that is mainly distributed in temperate regions. The adaptability of soybean to grow at relatively high latitudes is attributed to natural variations in major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control flowering time and maturity. Identification of new QTLs and map-based cloning of candidate genes are the fundamental approaches in elucidating the mechanism underlying soybean flowering and adaptation. To identify novel QTLs/genes, we developed two F8:10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and evaluated the traits of time to flowering (R1), maturity (R8), and reproductive period (RP) in the field. To rapidly and efficiently identify QTLs that control these traits, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis was performed. This study demonstrates that only one major QTL on chromosome 4 simultaneously controls R1, R8, and RP traits in the Dongnong 50 × Williams 82 (DW) RIL population. Furthermore, three QTLs were mapped to chromosomes 6, 11, and 16 in the Suinong 14 × Enrei (SE) RIL population. Two major pleiotropic QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 6 were shown to affect flowering time, maturity, and RP. A QTL influencing RP was identified on chromosome 11, and QTL on chromosome 16 was associated with time to flowering responses. All these QTLs contributed to soybean maturation. The QTLs identified in this study may be utilized in fine mapping and map-based cloning of candidate genes to elucidate the mechanisms underlying flowering and soybean adaptation to different latitudes and to breed novel soybean cultivars with optimal yield-related traits.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>The objective of this research was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of multiple traits of breeding importance in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, PR-02 (Orb x CDC Striker), PR-07 (Carerra x CDC Striker) and PR-15 (1-2347-144 x CDC Meadow) were phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits under field conditions over multiple environments in Saskatchewan, Canada. The mapping populations were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method for simultaneous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and construction of high-density linkage maps.<label>RESULTS</label>After filtering for read depth, segregation distortion, and missing values, 2234, 3389 and 3541 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified by GBS in PR-02, PR-07 and PR-15, respectively, were used for construction of genetic linkage maps. Genetic linkage groups were assigned by anchoring to SNP markers previously positioned on these linkage maps. PR-02, PR-07 and PR-15 genetic maps represented 527, 675 and 609 non-redundant loci, and cover map distances of 951.9, 1008.8 and 914.2 cM, respectively. Based on phenotyping of the three mapping populations in multiple environments, 375 QTLs were identified for important traits including days to flowering, days to maturity, lodging resistance, Mycosphaerella blight resistance, seed weight, grain yield, acid and neutral detergent fiber concentration, seed starch concentration, seed shape, seed dimpling, and concentration of seed iron, selenium and zinc. Of all the QTLs identified, the most significant in terms of explained percentage of maximum phenotypic variance (PVmax) and occurrence in multiple environments were the QTLs for days to flowering (PVmax =?47.9%), plant height (PVmax =?65.1%), lodging resistance (PVmax =?35.3%), grain yield (PVmax =?54.2%), seed iron concentration (PVmax =?27.4%), and seed zinc concentration (PVmax =?43.2%).<label>CONCLUSION</label>We have identified highly significant and reproducible QTLs for several agronomic and seed quality traits of breeding importance in pea. The QTLs identified will be the basis for fine mapping candidate genes, while some of the markers linked to the highly significant QTLs are useful for immediate breeding applications.
Project description:Brassica napus (B. napus, AACC), is an economically important allotetraploid crop species that resulted from hybridization between two diploid species, Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica olereacea (CC). We have created one new synthetic B. napus genotype Da-Ae (AACC) and one introgression line Da-Ol-1 (AACC), which were used to generate an F2 mapping population. Plants in this F2 mapping population varied in fatty acid content, flowering time, and growth-related traits. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we aimed to determine if Da-Ae and Da-Ol-1 provided novel genetic variation beyond what has already been found in B. napus. Making use of the genotyping information generated from RNA-seq data of these two lines and their F2 mapping population of 166 plants, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 2,021 single nucleotide polymorphism markers that spans 2,929 cM across 19 linkage groups. Besides the known major QTL identified, our high resolution genetic map facilitated the identification of several new QTL contributing to the different fatty acid levels, flowering time, and growth-related trait values. These new QTL probably represent novel genetic variation that existed in our new synthetic B. napus strain. By conducting genome-wide expression variation analysis in our F2 mapping population, genetic regions that potentially regulate many genes across the genome were revealed. A FLOWERING LOCUS C gene homolog, which was identified as a candidate regulating flowering time and multiple growth-related traits, was found underlying one of these regions. Integrated QTL and expression QTL analyses also helped us identified candidate causative genes associated with various biological traits through expression level change and/or possible protein function modification.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Different soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf chlorophyll-content traits are considered to be significantly linked to soybean yield. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of soybean leaf chlorophyll-content traits, an advanced recombinant inbred line (RIL, ZH, Zhonghuang 24?×?Huaxia 3) population was adopted to phenotypic data acquisitions for the target traits across six distinct environments (seasons and soybean growth stages). Moreover, the restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) based high-density genetic linkage map of the RIL population was utilized for QTL mapping by carrying out the composite interval mapping (CIM) approach.<h4>Results</h4>Correlation analyses showed that most traits were correlated with each other under specific chlorophyll assessing method and were regulated both by hereditary and environmental factors. In this study, 78 QTLs for soybean leaf chlorophyll-content traits were identified. Furthermore, 13 major QTLs and five important QTL hotspots were classified and highlighted from the detected QTLs. Finally, Glyma01g15506, Glyma02g08910, Glyma02g11110, Glyma07g15960, Glyma15g19670 and Glyma15g19810 were predicted from the genetic intervals of the major QTLs and important QTL hotspots.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The detected QTLs and candidate genes may facilitate to gain a better understanding of the hereditary basis of soybean leaf chlorophyll-content traits and may be valuable to pave the way for the marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding of the target traits.
