Dihydromyricetin Protects Against Gentamicin-Induced Ototoxicity via PGC-1?/SIRT3 Signaling in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity can have a major impact on patients' quality of life and social development problems. Oxidative stress affects normal physiologic functions and has been implicated in aminoglycoside-induced inner ear injury. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages DNA, lipids, and proteins in cells and induces their apoptosis. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a natural flavonol with a wide range of health benefits including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant effects; however, its effects and mechanism of action in auditory hair cells are not well understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant mechanism and anti-ototoxic potential of DHM using House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti (HEI-OC)1 auditory cells and cochlear explant cultures prepared from Kunming mice. We used gentamicin to establish aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity models. Histological and physiological analyses were carried out to determine DHM's pharmacological effects on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Results showed DHM contributes to protecting cells from apoptotic cell death by inhibiting ROS accumulation. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that DHM exerted its otoprotective effects by up-regulating levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?-coactivator (PGC)-1? and Sirtuin (SIRT)3. And the role of PGC-1? and SIRT3 in the protective effects of DHM was evaluated by pharmacologic inhibition of these factors using SR-18292 and 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine, respectively, which indicated DHM's protective effect was dependent on activation of the PGC-1?/SIRT3 signaling. Our study is the first report to identify DHM as a potential otoprotective drug and provides a basis for the prevention and treatment of hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced oxidative damage to auditory hair cells.
Project description:Ototoxicity is a serious health problem that greatly affects millions of people worldwide. This condition is caused by the entry of aminoglycosides into auditory hair cells, subsequently inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and accumulation. Several strategies have been adopted to overcome irreversible ROS-induced hair cell loss in mammals. In recent years, icariin, a major active component of the traditional herb Epimedium, has been widely studied and revealed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, we found that icariin pretreatment improved the survival rate of gentamicin-treated House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells and cochlear explants. Icariin remarkably suppressed HEI-OC1 cell apoptosis and inhibited ROS production in cells. Notably, icariin upregulated PGC-1? (SIRT3 promoter) and SIRT3 expression in HEI-OC1 cells. In addition, SIRT3 inhibition significantly attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of icariin. We also found that icariin can increase AMPK phosphorylation. Further studies showed that inhibition of SIRT3 activity had no significant effect on AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor compound C significantly suppressed SIRT3 expression, meaning that AMPK, as an upstream molecule, regulates SIRT3 expression. Meanwhile, inhibition of AMPK activity significantly reduced the protective effect of icariin on gentamicin ototoxicity. Based on these results, icariin exerts its protective effect on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity via activation of the AMPK-SIRT3 signaling pathway, thus providing a new strategy for treating ototoxicity caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Project description:Hearing loss resulting from hair cell degeneration is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Strategies to overcome the apparent irreversible hair cell loss in mammals become paramount for hearing protection. Here we reported that, by using a well-established gentamicin-induced hair cell loss model in vitro, adjudin, a multi-functional small molecule drug, protected cochlear hair cells from gentamicin damage. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that adjudin exerted its otoprotective effects by up-regulating the level of Sirt3, a member of Sirtuin family protein located in mitochondria, which regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cochlear cells and inhibits the production of ROS and apoptotic cells induced by gentamicin. Sirt3 silencing experiments confirmed that Sirt3-ROS signaling axis mediated hair cell protection against gentamicin by adjudin, at least in part. Furthermore, adjudin's otoprotection effects were also observed in an in vivo gentamicin-injured animal model. Taken together, these findings identify adjudin as a novel otoprotective small molecule via elevating Sirt3 levels and Sirt3 may be of therapeutic value in hair cell protection from ototoxic insults.
