Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake by Ethnicity, Income, and Education Level in the United States: NHANES 2003-2014.
ABSTRACT: Although there are many recognized health benefits for the consumption of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), intake in the United States remains below recommended amounts. This analysis was designed to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 LCPUFA intake (eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States adult population, based on education, income, and race/ethnicity, using data from the 2003-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 44,585). Over this survey period, participants with less education and lower income had significantly lower n-3 LCPUFA intakes and fish intakes (p < 0.001 for all between group comparisons). N-3 LCPUFA intake differed significantly according to ethnicity (p < 0.001), with the highest intake of n-3 LCPUFA and fish in individuals in the "Other" category (including Asian Americans). Supplement use increased EPA + DHA intake, but only 7.4% of individuals consistently took supplements. Overall, n-3 LCPUFA intake in this study population was low, but our findings indicate that individuals with lower educational attainment and income are at even higher risk of lower n-3 LCPUFA and fish intake.
Project description:Despite numerous studies investigating n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the extent to which dietary n-3 LCPUFAs incorporate in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and correlate with red blood cell (RBC) n-3 LCPUFA content is unknown. In this study, mice were fed three diets with increasing percent of energy (%en) derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Dietary levels reflected recommended intakes of fish/fish oil by the American Heart Association. We analyzed the FA composition of phospholipids extracted from RBCs, plasma, and GI tissues. We observed that the 0.1%en EPA+DHA diet was sufficient to significantly increase the omega-3 index (RBC EPA+DHA) after 5 week feeding. The baseline EPA levels were 0.2-0.6% across all tissues increasing to 1.6-4.3% in the highest EPA+DHA diet; these changes resulted in absolute increases of 1.4-3.9% EPA across tissues. The baseline DHA levels were 2.2-5.9% across all tissues increasing to 5.8-10.5% in the highest EPA+DHA diet; these changes resulted in absolute increases of 3.2-5.7% DHA across tissues. These increases in EPA and DHA across all tissues resulted in strong (r>0.91) and significant (P<0.001) linear correlations between the omega-3 index and plasma/GI tissue EPA+DHA content, suggesting that the omega-3 index reflects the relative amounts of EPA+DHA in GI tissues. These data demonstrate that the GI tissues are highly responsive to dietary LCPUFA supplementation and that the omega-3 index can serve as a valid biomarker for assessing dietary EPA+DHA incorporation into GI tissues.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption.<h4>Design</h4>We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group. Results from cohort-specific GWA analyses (additive model) for fish and EPA+DHA consumption were adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, and population stratification, and meta-analyzed separately using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights (METAL software). Additionally, heritability was estimated in 2 cohorts.<h4>Results</h4>Heritability estimates for fish and EPA+DHA consumption ranged from 0.13-0.24 and 0.12-0.22, respectively. A significant GWA for fish intake was observed for rs9502823 on chromosome 6: each copy of the minor allele (FreqA = 0.015) was associated with 0.029 servings/day (~1 serving/month) lower fish consumption (P = 1.96x10-8). No significant association was observed for EPA+DHA, although rs7206790 in the obesity-associated FTO gene was among top hits (P = 8.18x10-7). Post-hoc calculations demonstrated 95% statistical power to detect a genetic variant associated with effect size of 0.05% for fish and 0.08% for EPA+DHA.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These novel findings suggest that non-genetic personal and environmental factors are principal determinants of the remarkable variation in fish consumption, representing modifiable targets for increasing intakes among all individuals. Genes underlying the signal at rs72838923 and mechanisms for the association warrant further investigation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previous studies suggested that dietary fatty acids could affect blood lipids by interacting with genetic variations in fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1). However, little is known about their direct effects on coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs)-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could modulate the effect of FADS1 rs174547 polymorphism on CAD.<h4>Methods</h4>FADS1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs174547 genotypes were measured in 440 CAD patients and 838 healthy controls. Dietary EPA and DHA intakes were assessed with a validated quantitative frequency food questionnaire. The association between FADS1 rs174547 and CAD was estimated using logistic regression under both dominant and additive genetic models. The interactions between rs174547 polymorphism and LCPUFAs were analyzed by using multiple logistic regression and the "genotype × n-3 LCPUFAs" interaction term was included into the model.<h4>Results</h4>We found that the minor T allele of FADS1 rs174547 increased CAD risk (OR = 1.36, 95%CIs 1.03-1.80), and observed significant interaction between rs174547 and dietary EPA intakes on CAD (P-interaction = 0.028). The T-allele was only associated with higher CAD risk among individuals with lower dietary EPA intakes, but not in those with higher EPA intakes. Similarly, significant interaction was also observed between rs174547 and dietary DHA intakes on CAD (P-interaction = 0.020).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes could modulate the association between FADS1 rs174547 polymorphism and CAD. High dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes could negate the unfavorable effect of genetic variation in FADS1 on CAD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.
Project description:PUFA are hypothesized to influence bone health, but longitudinal studies on hip fracture risk are lacking. We examined associations between intakes of PUFA and fish, and hip fracture risk among older adults (n = 904) in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Participants (mean age ~75 y at baseline) were followed for incident hip fracture from the time they completed the baseline exam (1988-1989) until December 31, 2005. HR and 95% CI were estimated for energy-adjusted dietary fatty acid exposure variables [(n-3) fatty acids: ?-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, EPA+DHA; (n-6) fatty acids: linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA); and the (n-6):(n-3) ratio] and fish intake categories, adjusting for potential confounders and covariates. Protective associations were observed between intakes of ALA (P-trend = 0.02) and hip fracture risk in a combined sample of women and men and between intakes of AA (P-trend = 0.05) and hip fracture risk in men only. Participants in the highest quartile of ALA intake had a 54% lower risk of hip fracture than those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.83). Men in the highest quartile of AA intake had an 80% lower risk of hip fracture than those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04-0.96). No significant associations were observed among intakes of EPA, DHA, EPA+DHA, or fish. These findings suggest dietary ALA may reduce hip fracture risk in women and men and dietary AA may reduce hip fracture risk in men.
Project description:Longitudinal evidence on the relation between dietary intake of <i>n</i>-3 (ω-3) very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, <i>i.e.</i> eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in mid-childhood and asthma risk is scarce. We aimed to investigate whether a higher intake of EPA and DHA from fish in childhood is associated with a lower risk of incident asthma.In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, dietary intakes of EPA and DHA from fish were estimated by food frequency questionnaire at 7 years of age. We used logistic regression, controlling for confounders, to analyse associations between intake of EPA and DHA (quartiles) and incidence of doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 11 or 14 years, and explored potential effect modification by a fatty acid desaturase (<i>FADS</i>) polymorphism (rs1535). Replication was sought in the Swedish BAMSE birth cohort.There was no evidence of association between intake of EPA plus DHA from fish and incident asthma overall (n=4543). However, when stratified by <i>FADS</i> genotype, the odds ratio comparing the top <i>versus</i> bottom quartile among the 2025 minor G allele carriers was 0.49 (95% CI 0.31-0.79; p<sub>trend</sub>=0.006), but no inverse association was observed in the homozygous major A allele group (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.83-2.46; p<sub>trend</sub>=0.19) (p<sub>interaction</sub>=0.006). This gene-nutrient interaction on incident asthma was replicated in BAMSE.In children with a common <i>FADS</i> variant, higher intake of EPA and DHA from fish in childhood was strongly associated with a lower risk of incident asthma up to mid-adolescence.
Project description:Results of observational and experimental studies investigating the association between intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been inconsistent.We studied the association of fish and the fish-derived n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with the risk of incident AF in individuals aged 45-64 from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort (n = 14,222, 27% African Americans). Intake of fish and of DHA and EPA were measured via food frequency questionnaire. Plasma levels of DHA and EPA were measured in phospholipids in a subset of participants (n = 3,757). Incident AF was identified through the end of 2008 using ECGs, hospital discharge codes and death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of AF by quartiles of n-3 PUFAs or by fish intake.During the average follow-up of 17.6 years, 1,604 AF events were identified. In multivariable analyses, total fish intake and dietary DHA and EPA were not associated with AF risk. Higher intake of oily fish and canned tuna was associated with a nonsignificant lower risk of AF (p for trend = 0.09). Phospholipid levels of DHA+EPA were not related to incident AF. However, DHA and EPA showed differential associations with AF risk when analyzed separately, with lower risk of AF in those with higher levels of DHA but no association between EPA levels and AF risk.In this racially diverse sample, dietary intake of fish and fish-derived n-3 fatty acids, as well as plasma biomarkers of fish intake, were not associated with AF risk.
Project description:Optimal maternal long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status is essential for the developing fetus. The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes are involved in the endogenous synthesis of LCPUFA. The minor allele of various FADS SNP have been associated with increased maternal concentrations of the precursors linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and lower concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA. There is limited research on the influence of FADS genotype on cord PUFA status. The current study investigated the influence of maternal and child genetic variation in FADS genotype on cord blood PUFA status in a high fish-eating cohort. Cord blood samples (n 1088) collected from the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) Nutrition Cohort 2 (NC2) were analysed for total serum PUFA. Of those with cord PUFA data available, maternal (n 1062) and child (n 916), FADS1 (rs174537 and rs174561), FADS2 (rs174575), and FADS1-FADS2 (rs3834458) were determined. Regression analysis determined that maternal minor allele homozygosity was associated with lower cord blood concentrations of DHA and the sum of EPA + DHA. Lower cord blood AA concentrations were observed in children who were minor allele homozygous for rs3834458 (β = 0·075; P = 0·037). Children who were minor allele carriers for rs174537, rs174561, rs174575 and rs3834458 had a lower cord blood AA:LA ratio (P < 0·05 for all). Both maternal and child FADS genotype were associated with cord LCPUFA concentrations, and therefore, the influence of FADS genotype was observed despite the high intake of preformed dietary LCPUFA from fish in this population.
Project description:Fatty acid composition and distribution in edible species of fish and shellfish captured in the South Pacific were studied, with a focus on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Fatty acids were quantified using gas-chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and the distribution of different fatty acids within lipid classes (neutral and polar lipids) was achieved after oil extraction using the Folch method and separation of lipid classes via solid-phase extraction for further GC-FID analysis. Red cusk-eel was the fish species with the lowest content of both EPA and DHA (40.8 and 74.4 mg/100 g, respectively) whereas mackerel contained the highest amount (414.7 and 956.0 mg/100 g for EPA and DHA, respectively). Sea squirt was the shellfish species with the highest content of EPA and DHA (375.0 and 165.7 mg/100 g, respectively) whereas the lowest amount of EPA + DHA was found in Chilean abalone (63.6 mg/100 g). PUFA were mostly found in neutral or polar lipids depending on the studied species. Indexes used to discuss the nutritional quality of lipids (PUFA/SFA, n-6/n-3 ratio and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid index) were calculated and reported in the manuscript. This information provides a novel nutritional insight which may be useful to help nutritionists and other health professionals give more accurate counseling for the population to reach the recommended daily intakes of EPA and DHA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration.<h4>Methods</h4>We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography.<h4>Results</h4>The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P < 0.001). In addition, dietary EPA, C22:5 n-3 and DHA were significantly correlated with the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids and DHA, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.35 (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with those in the lowest fish intake quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a significantly higher DHA level (adjusted mean difference, 0.99 ± 0.10%, test for trend, P < 0.001). Similar patterns between dietary DHA intake and plasma DHA levels were found. However, the association between dietary fish intake and plasma EPA was not significant (test for trend, P = 0.69).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The dietary intakes of fish and of long chain n-3 fatty acids, as determined by the food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.
Project description:To evaluate the associations between intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the intermediate and advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Prospective cohort study.We followed 75?889 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 38 961 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were at least 50 years old, from 1984 to 2012 and 1986 to 2010, respectively. Cohort participants are mostly white (?95%).We assessed dietary intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and every 4 years. We calculated cumulative average intakes of EPA and DHA from FFQs and also computed predicted erythrocyte and plasma scores directly from food intake using regression models. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the associations with AMD outcomes.We confirmed 1589 incident intermediate and 1356 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse, owing primarily to AMD, by medical record review.For intermediate AMD, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) between the 2 cohorts for DHA comparing the extreme quintiles of intake was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.92; P trend, 0.008) and for EPA + DHA was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71-0.98; P trend, 0.03). The pooled HR for fatty fish, comparing ?5 servings per week to almost never, was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.46-0.81; P trend, <0.001). For advanced AMD, the pooled HR for DHA was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84-1.21; P trend, 0.75) and for fatty fish was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.59-1.08; P trend, 0.11). Secondary analyses using predicted erythrocyte and plasma scores of EPA and DHA yielded slightly stronger inverse associations for intermediate AMD and similar results for advanced AMD.Higher intakes of EPA and DHA may prevent or delay the occurrence of visually significant intermediate AMD. However, the totality of current evidence for EPA and DHA and advanced AMD is discordant, though there was no association with advanced AMD in the present study.