Project description:Low boron (B) seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs) and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14-46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus.
Project description:Cucurbita pepo is a cucurbit with growing economic importance worldwide. Zucchini morphotype is the most important within this highly variable species. Recently, transcriptome and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR)- and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based medium density maps have been reported, however further genomic tools are needed for efficient molecular breeding in the species. Our objective is to combine currently available complete transcriptomes and the Zucchini genome sequence with high throughput genotyping methods, mapping population development and extensive phenotyping to facilitate the advance of genomic research in this species.We report the Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis of a RIL population developed from the inter subspecific cross Zucchini x Scallop (ssp. pepo x ssp. ovifera). Several thousands of SNP markers were identified and genotyped, followed by the construction of a high-density linkage map based on 7,718 SNPs (average of 386 markers/linkage group) covering 2,817.6 cM of the whole genome, which is a great improvement with respect to previous maps. A QTL analysis was performed using phenotypic data obtained from the RIL population from three environments. In total, 48 consistent QTLs for vine, flowering and fruit quality traits were detected on the basis of a multiple-environment analysis, distributed in 33 independent positions in 15 LGs, and each QTL explained 1.5-62.9% of the phenotypic variance. Eight major QTLs, which could explain greater than 20% of the phenotypic variation were detected and the underlying candidate genes identified.Here we report the first SNP saturated map in the species, anchored to the physical map. Additionally, several consistent QTLs related to early flowering, fruit shape and length, and rind and flesh color are reported as well as candidate genes for them. This information will enhance molecular breeding in C. pepo and will assist the gene cloning underlying the studied QTLs, helping to reveal the genetic basis of the studied processes in squash.
Project description:Organ size and architecture of plants are important traits affecting crop yield and agronomic practices. An induced mutant, multiple-organ gigantism (MOG), of black gram (Vigna mungo) has been obtained, which shows gigantic leaves, fruit, seed, and architecture (plant height) but lower number of pods per plant. These traits are a pleiotropic effect of a single recessive gene, mog. In this study, we investigated variation of 16 agronomic and adaptive traits in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the MOG mutant (V. mungo var. mungo) and wild black gram (V. mungo var. silvestris) accession TC2210 and identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling those traits to gain a better understanding of the effect of the mog gene on breeding. The results showed that most of the traits (100-seed weight, leaf size, and plant height) showed moderate narrow-sense heritability (h 2) (45-65%), while pod size and seed length (SDL) showed high h 2 (>75%) and pod dehiscence (shattering), and seed width (SDW) and days to flowering showed low h 2 (<35%). The QTLs for the traits were mapped onto a high-density linkage map developed for the RIL population. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified 42 QTLs in total for the 16 traits with number of QTLs per trait ranging from one to six. Major QTLs for the MOG phenotypes were clustered on linkage group (LG) 6, confirming the pleiotropic effect of the mog gene. Effect of the mog gene/QTL for the MOG phenotypic variations was not high, ranging from about 15% in plant height to 40% in leaf size. For 100-seed weight, which is the most interesting trait, the mog gene/QTL contributed about 30% of the total trait variation and showed an additive effect of only 0.51 g, which is only about 1.5-fold higher than that of the other five QTLs detected for this trait. These results indicated that mog gene expression is highly affected by environment and the effect of the gene toward organ size and plant height is not extraordinarily high. Implications of the findings of this study and exploiting of the MOG mutant in breeding were also discussed.
Project description:Coordinated association and linkage mapping identified 25 grain quality QTLs in multiple environments, and fine mapping of the Wx locus supports the use of high-density genetic markers in linkage mapping. There is a wide range of end-use products made from cereal grains, and these products often demand different grain characteristics. Fortunately, cereal crop species including sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] contain high phenotypic variation for traits influencing grain quality. Identifying genetic variants underlying this phenotypic variation allows plant breeders to develop genotypes with grain attributes optimized for their intended usage. Multiple sorghum mapping populations were rigorously phenotyped across two environments (SC Coastal Plain and Central TX) in 2 years for five major grain quality traits: amylose, starch, crude protein, crude fat, and gross energy. Coordinated association and linkage mapping revealed several robust QTLs that make prime targets to improve grain quality for food, feed, and fuel products. Although the amylose QTL interval spanned many megabases, the marker with greatest significance was located just 12 kb from waxy (Wx), the primary gene regulating amylose production in cereal grains. This suggests higher resolution mapping in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations can be obtained when genotyped at a high marker density. The major QTL for crude fat content, identified in both a RIL population and grain sorghum diversity panel, encompassed the DGAT1 locus, a critical gene involved in maize lipid biosynthesis. Another QTL on chromosome 1 was consistently mapped in both RIL populations for multiple grain quality traits including starch, crude protein, and gross energy. Collectively, these genetic regions offer excellent opportunities to manipulate grain composition and set up future studies for gene validation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. RESULTS: A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. CONCLUSION: Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection.