Impact of Whole Body Electromyostimulation on Velocity, Power and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Menopause is associated with losses in strength and power along with weight and fat mass gains, which may result from menopause-related hormonal changes, aging-associated diseases, and decreased physical activity time. The objective of this study is to analyze if whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) is suitable for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal physical deterioration. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post test. Both groups conducted 10 weeks of aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group conducted the training with superimposed WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, the experimental group obtained better power (Squat: mean difference (MD) = 38.69 W [1.75,75.62], d = 0.81; Bench press: MD = 25.64 W [17.48, 33.82], d = 2.39) and velocity (Squat: MD = 0.04 m·s-1 [0.01, 0.08], d = 0.98; Bench press: MD = 0.10 m·s-1 [0.06, 0.14], d = 1.90) score improvements than the other group (pBonferroni < 0.05). Furthermore, trivial to small effects were found in the body composition of the participants of both groups (p > 0.050). WB-EMS showed a favorable isolated effect on the development of power and velocity, but it induced negligible effects on the body composition of postmenopausal women.
Project description:The link between athlete physique and performance in sports is well established. However, a direct link between somatotype three-numeral rating and anaerobic performance has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between somatotype and anaerobic performance using both singular and multivariate analyses. Thirty-six physically active males (mean ± standard deviation age 26.0 ± 9.8 years; body mass 79.5 ± 12.9 kg; height 1.82 ± 0.07 m) were somatotype-rated using the Heath-Carter method. Subjects were assessed for 3 repetition maximum (3 RM) bench press and back squat, and completed a 30-second maximal sprint cycle test. Positive correlations were observed between mesomorphy and 3 RM bench press (r = 0.560, p < 0.001), mesomorphy and 3 RM back squat (r = 0.550, p = 0.001) and between mesomorphy and minimum power output (r = 0.357, p = 0.033). Negative correlations were observed between ectomorphy and 3 RM bench press (r = -0.381, p = 0.022), and ectomorphy and 3 RM back squat (r = -0.336, p = 0.045). Individual regression analysis indicated that mesomorphy was the best predictor of 3 RM bench press performance, with 31.4% of variance in 3 RM bench press performance accounted for by the mesomorphy rating (p < 0.001). A combination of mesomorphy and ectomorphy best predicted 3 RM back squat performance (R2 = 0.388, p < 0.04). Around one third of strength performance is predicted by somatotype-assessed physique in physically active males. This could have important implications for the identification of those predisposed to perform well in sports containing strength-based movements and prescription of training programmes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In resistance training, the role of training frequency to increase maximal strength is often debated. However, the limited data available does not allow for clear training frequency "optimization" recommendations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training frequency on maximal muscular strength and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). The total weekly training volume was equally distributed between two and four sessions per muscle group.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-one experienced resistance-trained male subjects (height: 1.85 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 85.3 ± 12.3 kg, age: 27.6 ± 7.6 years) were tested prior to and after an 8-week training period in one-repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat and bench press. Subjects were randomly assigned to a SPLIT group (<i>n</i> = 10), in which there were two training sessions of squats and lower-body exercises and two training sessions of bench press and upper-body exercises, or a FULLBODY group (<i>n</i> = 11), in which four sessions with squats, bench press and supplementary exercises were conducted every session. In each session, the subjects rated their RPE after barbell back squat, bench press, and the full session.<h4>Results</h4>Both groups significantly increased 1RM strength in barbell back squat (SPLIT group: +13.25 kg; FULLBODY group: +14.31 kg) and bench press (SPLIT group: +7.75 kg; FULLBODY group: +8.86 kg) but training frequency did not affect this increase for squat (<i>p</i> = 0.640) or bench press (<i>p</i> = 0.431). Both groups showed a significant effect for time on RPE on all three measurements. The analyses showed only an interaction effect between groups on time for the RPE after the squat exercise (<i>p</i> = 0.002).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that there are no additional benefits of increasing the training frequency from two to four sessions under volume-equated conditions, but it could be favorable to spread the total training volume into several training bouts through the week to avoid potential increases in RPE, especially after the squat exercise.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dynamic superimposed submaximal whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training on maximal strength and power parameters of the leg muscles compared with a similar dynamic training without WB-EMS. Eighteen male sport students were randomly assigned either to a WB-EMS intervention (INT; n = 9; age: 28.8 (SD: 3.0) years; body mass: 80.2 (6.6) kg; strength training experience: 4.6 (2.8) years) or a traditional strength training group (CON; n = 9; age: 22.8 (2.5) years; body mass: 77.6 (9.0) kg; strength training experience: 4.5 (2.9) years). Both training intervention programs were performed twice a week over a period of 8 weeks with the only difference that INT performed all dynamic exercises (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises, jumps, and tappings) with superimposed WB-EMS. WB-EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of the individual maximal tolerable pain to ensure dynamic movement. Before (PRE), after (POST) and 2 weeks after the intervention (FU), performance indices were assessed by maximal