Genetic characterization of the spike gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDVs) circulating in Vietnam from 2015 to 2016.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by the PED virus (PEDV), which is a member of the family Coronaviridae. Since the first outbreaks in Belgium and the United Kingdom were reported in 1971, PED has spread throughout many countries around the world and causing significant economic loss. This study was conducted to investigate the recent distribution of PEDV strains in Vietnam during the 2015-2016 seasons. METHODS:A total of 30 PED-specific PCR-positive intestinal and faecal samples were collected from unvaccinated piglets in Vietnam during the 2015-2016 seasons. The full length of the spike (S) gene of these PEDV strains were analysed to determine their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available PEDV strains globally. RESULTS:Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S gene sequences revealed that the 28 Vietnamese PEDV strains collected in the northern and central regions clustered in the G2 group (both G2a and G2b sub-groups), while the other 2 PEDV strains (HUA-PED176 and HUA-PED254) collected in the southern region were clustered in the G1/G1b group/sub-group. The nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) analyses based on the complete S gene sequences showed that the Vietnamese PEDV strains were closely related to each other, sharing nt and aa homology of 93.2%-99.9% and 92.6%-99.9%, respectively. The N-glycosylation patterns and mutations in the antigenic region were observed in Vietnamese PEDV strains. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides, for the first time, up-to-date information on viral circulation and genetic distribution, as well as evidence to assist in the development of effective PEDV vaccines in Vietnam.
Project description:A highly virulent strain of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causing severe diarrhea has recently emerged in Vietnam. Genomic sequences from a novel strain, HUA-14PED96, isolated from a Vietnamese piglet with serious diarrhea show relatively high identity with U.S.-like PEDV strains, and have a 72-nt deletion in the open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) gene.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is the aetiologic agent of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED), a highly contagious enteric disease that is threatening the swine industry globally. Since PED was first reported in Southern Vietnam in 2009, the disease has spread throughout the country and caused substantial economic losses. To identify PEDVs responsible for the recent outbreaks, the full-length spike (S) gene of 25 field PEDV strains collected from seven northern provinces of Vietnam was sequenced and analysed. The sequence analysis revealed that the S genes of Vietnamese PEDVs were heterogeneous and classified into four genotypes, namely North America and Asian non-S INDEL, Asian non-S INDEL, new S INDEL and classical S INDEL. This study reported the pre-existence of US-like PEDV strains in Vietnam. Thirteen Vietnamese variants had a truncated S protein that was 261 amino acids shorter than the normal protein. We also detected one novel variant with an 8-amino acid insertion located in the receptor-binding region for porcine aminopeptidase N. Compared to the commercial vaccine strains, the emerging Vietnamese strains were genetically distant and had various amino acid differences in epitope regions and N-glycosylation sites in the S protein. The development of novel vaccines based on the emerging Vietnamese strains may be contributive to the control of the current PED outbreaks.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus (PEDV) is a globally emerging and re-emerging epizootic swine virus that causes massive economic losses in the swine industry, with high mortality in piglets. In Vietnam, PED first emerged in 2009 and has now developed to an endemic stage. This is the first cross-sectional survey performed to evaluate the proportion of PEDV-positive swine farms in Vietnam from January 2018 to February 2019. Fecal samples from 327 pig farms in northern Vietnam were collected and tested for PEDV infection by reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method. The proportion of PEDV-positive farms was 30.9% and PEDV-positive farms were distributed throughout the study area. The highest proportion of PEDV-positive farms was 70% (7/10) among nucleus production type farms (P?<?0.05). Higher proportions of PEDV-positive farms were found in the Northeast and Red River Delta areas, which are the major areas of pig production (P?<?0.05). The proportion of PEDV-positive farms was higher among larger farms (P?<?0.05). Our findings illustrate the high proportion of PEDV-positive farms in the Vietnamese pig population and will help to better understand the epidemiological dynamics of PED infection, to estimate impact, and establish and improve prevention and control measures. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11250-020-02416-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:A strain of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), namely HLJBY, was isolated in Heilongjiang province, China. To provide insight into the understanding of the phylogenetic and the current epidemiological status of PEDV, PEDV HLJBY was compared with CV777 and other PEDV strains deposited in the GenBank. The homology between the entire genomic nucleotide sequences of PEDV HLJBY and CV777 was 97.7%. The homology of M gene was the highest (99.0%). However, the homology of ORF3 gene was 97.7%, and protein of ORF3 was 90.1%. In addition, HLJBY showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.9%) with PEDV-SX/China/2017 strain and lowest similarity (91.2%) to PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 strain. We analysed the changes in S gene and its protein of PEDV HLJBY with 65 historic PEDV strains. The highest nucleotide identity was 99.9% compared with PEDV-SX/China/2017 strain, and the lowest nucleotide identity was 60.0% compared with PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 strain. The length of deduced amino acid sequences of S proteins varied from 1,372 to 1,390 amino acids (aa). Compared with most aa sequences of S proteins, HLJBY exhibited 5 aa deletions (position 55, 59-61, 144). Analysis and comparison of open reading frame 3 (ORF3) proteins between HLJBY strain and other PEDV strains were also focused in this study. We revealed that the length of deduced amino acid sequences of ORF3 proteins was 80-224 aa among tested strains and the identity of HLJBY ORF3 amino acids with other PEDV strains was 71.4%-98.9%. ORF3 protein of both HLJBY strain and PEDV-SX/China/2017 strain consists of 91 aa, with 133 aa deletions at their C' end in relation to the other tested PEDV strains. The phylogenetic tree based on different proteins or genes resulted in different phylogenetic groups. For pathogenicity evaluation of PEDV HLJBY strain, colostrum deprivation piglets were challenged with PEDV HLJBY, and PEDV reference strain CV777 as a control, the results showed that animals challenged with either of these PEDV strains developed diarrhoea, and histopathological examination of small intestines of challenged animals showed acute viral enteritis with villous atrophy in either PEDV HLJBY-P10 or PEDV CV777-P8 inoculated piglets.
Project description:Since early 2006, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been reemerging in immunized swine herds. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3) is the only accessory gene in the PEDV genome. The entire ORF3 genes of 12 PEDV field strains and one vaccine strain were sequenced. The ORF3 genes of Chinese PEDV field strains (excluding CH/GSJIII/07) contain a single 672- or 675-nucleotide (nt) ORF, which encodes a 223- or 224-aa-long peptide. However, the CV777 vaccine strain and CH/GSJIII/07 contain a 276-nt ORF because of a 49-nt deletion at nt 245-293. The Chinese PEDV field strains and PEDV reference strains are divided into three groups based on the phylogenetic relationship of their ORF3 genes. Chinese PEDV field strains (excluding CH/GSJIII/07) have a close phylogenetic relationship to Korean strains and are genetically different from the PEDV vaccine strains. However, CH/GSJIII/07 has a close phylogenetic relationship to two vaccine strains, suggesting that it might have evolved from a live vaccine strain. Chinese PEDV field strains (excluding CH/GSJIII/07) can be differentiated from PEDV vaccine strains by a nested RT-PCR method.
Project description:Since 2010, the variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) worldwide. In this study, a variant PEDV strain YN1 was isolated, serially propagated on the Vero cells and was characterized for 200 passages. To better elucidate the molecular basis of Vero cell adaptation of variant PEDV strains, we sequenced, compared, and analyzed the full-genome sequences of parental YN1 and passages 15, 30, 60, 90, 144, and 200. The results showed that the variations increased with the viral passage. The nucleotides sequences of non-structural protein (NSP)2, NSP4-7, NSP10, NSP12 and NSP13 genes did not change during the Vero cell adaptation process. After comparison of the variation characteristic of classical, variant virulent/attenuated strains, it was found that attenuation of PEDV virus was associated with 9-26 amino acid (aa) changes in open reading frames (ORF) 1a/b and S protein, early termination in ORF3, 1-3 aa changes in E, M and N protein and some nucleotide sequences' synonymous mutations. The aa deletion at about 144 aa of S protein could be the attenuation marker for the PEDV. The pig study showed that the early termination in ORF3 was more important for virus cell adaptation than virus attenuation.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteritis, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and high mortality in suckling pigs, threatening the swine industry. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) re-emerged globally in 2013 in many important swine-producing countries in Asia and the Americas. Several studies have identified the risk factors for the spread of PEDV in acute outbreaks. However, limited information is available on the risk factors for the transmission of PEDV in endemic regions. We hypothesized that poor biosecurity, location, and some social or cultural practices are the main risk factors for PEDV transmission in the Vietnamese pig population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential risk factors for the transmission of PEDV in an endemic area in Vietnam. In this case-control study, questionnaires containing 51 questions were completed for 92 PEDV-positive and 95 PEDV-negative farms. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors associated with PEDV infection. Province and the total number of pigs were included as random effects to determine their influence on the risk of PEDV infection. Twenty-nine variables of interest that have been associated with PEDV status were analyzed in a univariate analysis (P <0.20), with backward stepwise selection. Only three of these 29 variables in four models remained significant PEDV risk factors in the final model: farrow-to-wean production type, distance from the farm to the slaughterhouse (<1,000 m), and the presence of chickens on site (P <0.05). This is the first study to identify the main risk factors for PEDV infection in an endemic area. Our findings suggest that hygiene measures should be strictly implemented on farms for the effective control and prevention of PEDV infection.
