High expression of EMP1 predicts a poor prognosis and correlates with immune infiltrates in bladder urothelial carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) is a key gene that regulates cell proliferation and metastatic capability in various types of cancer, and serves an important role in tumor-immune interactions. However, the association between EMP1 and clinical prognosis, as well as the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between EMP1 expression and tumor immune cell infiltration in BLCA. In the present study, EMP1 expression in BLCA was analyzed using the Oncomine database, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). The effects of EMP1 on clinical prognosis were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier plotter and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. The correlations between EMP1, cancer immune infiltrates and lymphocyte abundance were determined using the TIMER and Tumor immune system interaction database. In addition, correlations between EMP1 expression and gene markers in immune infiltrates were analyzed using cBioportal. The results demonstrated that, compared with adjacent normal tissues, EMP1 was downregulated in BLCA tissues. High expression of EMP1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) in BLCA cases obtained from TCGA. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that EMP1 was an independent predictor of OS in patients with BLCA. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that EMP1 was associated with cancer-related pathways and was positively correlated with the levels of infiltrating CD8+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells in BLCA. Further analysis demonstrated that EMP1 was significantly associated with the enrichment of multiple types of lymphocyte. EMP1 expression exhibited a strong correlation with a range of immune markers in BLCA. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that EMP1 was associated with a poor prognosis in patients with BLCA, and that the levels of immune infiltration and multiple immunomarker groups were associated with EMP1 expression. These results suggested that EMP1 may be used as a predictive biomarker to determine the prognosis and immune infiltration in BLCA.
Project description:Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), as an aquaglyceroporin, is expressed in many immune cells and plays important role in tumor initiation and progression. However, the relationship between AQP9 and tumor-infiltrating cells, and its prognostic value in cancers still require comprehensive understanding. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the correlations of AQP9 with prognosis and immune infiltration levels in diverse cancers. We detected the expression and survival data of AQP9 through Oncomine, TIMER, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and PrognoScan databases. The correlations between AQP9 and immune infiltrates were analyzed in TIMER database. Our results found that high AQP9 expression was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in breast, colon and lung cancers, while predicted better prognosis in gastric cancer. Moreover, AQP9 had significant association with various immune infiltrating cells including CD8<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and diverse immune gene markers in BRCA, COAD, LUAD, LUSC and STAD. AQP9 was also significantly correlated with the regulation of tumor associated macrophages (TAM). These results indicate that AQP9 can play as a significant biomarker to determine the prognosis and the immune infiltrating levels in different cancers. It might also contribute to the development of the immunotherapy in breast, colon, lung and gastric cancers.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Layilin (LAYN) is a critical gene that regulates T cell function. However, the correlations of LAYN to prognosis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in different cancers remain unclear. <b>Methods:</b> LAYN expression was analyzed via the Oncomine database and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) site. We evaluated the influence of LAYN on clinical prognosis using Kaplan-Meier plotter, the PrognoScan database and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The correlations between LAYN and cancer immune infiltrates was investigated via TIMER. In addition, correlations between LAYN expression and gene marker sets of immune infiltrates were analyzed by TIMER and GEPIA. <b>Results:</b> A cohort (GSE17536) of colorectal cancer patients showed that high LAYN expression was associated with poorer overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS). In addition, high LAYN expression was significantly correlated with poor OS and progression-free survival (PFS) in gastric cancers (OS HR = 1.97, <i>P</i> = 3.6e-10; PFS HR = 2.12, <i>P</i> = 2.3e-10). Moreover, LAYN significantly impacts the prognosis of diverse cancers via The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Specifically, high LAYN expression was correlated with worse OS and PFS in stage 2 to 4 but not stage 1 and stage N0 gastric cancer patients (<i>P</i> = 0.28, 0.34; <i>P</i> = 0.073, 0.092). LAYN expression was positively correlated with infiltrating levels of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). LAYN expression showed strong correlations with diverse immune marker sets in COAD and STAD. <b>Conclusions:</b> These findings suggest that LAYN is correlated with prognosis and immune infiltrating levels of, including those of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs in multiple cancers, especially in colon and gastric cancer patients. In addition, LAYN expression potentially contributes to regulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), DCs, T cell exhaustion and Tregs in colon and gastric cancer. These findings suggest that LAYN can be used as a prognostic biomarker for determining prognosis and immune infiltration in gastric and colon cancers.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) is one of the most common malignancies in urinary system. With the development of next-generation sequencing technology, we intended to investigate prognostic immune cells and related signature to predict the prognosis of BLCA and potential therapeutic targets.<h4>Methods</h4>We obtained the transcriptome profiles of 573 BLCA patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. The fractions of immune cells in each sample was calculated by "CIBERSORT" algorithm. Tumor Infiltrating Immune Cells Scores (TIICS) was accordingly derived and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was conducted to evaluate the predictive efficiency. Moreover, differential analysis was performed between two TIICS groups and hub TIICS-related immune signature was identified. The correlation of key immune genes and immune-infiltrating immune cells was evaluated based on the TIMER database. An Immune Signature Prognostic Index (ISPI) based on these signatures was constructed with superior predictive accuracy. Last, the TIICS model or related immune signature were all validated in an independent cohort from the GSE13507.<h4>Results</h4>The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm was utilized to screen the 6 hub tumor-infiltrating immune cells in TCGA cohort, where higher infiltrating levels of M0 Macrophages, M2 Macrophages and Neutrophils were hazard factors, while CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells and memory activated CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells were protective factors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Taken together, our study identified several prognostic immune cells and related immune signature in BLCA, shedding insight on the individualized immunotherapy or potential drug targets.