Project description:Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been suggested to have a therapeutic effect on irreversible hearing loss induced by aminoglycosides, including gentamicin (GM). However, its intracellular mechanism(s) in GM-induced ototoxicity remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PBM in GM-induced ototoxicity in auditory cells. We tried to characterize the downstream process by PBM, and the process that triggered the increased cell viability of auditory cells. As a result, the effects of PBM against GM-induced ototoxicity by increasing ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential was confirmed. These results suggest a theory to explain the therapeutic effects and support the use of PBM for aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin could cause ototoxicity in mammalians, by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in sensory hair cells of the cochlea. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) is reported to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis, but its role in protecting aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect of NaHS in in vitro cultured House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells and isolated mouse cochlea. Results from cultured HEI-OC1 cells and cochlea consistently indicated that NaHS exhibited protective effects from gentamicin-induced ototoxicity, evident by maintained cell viability, hair cell number and cochlear morphology, reduced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, as well as apoptosis activation of the intrinsic pathway. Moreover, in the isolated cochlear culture, NaHS was also demonstrated to protect the explant from gentamicin-induced mechanotransduction loss. Our study using multiple in vitro models revealed for the first time, the potential of NaHS as a therapeutic agent in protecting against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics including gentamicin (GM) induce delayed ototoxic effects such as hearing loss after long-term use, unlike the early-onset ototoxicity caused by cisplatin. The purpose of the study was to identify the mechanism of the delayed GM-induced ototoxicity by exploring the role of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Treating HEI-OC1 auditory cells with GM led to a time-dependent increase of the autophagosome marker LC3-II, which was accompanied by cell death. In contrast, cisplatin and penicillin caused a rapid increase and had no effect on LC3-II levels, respectively. LC3-II-expressing autophagosomes co-localized with the labeled GM. GM-treated autophagosomes expressed reduced levels of Rab7, which is necessary for the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. When the autophagic flux enhancer rapamycin was applied to GM-treated cells, Rab7 and the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D were upregulated, and increased cell survival was observed. In animal studies, the intraperitoneal injection of GM worsened hearing thresholds and induced the accumulation of LC3 in the organ of Corti. This hearing impairment was attenuated by rapamycin. These findings suggest that the delayed onset-ototoxicity of GM may be closely related to the accumulation of autophagosomes via impaired autophagy. This GM-induced auditory cell death could be inhibited by enhancing autophagic flux.
Project description:Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat) as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM)-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants. In vivo, however, treatment with SAHA attenuated neither GM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in guinea pigs nor kanamycin (KM)-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in mice under chronic models of ototoxicity. These findings suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA attenuates aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in an acute model, but not in chronic models, cautioning that one cannot rely solely on in vitro experiments to test the efficacy of otoprotectant compounds.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics are "the drug of choice" for treating many bacterial infections, but their administration results in hearing loss in up to one fourth of the patients who receive them. Several biochemical pathways have been implicated in aminoglycoside antibiotic ototoxicity; however, little is known about how hair cells respond to aminoglycoside antibiotics at the transcriptome level. Here we have investigated the genome-wide response to the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. Using organotypic cultures of the perinatal organ of Corti, we performed RNA sequencing using cDNA libraries obtained from FACS-purified hair cells. Within 3 h of gentamicin treatment, the messenger RNA level of more than three thousand genes in hair cells changed significantly. Bioinformatic analysis of these changes highlighted several known signal transduction pathways, including the JNK pathway and the NF-?B pathway, in addition to genes involved in the stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. In contrast, only 698 genes, mainly involved in cell cycle and metabolite biosynthetic processes, were significantly affected in the non-hair cell population. The gene expression profiles of hair cells in response to gentamicin share a considerable similarity with those previously observed in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Our findings suggest that previously observed early responses to gentamicin in hair cells in specific signaling pathways are reflected in changes in gene expression. Additionally, the observed changes in gene expression of cell cycle regulatory genes indicate a disruption of the postmitotic state, which may suggest an alternate pathway regulating gentamicin-induced apoptotic hair cell death. This work provides a more comprehensive view of aminoglycoside antibiotic ototoxicity, and thus contributes to identifying potential pathways or therapeutic targets to alleviate this important side effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Project description:Exposure to intense sound or high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics can increase hearing thresholds, induce cochlear dysfunction, disrupt hair cell morphology and promote hair cell death, leading to permanent hearing loss. When the two insults are combined, synergistic ototoxicity occurs, exacerbating cochlear vulnerability to sound exposure. The underlying mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sound exposure enhances the intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, leading to increased hair cell uptake of aminoglycosides and subsequent ototoxicity.Juvenile C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to moderate or intense sound levels, while fluorescently-conjugated or native gentamicin was administered concurrently or following sound exposure. Drug uptake was then examined in cochlear tissues by confocal microscopy.Prolonged sound exposure that induced temporary threshold shifts increased gentamicin uptake by cochlear hair cells, and increased gentamicin permeation across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier. Enhanced intra-cochlear trafficking and hair cell uptake of gentamicin also occurred when prolonged sound, and subsequent aminoglycoside exposure were temporally separated, confirming previous observations. Acute, concurrent sound exposure did not increase cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides.Prolonged, moderate sound exposures enhanced intra-cochlear aminoglycoside trafficking into the stria vascularis and hair cells. Changes in strial and/or hair cell physiology and integrity due to acoustic overstimulation could increase hair cell uptake of gentamicin, and may represent one mechanism of synergistic ototoxicity.