strength (Fmax) and maximal power (Pmax) testing on the leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), and leg press (LP) machine as primary endpoints. Additionally, vertical and horizontal jumps and 30 m sprint tests were conducted as secondary endpoints at PRE, POST and FU testing. Significant time effects were observed for strength and power parameters on LE and LC (LE Fmax +5.0%; LC Pmax +13.5%). A significant time × group interaction effect was merely observed for Fmax on the LE where follow-up post hoc testing showed significantly higher improvements in the INT group from PRE to POST and PRE to FU (INT: +7.7%, p < 0.01; CON: +2.1%). These findings indicate that the combination of dynamic exercises and superimposed submaximal WB-EMS seems to be effective in order to improve leg strength and power. However, in young healthy adults the effects of superimposed WB-EMS were similar to the effects of dynamic resistance training without EMS, with the only exception of a significantly greater increase in leg extension Fmax in the WB-EMS group.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the physiological variables that predict competition performance during a CrossFit competition. Fifteen male amateur CrossFit athletes (age, 35 ± 9 years; CrossFit experience, 40 ± 27 months) performed a series of laboratory-based tests (incremental load test for deep full squat and bench press; squat, countermovement and drop jump tests; and incremental running and Wingate tests) that were studied as potential predictors of CrossFit performance. Thereafter, they performed the five Workouts of the Day (WODs) corresponding to the CrossFit Games Open 2019, and we assessed the relationship between the laboratory-based markers and CrossFit performance with regression analyses. Overall CrossFit performance (i.e., final ranking considering the sum of all WODs, as assessed by number of repetitions, time spent in exercises or weight lifted) was significantly related to jump ability, mean and peak power output during the Wingate test, relative maximum strength for the deep full squat and the bench press, and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed during the incremental test (all p < 0.05, r = 0.58-0.75). However, the relationship between CrossFit Performance and most laboratory markers varied depending on the analyzed WOD. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that measures of lower-body muscle power (particularly jump ability) and VO2max explained together most of the variance (R2 = 81%, p < 0.001) in overall CrossFit performance. CrossFit performance is therefore associated with different power-, strength-, and aerobic-related markers.
Project description:Background: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) gained increasing interest in sports within recent years. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of WB-EMS on trained subjects in comparison to conventional strength training. Objective: The aim of the present mini-meta-analysis of 5 recently conducted and published randomized controlled WB-EMS trails of our work group was to evaluate potentially favorable effects of WB-EMS in comparison to conventional strength training. Methods: We included parameter of selected leg muscle's strength and power as well as sprint and jump performance. All subjects were moderately trained athletes [>2 training sessions/week, >2 years of experience in strength training; experimental group (n = 58): 21.5 ± 3.3 y; 178 ± 8 cm; 74.0 ± 11 kg; control group (n = 54): 21.0 ± 2.3 y; 179.0 ± 9 cm; 72.6 ± 10 kg]. The following WB-EMS protocols were applied to the experimental group (EG): 2 WB-EMS sessions/week, bipolar current superimposed to dynamic exercises, 85 Hz, 350 ?s, 70% of the individual pain threshold amperage. The control groups (CG) underwent the same training protocols without WB-EMS, but with external resistance. Results: Five extremely homogenous studies (all studies revealed an I 2 = 0%) with 112 subjects in total were analyzed with respect to lower limb strength and power in leg curl, leg extension and leg press machines, sprint-and jump performance. Negligible effects in favor of WB-EMS were found for Fmax of leg muscle groups [SMD: 0.11 (90% CI: -0.08, 0.33), p = 0.73, I 2 = 0%] and for CMJ [SMD: 0.01 (90% CI: -0.34, 0.33), p = 0.81, I 2 = 0%]. Small effects, were found for linear sprint [SMD: 0.22 (90% CI: -0.15, 0.60), p = 0.77, I 2 = 0%] in favor of the EMS-group compared to CON. Conclusion: We conclude that WB-EMS is a feasible complementary training stimulus for performance enhancement. However, additional effects on strength and power indices seem to be limited and sprint and jump-performance appear to be benefiting only slightly. Longer training periods and more frequent application times and a slightly larger stimulus could be investigated in larger samples to further elucidate beneficial effects of WB-EMS on performance parameters in athletes.
Project description:Background:The aim of this study was to investigate if choice over resistance training exercise order affects motor performance and psychological outcomes among elite youth hockey players. Methods:Seventeen elite hockey players (male, n = 14; female, n = 3, age: 15.1 ± 1.1 years) participated in this study. In the first session, individual optimum power loads were calculated in the back squat, jump squat, bench press and bench throw exercises. Then, in four counterbalanced sessions, participants completed three sets of six repetitions in the same exercises loaded with their optimum power loads. In two sessions, athletes used a self-selected order of exercises, while in other two sessions the order was predetermined. Power outputs were estimated with a linear position transducer. Fatigue and enjoyment were measured during and after the sessions using standardized questionnaires. Repeated measures analyses of variance and a paired-sample t-test were used to compare the effects between conditions. Results:We observed trivial to small differences between conditions in power outputs (p ? 0.07; ES ? 0.21), fatigue (p ? 0.42; ES ? 0.33) and enjoyment (p = 0.72; ES = 0.05). Conclusion:Given the comparable effects between approaches, both can be used when coaching youth athletes. Self-selecting the order of exercises based on preferences is a feasible and practical coaching option when working with youth athletes.
