Patterns of electronic cigarette, conventional cigarette, and hookah use and related passive exposure among adolescents in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Use of tobacco products among adolescents is a major global public health concern. Given the changing landscape of tobacco product use and the lack of epidemiologic data to inform tobacco prevention and control strategies in Kuwait, this study sought to estimate the prevalence and patterns of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), conventional cigarette, and hookah use among adolescents in Kuwait. Moreover, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and secondhand aerosol (SHA) from e-cigarettes was assessed. METHODS:This cross-sectional study enrolled high school students (n=1565; 16-19 years) across Kuwait. Current (past 30-day) use of e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, and hookah were assessed through self-reported data. Additionally, current (past 7-day) exposure to SHS and SHA in households and public places were ascertained. Associations were evaluated using Poisson regression, and adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS:Overall, 26.4% (402/1525), 25.1% (383/1525), and 20.9% (318/1525) of the study participants were current e-cigarette users, conventional cigarette smokers, and hookah smokers, respectively. Current use of any tobacco product was reported by 35.1% (535/1525) of the total study participants. The prevalence of concurrent triple use of 'e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, and hookah' was estimated to be 12.8% (195/1525). Also, among the study participants, 41.9% (619/1479) were exposed to household SHS, 32.0% (469/1465) were exposed to household SHA, and 62.2% (916/1472) were exposed to SHS and/or SHA in public places. Male adolescents were more likely than females to be current e-cigarette users (APR=5.19; 95% CI: 4.09-6.57), conventional cigarette smokers (APR=5.42; 95% CI: 4.26-6.90), and hookah smokers (APR=3.43; 95% CI: 2.72- 4.32). CONCLUSIONS:A substantial proportion of adolescents in Kuwait are currently using tobacco products and being exposed to SHS/SHA. The findings emphasize the need to continue monitoring all forms of tobacco product use among adolescents and to strengthen tobacco prevention and control programs.
Project description:Importance:Flavors in tobacco products may appeal to young and inexperienced users. Objective:To examine among youth (aged 12-17 years), young adults (aged 18-24 years), and adults (aged ?25 years) the prevalence of first use of flavored tobacco products among new tobacco users and the association between first flavored use of a given tobacco product and tobacco use 1 year later, including progression of tobacco use. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study represents a longitudinal analysis of data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative study with data collected in 2013 to 2014 (wave 1) and 2014 to 2015 (wave 2). Participants were noninstitutionalized individuals, including 11?996 youth and 26?447 adults, in selected households who participated in both waves of the PATH Study. Data analysis was conducted from July 2016 to June 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Prevalence of tobacco product use at wave 2. Results:The mean (SE) age of the participants was 14.5 (0.0) years for youth, 21.1 (0.0) years for young adults, and 50.3 (0.0) for adults. Most youth (71.9%; 95% CI, 69.7%-74.0%) and young adults (57.6%; 95% CI, 54.9%-60.3%) who were new users of tobacco products over the 10- to 13-month follow-up period used flavored products. First use of a menthol or mint or other flavored cigarette documented at wave 1 was positively associated with past 12-month and past 30-day cigarette use in all age groups at wave 2 compared with first use of a nonflavored cigarette (youth, flavored cigarette, past 12-month use adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05-1.25] and past 30-day use aPR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00-1.31]; youth, menthol or mint cigarette, past 12-month use aPR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.08-1.29] and past 30-day use aPR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.04-1.37]; young adult, flavored cigarette, past 12-month use aPR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15] and past 30-day use aPR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.06-1.21]; young adult menthol or mint cigarette, past 12-month use aPR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16] and past 30-day use aPR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.07-1.23]; adult flavored cigarette, past 12-month use aPR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.15] and past 30-day use aPR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]; adult menthol or mint cigarette, past 12-month use aPR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.08-1.18] and past 30-day use aPR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.07-1.17]). Among young adults, first use of flavored e-cigarettes (aPR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.61-2.61), any cigars (aPR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.26-2.02), cigarillos (aPR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.05), filtered cigars (aPR, 3.69; 95% CI, 2.08-6.57), hookah (aPR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.23-2.98), and any smokeless tobacco (aPR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.08-2.20) was prospectively associated with current regular use of those products at wave 2 compared with first nonflavored use. Among adults aged 25 years and older, first use of flavored e-cigarettes (aPR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.41-1.82), any cigars (aPR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.29-1.87), cigarillos (aPR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.64), filtered cigars (aPR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.25-2.54), hookah (aPR, 5.66; 95% CI, 2.04-15.71), and any smokeless tobacco (aPR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.82) was prospectively associated with current regular use of those products at wave 2 compared with first nonflavored use. Conclusions and Relevance:In this longitudinal cohort study, flavors in tobacco products were associated with youth and young adult tobacco experimentation. First use of a flavored tobacco product may place youth, young adults, and adults at risk of subsequent tobacco use.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hookah tobacco use is popular among youths and there is evidence that perceived risks and normative beliefs are associated with hookah use. The aim of this study was to further examine associations between perceived risks of hookah use, normative beliefs, and lifetime hookah use among youths. METHODS:Participants were adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 257, mean [standard deviation] age, 14.9 [1.6] years, 40% nonwhite, 66% female) attending well-visit checkups at an urban pediatric clinic. Participants completed a survey of measures of cigarette smoking, risk factors for smoking, hookah use, perceived risks, and normative beliefs. Analyses examined associations among lifetime hookah use, beliefs about hookah use, and other smoking risk factors. RESULTS:Overall, 15% of the sample had ever tried hookah smoking and 60% had ever tried cigarette smoking or were susceptible to cigarette smoking. Of those who had tried hookah smoking, 84% had also tried cigarettes or were susceptible to trying cigarettes (P < .001). One-third (33%) indicated that hookah smoking was less harmful than cigarettes, 38% indicated hookah smoking is less addictive than cigarettes, and 48% perceived that hookah smoking is somewhat or very socially acceptable among friends. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographic and cigarette smoking-related factors, perceiving hookah use to be somewhat or very socially acceptable was associated with a significantly higher odds of ever having tried hookah smoking. CONCLUSION:The study findings indicate that stronger perceived social acceptability of hookah use is associated with a higher likelihood of trying hookah smoking among youths. These normative beliefs may be important targets of interventions aimed at preventing hookah use among youths.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Susceptibility to cigarette smoking has been used since the mid-1990s as a measure to identify youth at risk of cigarette initiation. However, it is unclear how well this measure predicts future smoking among electronic (e-)cigarette or hookah users, or among those in tobacco-friendly social environments. METHODS:We used prospective data from the Southern California Children's Health Study to evaluate the performance (sensitivity, specificity, predictive value) of a composite index assessing susceptibility to smoking, and to evaluate whether performance of the measure differed by use of e-cigarettes or hookah, or immersion in a tobacco-friendly social environment. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking was measured in 11th/12th grade (2014) among never cigarette-smokers (N=1266); follow-up data on smoking initiation were obtained approximately 16 months later. RESULTS:Overall, 16.4% of youth initiated smoking between baseline and follow-up. The sensitivity of the susceptibility to smoking index was low (46.4%), and specificity was high (79.0%). No difference in sensitivity was observed by baseline e-cigarette use; specificity was higher among never e- cigarette users. Differences in negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were also observed by baseline e-cigarette and hookah use. Specificity was generally lower, and sensitivity was generally higher for those in tobacco-friendly social environments. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that use of the susceptibility to smoking index in cross-sectional studies of older adolescents to identify those likely to begin smoking may be inappropriate for those using alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes or hookah).
Project description:Objective:Recently, use of alternative tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and hookah (water-pipe tobacco), has increased among adolescents. It is unknown whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with initiation of alternative tobacco product use. Methods:Ninth grade high school students who never used any tobacco product at baseline (N?=?1,921) participated in a longitudinal survey from 2014 to 2015. Overall symptomatology and inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) ADHD subtypes were assessed at baseline. Past 6-month e-cigarette, hookah, and combustible cigarette use (yes/no) were reported at three semi-annual follow-ups. Repeated measures logistic regression models assessed the association of baseline ADHD symptoms with likelihood of tobacco product initiation across follow-ups. Results:For ADHD main effect estimates, unadjusted odds of reporting e-cigarette, hookah, and combustible cigarette use pooled across follow-up time points were 45%, 33%, and 37% greater, respectively, with each increase in one SD-unit of baseline ADHD symptoms in baseline never-users of tobacco products. ADHD was not associated with hookah or combustible cigarette use after adjusting for other risk factors. After adjustment, e-cigarette use initiation remained associated with overall ADHD (odds ratio, OR [95%confidence interval, 95% CI]?=?1.22 [1.04, 1.42]) and HI (OR [95% CI]?=?1.26 [1.09, 1.47]) symptoms, but not IN symptoms (OR [95% CI]?=?1.13 [0.97, 1.32]). ADHD?×?Time interactions were not significant, suggesting ADHD increased odds of e-cigarette use initiation but did not alter the shape of use trajectory across follow-up among initiators. Conclusions:Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms underlying the pathway from ADHD to e-cigarette use may advance tobacco product use etiologic theory and prevention practice in the current era in which e-cigarette use is popular among youth.
Project description:Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco.To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah).Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age?=?14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N?=?2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections.Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline.Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3).Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n?=?222) than never users (n?=?2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, environmental, and intrapersonal risk factors for smoking (OR, 2.73 [95% CI, 2.00-3.73]). Product-specific analyses showed that baseline e-cigarette use was positively associated with combustible cigarette (OR, 2.65 [95% CI, 1.73-4.05]), cigar (OR, 4.85 [95% CI, 3.38-6.96]), and hookah (OR, 3.25 [95% CI, 2.29-4.62]) use and with the number of different combustible products used (OR, 4.26 [95% CI, 3.16-5.74]) averaged across the 2 follow-up periods.Among high school students in Los Angeles, those who had ever used e-cigarettes at baseline compared with nonusers were more likely to report initiation of combustible tobacco use over the next year. Further research is needed to understand whether this association may be causal.
Project description:This study examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of women of reproductive age. Weighted data were obtained from women aged 15-44?years who were not currently pregnant in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Health and Tobacco (PATH, 2013-2014) study (N?=?12,848). 20.1% of women were current cigarette smokers, 5.9% current e-cigarette users, 4.9% current cigar smokers, and 6.5% current hookah users. Prevalence of current use of other tobacco products was <1.0%. Current cigarette smoking was the strongest correlate of current e-cigarette use (OR?=?65.7, 95% CI?=?44.8-96.5), cigar smoking (OR?=?19.2, 95% CI?=?14.1-26.1), and hookah use (OR?=?6.6, 95% CI?=?5.1-8.5). Among former cigarette smokers, 3.8%, 6.9%, and 3.2% were also currently using e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars, respectively. Use of other tobacco and nicotine delivery products was low among those who never smoked tobacco cigarettes: 2.5% used hookah and <1.0% used other products. Cigarette smoking prevalence remains relatively high among women of reproductive age and strongly correlated with use of other tobacco products. Monitoring tobacco and nicotine use in this population is important due to the additional risk of adverse health impacts should they become pregnant. Clinicians working with cigarette smokers should assess for use of other tobacco products. Among women of reproductive age, use of emerging tobacco and nicotine products appears to be largely, although not exclusively, restricted to current cigarette smokers.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study is the first nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (18+) to examine perceptions of the relative harms of eight non-cigarette tobacco products. METHODS:Data are from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Adult Questionnaire, a nationally representative study of 32,320 adults in the United States conducted from September 2013 to December 2014. RESULTS:40.7% of adults believed that electronic cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes, and 17.8% of adults believed that hookah was less harmful than cigarettes. Those less knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking were more likely to believe that the non-cigarette products were less harmful than cigarettes. Current non-cigarette tobacco product users were more likely to perceive that product to be less harmful than cigarettes (except filtered cigars). There was a significant positive correlation between beliefs that cigarettes were harmful and the likelihood of using hookah; perceptions of the harmfulness of cigarettes was not associated with the likelihood of using any other product. CONCLUSIONS:Perceptions of harmfulness varied widely across non-cigarette tobacco products. E-cigarettes and hookah in particular are seen as less harmful compared to cigarettes.
Project description:Monitoring use of tobacco products among pregnant women is a public health priority, yet few studies in U.S. national samples have been reported on this topic. We examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of pregnant women. Data were obtained from all pregnant women (?18 years) in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013-2014) Study (N=388). Prevalence of current and prior use of tobacco/nicotine products was examined overall and among current cigarette smokers. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine correlates of use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah and cigars. Overall prevalence was highest for cigarettes (13.8%), followed by e-cigarettes (4.9%), hookah (2.5%) and cigars (2.3%), and below 1% for all other products. Prevalence of using other tobacco products is much higher among current smokers than the general population, with e-cigarettes (28.5%) most prevalent followed by cigars (14.0%), hookah (12.4%), smokeless (4.7%), snus (4.6%), and pipes (2.1%). Sociodemographic characteristics (poverty, low educational attainment, White race) and past-year externalizing psychiatric symptoms were correlated with current cigarette smoking. In turn, current cigarette smoking and past year illicit drug use were correlated with using e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars. These results underscore that tobacco/nicotine use during pregnancy extends beyond cigarettes. The results also suggest that use of these other products should be included in routine clinical screening on tobacco use, and the need for more intensive tobacco control and regulatory strategies targeting pregnant women.