Project description:Background:Several markers have been reported to be specific for hepatic cancer stem cells (HCSCs), which is usually thought to be highly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells act as an important factor for oncogenesis. Little is known about the correlation of HCSC markers to prognosis and immune infiltrates. Methods:Expression of HCSC markers was analyzed through Oncomine database, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and Integrative Molecular Database of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCCDB), respectively. The prognostic effect of HCSC markers was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier plotter in association with different tumor stages, risk factors, and gender. The correlation of HCSC markers to tumor-infiltrating immune cells was tested by Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). HCSC markers related gene sets were investigated by GEPIA, with their biological functions being analyzed by Cytoscape software. Results:The expression level of 10 HCSC markers in HCC was higher than that in normal tissues in at least one database. Among them, high expression of CD24, SOX9, and SOX12 was positively correlated with poor prognosis (CD24: OS P = 0.0012, PFS P = 7.9E-05. SOX9: OS P = 0.012. SOX12: OS P = 0.0004, PFS P = 0.0013, respectively). However, the expression of CD13, CD34 and ALDH1A1 was associated with prolonged OS and PFS. SOX12 was significantly upregulated in poor prognosis of HCC patients with different conditions. Besides, total nine HCSC markers were identified to be positively associated with immune infiltration, including SOX12. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was found to be one major pathway of these HCSC markers related gene networks. Conclusion:Our results suggest that seven upregulated HCSC markers (CD90, EpCAM, CD133, CD24, SOX9, CK19, and SOX12) are related with poor prognosis and immune infiltration in HCC. In addition, we find that high SOX12 expression remarkably affect prognosis in male HCC patients but not in female. HCC patients under viral infection or alcohol intake with increased SOX12 expression had poorer prognosis. Therefore, HCSCs markers likely play an important role in tumor related immune infiltration and SOX12 might be a potential therapeutic target in patients with HCC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Bladder cancer (BLCA) is the 11th most common malignancy worldwide. Although significant improvements have been made in screening, diagnosis, and precise management in recent years, the prognosis of BLCA remains bleak. <h4>Objectives</h4> This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and construct ceRNA networks in BLCA patients. <h4>Methods</h4> The expression data of BLCA patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network was constructed to identify the hub genes involved in the prognosis of BLCA. The CIBERSORT algorithm was utilized to investigate the infiltration levels of 22 subsets of immune cells. Ultimately, the nomogram was generated to visualize the survival probability of each patient, with the calibration curve being performed to assess its performance. Furthermore, the Pearson correlation test was used to explore the correlation between the identified hub genes in the ceRNA network and the prognostic-related immune cells. <h4>Results</h4> A total of eight elements in the ceRNA network were considered as key members and correlated with the prognosis of BLCA, including ELN, SREBF1, DSC2, TTLL7, DIP2C, SATB1, hsa-miR-20a-5p, and hsa-miR-29c-3p. T cells CD8, T cells follicular helper (Tfh), and neutrophils were identified as independent prognostic factors in BLCA. The co-expression analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the identified hub genes and immune cells. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Our results suggest that the mechanism of hsa-miR-29c-3p regulates the expression of ELN and DSC2, and the infiltration of Tfh and neutrophils might play pivotal roles in the progression of BLCA.