Project description:In resistance-training, the number of repetitions can be either fixed and predetermined (e.g., 3 sets of 10 repetitions), or selected by the trainee during ongoing sets (e.g., 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions). The first approach is more goal-focused while the latter is more autonomy-focused. Here we compared these two approaches in motor performance and psychological outcomes. Nineteen resistance-trained participants (10-males) first completed one repetition-maximum (RM) tests in the barbell-squat and bench-press, and were familiarized with the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In the next two counterbalanced sessions, participants completed two sets of the squat and bench-press using 70%1RM, and two sets of the IMTP. In the predetermined session, participants completed 10 repetitions in all sets, and in the self-selected session, participants chose how many repetitions to complete out of an 8-12 range. Bar-velocity was measured in the squat and bench-press, and force production in the IMTP. Enjoyment, perceived-autonomy, and approach-preferences were collected post-sessions. We observed comparable bar-velocity, force production, and enjoyment in both conditions (all BF01?>?2.1), and an even approach-preferences split. However, in the self-selected condition, participants demonstrated considerable variability in the number of repetitions and reported greater perceived-autonomy. Given the similarities between approaches, both can be used with this cohort based on their personal-preference.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on straight sprinting speed (SSS), change of direction speed (CODS), vertical and horizontal jumping, as well as on strength and power in physically active females. Twenty-two active female participants (<i>n</i> = 22; mean ± SD: age: 20.5 ± 2.3 years; height: 171.9 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 64.0 ± 8.2 kg; strength training experience 5.1 ± 3.6 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed WB-EMS (S+E). Both groups trained twice a week over a period of 4 weeks and differed in the application of free weights or WB-EMS during four strength (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises) and five sprinting and jumping exercises (e.g., side and box jumps, skippings). The WB-EMS impulse intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual maximal sustainable pain. SSS was tested <i>via</i> 30-m sprinting, CODS by a T-run, vertical and horizontal jumping using four different jump tests at pre-, post-, and retests. Maximal strength (F<sub>max</sub>) and power (P<sub>max</sub>) testing procedures were conducted on the Leg Press (LP), Leg Extension (LE), and Leg Curl (LC) machine. Significant time × group interaction effects revealed significant decreases of contact time of the Drop Jump and split time of CODS (<i>p</i> ? 0.043; ? p 2 = 0.15-0.25) for S (? 11.6%) compared to S+E (? 5.7%). Significant time effects (<i>p</i> < 0.024; ? p 2 = 0.17-0.57) were observed in both groups for SSS (S+E: ?6.3%; S: ?8.0%) and CODS (S+E: ?1.8%; S: ?2.0%) at retest, for jump test performances (S+E: ?13.2%; S: ?9.2%) as well as F<sub>max</sub> and P<sub>max</sub> for LE (S+E: ?13.5%; S: ?13.3%) and LC (S+E: ?18.2%; S: ?26.7%) at post- and retests. The findings of this study indicate comparable effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed WB-EMS on physical fitness in physically active females. Therefore, WB-EMS training could serve as a reasonable but not superior alternative to classic training regimes in female exercisers.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostiulation (WB-EMS) has experienced a boom in recent years, even though its effectiveness is controversial. A sedentary lifestyle is deeply rooted in the European population, mainly in the elderly. This experimental study analyzed the impact of WB-EMS on the physical fitness of postmenopausal women. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post-test. Both groups conducted a ten-week aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group overlaid the WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, both groups improved upper and lower body strength, lower extremity flexibility, agility, and speed levels (pBonferroni < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed at upper and lower body strength, agility, speed, and cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.05). The WB-EMS group scored better agility than the control group at the end of the intervention (pBonferroni < 0.05) and was the only group that improved cardiovascular endurance. WB-EMS shows a favorable isolate effect on the development of dynamic leg strength, agility, and cardiovascular endurance but did not in dynamic arm strength, gait speed, balance, or flexibility of postmenopausal women.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate differences in anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities (1) between under (U) 17, 19, and 21 years old elite junior soccer players, and also (2) between starting and nonstarting players within each age group. Ninety-two male elite German junior field players were tested for height, mass, fat, and fat-free mass as well as aerobic endurance, squat (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ), linear sprint, core strength-endurance, and one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press performance. According to their age and competitive match playing times, the players were divided into the mentioned different groups. Magnitude-based inferences and effect sizes (ES) were computed for statistical analyses. The fat-free mass, SJ and CMJ, 1RM bench press, and linear sprinting performances increased likely to most likely from U17 to U21 players (ES: moderate to large), whereas the body fat, core strength-endurance, and aerobic endurance performances remain constant. The fat-free mass, 1RM bench press, and linear sprinting performances were likely to most likely higher in U21 starting compared to nonstarting players (ES: moderate to large). Our study shows that contrary to endurance, power associated capacities differ between different aged and starting-nonstarting elite junior soccer players. This outcome should be considered for training, testing, and talent selection procedures in elite junior soccer players.