Project description:As cigarette smoking has decreased among youth and young adults (YAs) in the United States, the prevalence of other tobacco and nicotine product use has increased.This study identified common past 30-day patterns of tobacco and nicotine product use in youth (grades 6-12) and YAs (aged 18-24). Using data from the 2011-2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and corresponding years of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study (TIYAC), past 30-day use of the following products was assessed: cigarettes, e-cigarettes, any type of cigar, smokeless tobacco, hookah, and other tobacco products (pipe, bidis, kreteks, dissolvable tobacco, and snus). A user-generated program in R was used to assess all possible combinations of product-specific and polytobacco use.The top five patterns of past 30-day use in youth were exclusive cigarette use (12.0%), exclusive cigar use (10.3%), exclusive e-cigarette use (10.0%), dual use of cigarettes and cigars (6.1%), and exclusive hookah use (5.2%). In YAs, the top five patterns were exclusive cigarette use (46.5%), exclusive cigar use (10.0%), dual use of cigarettes and cigars (6.4%), exclusive hookah use (5.9%), and dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes (3.9%).As noncigarette tobacco and nicotine products become increasingly popular among tobacco users, further research is needed to identify predictors and correlates of specific tobacco use patterns in youth and YAs. This analysis can inform tobacco prevention efforts focusing on emerging tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and hookah. Educational and other intervention efforts should focus on the diversity of products and use patterns in these age groups.This study uses population-based data to provide new information on the most prevalent patterns of past 30-day nicotine and tobacco use over a 5-year period among youth and young adults. Study findings demonstrate that youth and young adults report using tobacco and nicotine products in different combinations, with varying popularity over time. Additionally, by examining young adults as a separate group, this study highlights the unique patterns of use not previously discussed in the adult literature.
Project description:Importance:Approximately 90% of adult smokers first tried a cigarette by 18 years of age, and even infrequent smoking in adolescence is associated with established adult smoking. Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing and could stimulate subsequent conventional cigarette smoking in youths. Objective:To estimate the longitudinal association between noncigarette tobacco use and subsequent cigarette smoking initiation among US youth. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this prospective cohort study of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) waves 1 (September 12, 2013, to December 14, 2014) and 2 (October 23, 2014, to October 30, 2015), a nationally representative sample of youths who never smoked a conventional cigarette at baseline and completed wave 2 follow-up (N?=?10?384) was studied. PATH retention at follow-up was 87.9%. Exposures:Ever use and past 30-day use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah, noncigarette combustible tobacco, or smokeless tobacco at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures:Ever use and past 30-day use of cigarettes at follow-up. Results:The present analysis was based on the 10?384 PATH youth respondents who reported never having smoked a cigarette in wave 1 and whose cigarette ever or past 30-day use was reported in wave 2 (mean [SD] age, 14.3 [1.7] years; age range, 12-17 years; 5087 [49.1%] female; 4829 [52.5%] white). At 1-year follow-up, 469 (4.6%) of all baseline never-smoking youths had tried a cigarette and 219 (2.1%) had smoked a cigarette within the past 30 days. Cigarette ever use at follow-up was higher among youths who had ever used e-cigarettes (78 [19.1%]), hookah (60 [18.3%]), noncigarette combustible tobacco (45 [19.2%]), or smokeless tobacco (29 [18.8%]) at baseline. After adjusting for sociodemographic, environmental, and behavioral smoking risk factors and for baseline ever use of other tobacco products, the odds of past 30-day cigarette use at follow-up were approximately twice as high among baseline ever users of e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.15-3.05), hookah (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.17-3.17), noncigarette combustible tobacco (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.00-3.19), and smokeless tobacco (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.87). Youths who had tried more than 1 type of tobacco product at baseline had 3.81 (95% CI, 2.22-6.54) greater adjusted odds of past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up than did baseline never tobacco users. Conclusions and Relevance:Any use of e-cigarettes, hookah, noncigarette combustible tobacco, or smokeless tobacco was independently associated with cigarette smoking 1 year later. Use of more than 1 product increased the odds of progressing to cigarette use.