Project description:Outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have resulted in significant economic losses in the swine industry, and another PED outbreak occurred in 2014 in Korea. Isolating and culturing PED virus (PEDV) allow investigations into its pathogenesis and the development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. In this study, we successfully isolated two PEDV isolates (QIAP1401 and QIAP1402) from naturally infected piglets at Jeju-do, Korea. Viral propagation was confirmed in Vero cells based on cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopic analyses. The QIAP401 isolate propagated well in Vero cells for 70 passages, with titers of 106.5 to 107.0 50% tissue culture infectious dose/mL, which increased gradually with passaging. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the QIAP1401 isolate were determined and compared with those of other PEDV isolates. The QIAP1401 isolate was determined to be closely related to the USA/Minnesota271/2014 strain (> 99.9% nucleotide similarity) that was isolated in the USA in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on several PEDV genes suggested that a new PEDV variant is circulating in the Korean swine industry, with 93.08% similarity to the SM98 strain isolated in 1998. In addition, the QIAP1401 strain showed strong virulence in 3-day-old piglets and 11-week-old growing pigs.
Project description:We report the first and only case of a porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak occurring in December 2014 in northern France, and we show using the full-length genome sequence of the French PED virus (PEDV) isolate that it was a PEDV indel strain close to German PEDV strains recently isolated.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the main causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Since December 2010, a large-scale outbreak of diarrhea has been observed in swine farms in China. Accumulated evidence indicates that this large-scale outbreak of diarrhea were caused by highly virulent PEDV variants.A PEDV strain, YC2014, was isolated from intestinal samples of suckling piglets with acute diarrhea in 2014. The complete genomic sequence of YC2014 and the nucleotide sequence of S gene were aligned with sequences of published isolates using MEGA 5.1 software. The immune protective efficiency of YC2014 were determined by testing PEDV neutralizing antibodies in sera, the colostrum and the milk on 7th day after farrowing of the immunized sows. The diarrhea symptoms of piglets after challenge were also observed.Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomic sequence of YC2014 and the nucleotide sequence of S gene demonstrated that the YC2014 PEDV strain was clustered with the PEDV epidemic strains, with >99 % nucleotide identity to these PEDV strains. The S gene sequence of YC2014 shared only 93.9 %?~ 94.4 % identities with classical CV777, DR13 and JS2008 strains, with 15 nucleotide insertion in three sites and three nucleotide deletion in one site. The amino acid (AA) sequence of S gene of YC2014 shared only 92.8 %?~ 93.4 % identities with classical CV777, DR13 and JS2008 strains, with 5 AA insertion in two sites and 1 AA deletion in one site. In the immune protective efficiency tests, the neutralizing antibody titers in sera, the colostrum and the milk on 7th day after farrowing of the inactivated YC2014 PEDV strain immunized group were significantly higher than the inactivated CV777 immunized group and the inactivated DR13 immunized group (P < 0.05). The traditional inactivated PEDV vaccines made from CV777 or DR13 could not protect piglets from YC2014 challenge, while inactivated YC2014 could provide piglets with 100 % protection against YC2014 challenge.The results showed that, great antigenicity variation had occurred to this YC2014 PEDV strain. The YC2014 PEDV strain could provide piglets against homologous challenge. It is critical for future pathogenic and antigenic studies, as well as for the development of effective preventive and control vaccines against PEDV.