Mosquito-borne viruses, insect-specific flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), Bogor virus (unassigned member of family Permutotetraviridae), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus) isolated from Indonesian mosquitoes.
ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes transmit many kinds of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), and numerous arboviral diseases have become serious problems in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses at several sites in Indonesia during 2016-2018 for risk assessment of arbovirus infection and analysis of virus biodiversity in mosquito populations. We collected 10,015 mosquitoes comprising at least 11 species from 4 genera. Major collected mosquito species were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Armigeres subalbatus. The collected mosquitoes were divided into 285 pools and used for virus isolation using two mammalian cell lines, Vero and BHK-21, and one mosquito cell line, C6/36. Seventy-two pools showed clear cytopathic effects only in C6/36 cells. Using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing approaches, these isolates were identified as insect flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), new permutotetravirus (designed as Bogor virus) (family Permutotetraviridae, genus Alphapermutotetravirus), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus). We believed that this large surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses provides basic information for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.
Project description:The World Health Organization estimates that more than half of the world's population is at risk for vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses. Because many arboviruses are mosquito borne, investigation of the insect immune response will help identify targets to reduce the spread of arboviruses. Here, we use a genetic screening approach to identify an insulin-like receptor as a component of the immune response to arboviral infection. We determine that vertebrate insulin reduces West Nile virus (WNV) replication in Drosophila melanogaster as well as WNV, Zika, and dengue virus titers in mosquito cells. Mechanistically, we show that insulin signaling activates the JAK/STAT, but not RNAi, pathway via ERK to control infection in Drosophila cells and Culex mosquitoes through an integrated immune response. Finally, we validate that insulin priming of adult female Culex mosquitoes through a blood meal reduces WNV infection, demonstrating an essential role for insulin signaling in insect antiviral responses to human pathogens.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools tested, 22% were positive for Rift Valley fever virus, 18% were positive for West Nile virus, and 3% were positive for both. Estimated mosquito minimum infection rates did not differ between locations. Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak.
Project description:Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains a public health concern in several countries, and the Culex mosquito plays a central role in its transmission cycle. Culex mosquitoes harbor a wide range of viruses, including insect-specific viruses (ISVs), and can transmit a variety of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that cause human and animal diseases. The current trend of studies displays enhanced efforts to characterize the mosquito virome through bulk RNA sequencing due to possible arbovirus-ISV interactions; however, the extent of viral diversity in the mosquito taxon is still poorly understood, particularly in some disease vectors. In this study, arboviral screening and RNA virome analysis of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and C. pseudovishnui, which are part of the Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes, were performed. Results from these two mosquito species, known as the major vectors of JE virus (JEV) in Asia, collected in three prefectures in Japan were also compared with the sympatric species C. inatomii. A total of 27 viruses, including JEV, were detected from these Culex mosquitoes. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses classified 15 of the 27 viruses as novel species, notably belonging to the Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Totiviridae, and Iflaviridae families. The successful isolation of JEV genotype I confirmed its continuous presence in Japan, suggesting the need for periodic surveillance. Aside from JEV, this study has also reported the diversity of the RNA virome of disease vectors and broadened the knowledge on mosquito virome profiles containing both arbovirus and ISV. Mosquito taxon seemed to contribute largely to the virome structure (e.g., virome composition, diversity, and abundance) as opposed to the geographical location of the mosquito species. This study therefore offers notable insights into the ecology and evolution of each identified virus and viral family. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the viromes of the major JE vectors in Japan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes have been implicated as causative agents of both human and animal illnesses in East Africa. Although epidemics of arboviral emerging infectious diseases have risen in frequency in recent years, the extent to which mosquitoes maintain pathogens in circulation during inter-epidemic periods is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate whether arboviruses may be maintained by vertical transmission via immature life stages of different mosquito vector species. METHODOLOGY:We collected immature mosquitoes (egg, larva, pupa) on the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in western Kenya and reared them to adults. Mosquito pools (?25 specimens/pool) of each species were screened for mosquito-borne viruses by high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing of multiplex PCR products of genus-specific primers (alphaviruses, flaviviruses, phleboviruses and Bunyamwera-group orthobunyaviruses). We further confirmed positive samples by culturing in baby hamster kidney and Aedes mosquito cell lines and re-sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Culex univittatus (2/31pools) and Anopheles gambiae (1/77 pools) from the Lake Victoria region were positive for Bunyamwera virus, a pathogenic virus that is of public health concern. In addition, Aedes aegypti (3/50), Aedes luteocephalus (3/13), Aedes spp. (2/15), and Culex pipiens (1/140) pools were positive for Aedes flaviviruses at Lake Victoria, whereas at Lake Baringo, three pools of An. gambiae mosquitoes were positive for Anopheles flavivirus. These insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs), which are presumably non-pathogenic to vertebrates, were found in known medically important arbovirus and malaria vectors. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that not only ISFVs, but also a pathogenic arbovirus, are naturally maintained within mosquito populations by vertical transmission, even in the absence of vertebrate hosts. Therefore, virus and vector surveillance, even during inter-epidemics, and the study of vector-arbovirus-ISFV interactions, may aid in identifying arbovirus transmission risks, with the potential to inform control strategies that lead to disease prevention.
Project description:In the global context of arboviral emergence, deep sequencing unlocks the discovery of new mosquito-borne viruses. Mosquitoes of the species Culex pipiens, C. torrentium, and C. hortensis were sampled from 22 locations worldwide for transcriptomic analyses. A virus discovery pipeline was used to analyze the dataset of 0.7 billion reads comprising 22 individual transcriptomes. Two closely related 6.8 kb viral genomes were identified in C. pipiens and named as Culex pipiens associated tunisia virus (CpATV) strains Ayed and Jedaida. The CpATV genome contained four ORFs. ORF1 possessed helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains related to new viral sequences recently found mainly in dipterans. ORF2 and 4 contained a capsid protein domain showing strong homology with Virgaviridae plant viruses. ORF3 displayed similarities with eukaryotic Rhoptry domain and a merozoite surface protein (MSP7) domain only found in mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium, suggesting possible interactions between CpATV and vertebrate cells. Estimation of a strong purifying selection exerted on each ORFs and the presence of a polymorphism maintained in the coding region of ORF3 suggested that both CpATV sequences are genuine functional viruses. CpATV is part of an entirely new and highly diversified group of viruses recently found in insects, and that bears the genomic hallmarks of a new viral family.
Project description:The discovery and characterisation of new mosquito-borne viruses provides valuable information on the biodiversity of vector-borne viruses and important insights into their evolution. In this study, a broad-spectrum virus screening system, based on the detection of long double-stranded RNA in inoculated cell cultures, was used to investigate the presence of novel viruses in mosquito populations of northern Australia. We detected and isolated a new virus (tentatively named Parry's Lagoon virus, PLV) from Culex annulirostris, Culex pullus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes normanensis mosquitoes that shares genomic sequence similarities to Corriparta virus (CORV), a member of the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae. Despite moderate to high (72.2% to 92.2%) amino acid identity across all proteins when compared to CORV, and demonstration of antigenic relatedness, PLV did not replicate in several vertebrate cell lines that were permissive to CORV. This striking phenotypic difference suggests that PLV has evolved to have a very restricted host range, indicative of a mosquito-only life cycle.
Project description:Several mosquito-borne diseases affecting humans are emerging or reemerging in the United States. The early detection of pathogens in mosquito populations is essential to prevent and control the spread of these diseases. In this study, we tested the potential applicability of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) to enhance biosurveillance by detecting microbes present in Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex mosquitoes, which are major vector species globally, including in Texas. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the LLMDA were tested in mosquito samples spiked with different concentrations of dengue virus (DENV), revealing a detection limit of >100 but <1,000 PFU/ml. Additionally, field-collected mosquitoes from Chicago, IL, and College Station, TX, of known infection status (West Nile virus [WNV] and Culex flavivirus [CxFLAV] positive) were tested on the LLMDA to confirm its efficiency. Mosquito field samples of unknown infection status, collected in San Antonio, TX, and the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), TX, were run on the LLMDA and further confirmed by PCR or quantitative PCR (qPCR). The analysis of the field samples with the LLMDA revealed the presence of cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV) in A. aegypti populations. Wolbachia was also detected in several of the field samples (A. albopictus and Culex spp.) by the LLMDA. Our findings demonstrated that the LLMDA can be used to detect multiple arboviruses of public health importance, including viruses that belong to the Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera. Additionally, insect-specific viruses and bacteria were also detected in field-collected mosquitoes. Another strength of this array is its ability to detect multiple viruses in the same mosquito pool, allowing for the detection of cocirculating pathogens in an area and the identification of potential ecological associations between different viruses. This array can aid in the biosurveillance of mosquito-borne viruses circulating in specific geographical areas.IMPORTANCE Viruses associated with mosquitoes have made a large impact on public and veterinary health. In the United States, several viruses, including WNV, DENV, and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are responsible for human disease. From 2015 to 2018, imported Zika cases were reported in the United States, and in 2016 to 2017, local Zika transmission occurred in the states of Texas and Florida. With globalization and a changing climate, the frequency of outbreaks linked to arboviruses will increase, revealing a need to better detect viruses in vector populations. With the capacity of the LLMDA to detect viruses, bacteria, and fungi, this study highlights its ability to broadly screen field-collected mosquitoes and contribute to the surveillance and management of arboviral diseases.
Project description:RNA interference is a crucial antiviral mechanism in arthropods, including in mosquito vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Although the exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway constitutes an efficient antiviral response in mosquitoes, virus-derived P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been implicated in the response to alpha-, bunya- and flaviviruses in Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Culex mosquitoes transmit several medically important viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), but are considerably less well studied than Aedes mosquitoes and little is known about antiviral RNA interference in Culex mosquitoes. Therefore, we sequenced small RNA (sRNA) libraries from different Culex cell lines and tissues infected with WNV. The clear majority of virus-derived sRNA reads were 21?nt siRNAs in all cell lines and tissues tested, with no evidence for a role of WNV-derived piRNAs. Additionally, we aligned sRNA reads from Culex quinquefasciatus Hsu cells to the insect-specific rhabdovirus, Merida virus, which persistently replicates in these cells. We found that a significant proportion of the sRNA response to Merida virus consisted of piRNAs. Since viral DNA forms have been implicated in siRNA and piRNA responses of Aedes spp. mosquitoes, we also tested for viral DNA forms in WNV infected Culex cells. We detected viral DNA in Culex tarsalis cells infected with WNV and, to a lesser amount, WNV and Merida virus-derived DNA in Culex quinquefasciatus Hsu cells. In conclusion, Hsu cells generated Merida virus-derived piRNAs, but our data suggests that the major sRNA response of Culex cells and mosquitoes to WNV infection is the exogenous siRNA response. It is also evident that sRNA responses differ significantly between specific virus-mosquito combinations. Future work using additional Culex-borne viruses may further elucidate how virus-derived piRNAs are generated in Culex cells and what role they may play in controlling replication of different viruses.
Project description:We describe the isolation of a novel flavivirus, isolated from a pool of mosquitoes identified as Culex (Culex) chidesteri collected in 2010 in the Pantanal region of west-central Brazil. The virus is herein designated Nhumirim virus (NHUV) after the name of the ranch from which the mosquito pool was collected. Flavivirus RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR of homogenized mosquitoes and from the corresponding C6/36 culture supernatant. Based on full-genome sequencing, the virus isolate was genetically distinct from but most closely related to Barkedji virus (BJV), a newly described flavivirus from Senegal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that NHUV grouped with mosquito-borne flaviviruses forming a clade with BJV. This clade may be genetically intermediate between the Culex-borne flaviviruses amplified by birds and the insect-only flaviviruses.
Project description:Mosquitoes harbor a high diversity of RNA viruses, including many that impact human health. Despite a growing effort to describe the extent and nature of the mosquito virome, little is known about how these viruses persist, spread, and interact with both their hosts and other microbes. To address this issue we performed a metatranscriptomics analysis of 12 Western Australian mosquito populations structured by species and geographic location. Our results identified the complete genomes of 24 species of RNA viruses from a diverse range of viral families and orders, among which 19 are newly described. Comparisons of viromes revealed a striking difference between the two mosquito genera, with viromes of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus exhibiting substantially less diversity and lower abundances than those of mosquitoes of the Culex genus, within which the viral abundance reached 16.87% of the total non-rRNA. In addition, there was little overlap in viral diversity between the two genera, although the viromes were very similar among the three Culex species studied, suggesting that the host taxon plays a major role in structuring virus diversity. In contrast, we found no evidence that geographic location played a major role in shaping RNA virus diversity, and several viruses discovered here exhibited high similarity (95 to 98% nucleotide identity) to those from Indonesia and China. Finally, using abundance-level and phylogenetic relationships, we were able to distinguish potential mosquito viruses from those present in coinfecting bacteria, fungi, and protists. In sum, our metatranscriptomics approach provides important insights into the ecology of mosquito RNA viruses.IMPORTANCE Studies of virus ecology have generally focused on individual viral species. However, recent advances in bulk RNA sequencing make it possible to utilize metatranscriptomic approaches to reveal both complete virus diversity and the relative abundance of these viruses. We used such a metatranscriptomic approach to determine key aspects of the ecology of mosquito viruses in Western Australia. Our results show that RNA viruses are some of the most important components of the mosquito transcriptome, and we identified 19 new virus species from a diverse set of virus families. A key result was that host genetic background plays a more important role in shaping virus diversity than sampling location, with Culex species harboring more viruses at higher abundance than those from Aedes mosquitoes.