Project description:Background: FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1) plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), which is closely associated with human immunity. However, the role of FUNDC1 in cancers remains unclear. This study aimed to visualize the prognostic landscape of FUNDC1 in pan-cancer and investigate the relationship between FUNDC1 expression and immune infiltration. Methods: In this study, we explored the expression pattern and prognostic value of FUNDC1 in pan-cancer across multiple databases, including ONCOMINE, PrognoScan, GEPIA, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Then, using the GEPIA and TIMER databases, we investigated the correlations between FUNDC1 expression and immune infiltration in cancers, especially liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Results: In general, compared with that in normal tissue, tumor tissue had a higher expression level of FUNDC1. Although FUNDC1 showed a protective effect on pan-cancer, a high expression level of FUNDC1 was detrimental to the survival of LIHC patients. Although different from what was found for LUSC, for LIHC, there were significant positive correlations between FUNDC1 expression and immune infiltrates, including B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Furthermore, markers of infiltrating immune cells, such as tumor-associated-macrophages (TAMs), exhibited different FUNDC1-related immune infiltration patterns. Conclusion: The mitophagy regulator FUNDC1 can serve as a prognostic biomarker in pan-cancer and is correlated with immune infiltrates.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Siglec15 is an emerging target for normalization cancer immunotherapy. However, pan-cancer anti-Siglec15 treatment is not yet validated and the potential role of Siglec15 in bladder cancer (BLCA) remains elusive. <b>Methods:</b> We comprehensively evaluated the expression pattern and immunological role of Siglec15 using pan-cancer analysis based on RNA sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We then systematically correlated Siglec15 with immunological characteristics in the BLCA tumor microenvironment (TME), including immunomodulators, cancer immunity cycles, tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), immune checkpoints, and T cell inflamed score. We also analyzed the role of Siglec15 in predicting the molecular subtype and the response to several treatment options in BLCA. Our results were validated in several public cohorts as well as our BLCA tumor microarray cohort, the Xiangya cohort. We developed an immune risk score (IRS), validated it, and tested its ability to predict the prognosis and response to cancer immunotherapy. <b>Results:</b> We found that Siglec15 was specifically overexpressed in the TME of various cancers. We hypothesize that Siglec15 designs a non-inflamed TME in BLCA based on the evidence that Siglec15 negatively correlated with immunomodulators, TIICs, cancer immunity cycles, immune checkpoints, and T cell inflamed score. Bladder cancer with high Siglec15 expression was not sensitive to cancer immunotherapy, but exhibited a higher incidence of hyperprogression. High Siglec15 levels indicated a luminal subtype of BLCA characterized by lower immune infiltration, lower response to cancer immunotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but higher response to anti-angiogenic therapy and targeted therapies such as blocking Siglec15, ?-catenin, PPAR-?, and FGFR3 pathways. Notably, a combination of anti-Siglec15 and cancer immunotherapy may be a more effective strategy than monotherapy. IRS can accurately predict the prognosis and response to cancer immunotherapy. <b>Conclusions:</b> Anti-Siglec15 immunotherapy might be suitable for BLCA treatment as Siglec15 correlates with a non-inflamed TME in BLCA. Siglec15 could also predict the molecular subtype and the response to several treatment options.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostaglandin I2 synthase (PTGIS) is a crucial gene for the synthesis of prostaglandin I2, which has multiple roles in inflammation and immune modulation. However, studies on the prognostic value of PTGIS and its correlation with tumor-infiltrating immune cells in multiple cancers are still rare. RESULTS:Multiple datasets of the Oncomine database showed that PTGIS was expressed at low levels in lung cancer and ovarian cancer compared to the levels in normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier plotter showed that high PTGIS was associated with poor overall survival and progression-free survival in lung, ovarian, and gastric cancers. Moreover, PTGIS expression was significantly positively correlated with infiltrating levels of macrophages and was strongly associated with a variety of immune markers, especially tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and T-regulatory cells (Tregs). CONCLUSIONS:High expression of PTGIS could promote the infiltration of TAMs and Tregs in the tumor microenvironment and deteriorate outcomes of patients with lung, ovarian, and gastric cancers. These findings suggest that PTGIS could be taken as a potential biomarker of prognosis and tumor-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS:PTGIS expression was investigated in different datasets of the Oncomine database, and its expression levels in various tumors and corresponding normal tissues were analyzed by the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). Then, the clinical prognostic value of PTGIS was assessed with online public databases. In addition, we initially explored the correlation between PTGIS and tumor-infiltrating immune cells by TIMER and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA).
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) plays a central role in the progression of tumor and tumor immunity. However, the effect of FSTL1 on the prognosis and immune infiltration of gastric cancer (GC) remains to be elucidated.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>The expression of FSTL1 data was analyzed in Oncomine and TIMER databases. Analyses of clinical parameters and survival data were conducted by Kaplan-Meier plotter and immunohistochemistry. Western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used to analyze protein and mRNA expression, respectively. The correlations between FSTL1 and cancer immune infiltrates were analyzed by Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIME), Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), and LinkedOmics database.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The expression of FSTL1 was significantly higher in GC tissues than in normal tissues, and bioinformatic analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) indicated that high FSTL1 expression significantly correlated with poor prognosis in GC. Moreover, FSTL1 was predicted as an independent prognostic factor in GC patients. Bioinformatics analysis results suggested that FSTL1 mainly involved in tumor progression and tumor immunity. And significant correlations were found between FSTL1 expression and immune cell infiltration in GC.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>The study effectively revealed useful information about FSTL1 expression, prognostic values, potential functional networks, and impact of tumor immune infiltration in GC. In summary, FSTL1 can be used as a biomarker for prognosis and evaluating immune cell infiltration in GC.