Project description:Inner ear hair cell death leads to sensorineural hearing loss and can be a direct consequence of aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment. Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are effective therapy for serious Gram-negative bacterial infections such as some forms of meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Aminoglycosides enter hair cells through mechanotransduction channels at the apical end of hair bundles and initiate intrinsic cell death cascades, but the precise cell signaling that leads to hair cell death is incompletely understood. Here, we examine the cell death pathways involved in aminoglycoside damage using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zebrafish lateral line contains hair cell-bearing organs called neuromasts that are homologous to hair cells of the mammalian inner ear and represents an excellent model to study ototoxicity. Based on previous research demonstrating a role for p53, Bcl2 signaling, autophagy, and proteasomal degradation in aminoglycoside-damaged hair cells, we used the Cytoscape GeneMANIA Database to identify additional proteins that might play a role in neomycin or gentamicin ototoxicity. Our bioinformatics analysis identified the pro-survival proteins phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (Xiap) as potential mediators of gentamicin-induced hair cell damage. Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 or its downstream mediator protein kinase C facilitated gentamicin toxicity, as did Xiap mutation, suggesting that both PI3K and endogenous Xiap confer protection. Surprisingly, aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death was highly attenuated in wild type Tupfel long-fin (TL fish; the background strain for the Xiap mutant line) compared to wild type ?AB zebrafish. Pharmacologic manipulation of p53 suggested that the strain difference might result from decreased p53 in TL hair cells, allowing for increased hair cell survival. Overall, our studies identified additional steps in the cell death cascade triggered by aminoglycoside damage, suggesting possible drug targets to combat hearing loss resulting from aminoglycoside exposure.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, continue to be clinically essential worldwide to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. Yet, the ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects of these drugs remain serious complications. A major site of gentamicin uptake and toxicity resides within kidney proximal tubules that also heavily express electrogenic sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) in vivo. We hypothesized that SGLT2 traffics gentamicin, and promotes cellular toxicity. We confirmed in vitro expression of SGLT2 in proximal tubule-derived KPT2 cells, and absence in distal tubule-derived KDT3 cells. D-glucose competitively decreased the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescent analog of glucose, and fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) by KPT2 cells. Phlorizin, an SGLT2 antagonist, strongly inhibited uptake of 2-NBDG and GTTR by KPT2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GTTR uptake was elevated in KDT3 cells transfected with SGLT2 (compared to controls); and this enhanced uptake was attenuated by phlorizin. Knock-down of SGLT2 expression by siRNA reduced gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, SGLT2 was robustly expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells of heterozygous, but not null, mice. Phlorizin decreased GTTR uptake by kidney proximal tubule cells in Sglt2+/- mice, but not in Sglt2-/- mice. However, serum GTTR levels were elevated in Sglt2-/- mice compared to Sglt2+/- mice, and in phlorizin-treated Sglt2+/- mice compared to vehicle-treated Sglt2+/- mice. Loss of SGLT2 function by antagonism or by gene deletion did not affect gentamicin cochlear loading or auditory function. Phlorizin did not protect wild-type mice from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. We conclude that SGLT2 can traffic gentamicin and contribute to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity.