Fin Erosion of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) Infested with the Parasite Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000).
ABSTRACT: Fin condition is a simple indicator of fish welfare, which anticipates detrimental effects on fish in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated the fin condition of Salmo salar at different abundances of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi. Fish were exposed to infestation with copepodids and the cohort was allowed to develop to the adult stage. The relative fin index was measured. Significant differences between infested and control fish for both pectoral and anal fins were observed. Moreover, there were significant negative relationships between fin condition and parasite abundances for pectoral, anal, and pelvic fins, suggesting that infestations with C. rogercresseyi could be a possible cause for fin damage in Atlantic salmon. Moreover, this damage was associated with increased stress levels, suggesting that damage can be related to physiological changes on infested fish. According to these results, pectoral fin assessments have the potential to provide information on the welfare of fish with C. rogercresseyi infestation. Determining the causes of poor fin development may improve fish welfare, even when infested by parasites.
Project description:Fishes are extremely speciose and also highly disparate in their fin configurations, more specifically in the number of fins present as well as their structure, shape, and size. How they achieved this remarkable disparity is difficult to explain in the absence of any comprehensive overview of the evolutionary history of fish appendages. Fin modularity could provide an explanation for both the observed disparity in fin configurations and the sequential appearance of new fins. Modularity is considered as an important prerequisite for the evolvability of living systems, enabling individual modules to be optimized without interfering with others. Similarities in developmental patterns between some of the fins already suggest that they form developmental modules during ontogeny. At a macroevolutionary scale, these developmental modules could act as evolutionary units of change and contribute to the disparity in fin configurations. This study addresses fin disparity in a phylogenetic perspective, while focusing on the presence/absence and number of each of the median and paired fins.Patterns of fin morphological disparity were assessed by mapping fin characters on a new phylogenetic supertree of fish orders. Among agnathans, disparity in fin configurations results from the sequential appearance of novel fins forming various combinations. Both median and paired fins would have appeared first as elongated ribbon-like structures, which were the precursors for more constricted appendages. Among chondrichthyans, disparity in fin configurations relates mostly to median fin losses. Among actinopterygians, fin disparity involves fin losses, the addition of novel fins (e.g., the adipose fin), and coordinated duplications of the dorsal and anal fins. Furthermore, some pairs of fins, notably the dorsal/anal and pectoral/pelvic fins, show non-independence in their character distribution, supporting expectations based on developmental and morphological evidence that these fin pairs form evolutionary modules.Our results suggest that the pectoral/pelvic fins and the dorsal/anal fins form two distinct evolutionary modules, and that the latter is nested within a more inclusive median fins module. Because the modularity hypotheses that we are testing are also supported by developmental and variational data, this constitutes a striking example linking developmental, variational, and evolutionary modules.
Project description:Fish pectoral fins move in complex ways, acting as control surfaces to affect force balance during swimming and maneuvering. Though objectively less dynamic than their actinopterygian relatives, shark pectoral fins undergo complex conformational changes and movements during maneuvering. Asynchronous pectoral fin movement is documented during yaw turning in at least two shark species but the three-dimensional (3D) rotation of the fin about the body axes is unknown. We quantify the 3D actuation of the pectoral fin base relative to the body axes. We hypothesized that Pacific spiny dogfish rotate pectoral fins with three degrees of freedom relative to the body during volitional turning. The pectoral fin on the inside of the turn is consistently protracted, supinated and depressed. Additionally, turning angular velocity increased with increasing fin rotation. Estimated drag on the fin increased and the shark decelerated during turning. Based on these findings, we propose that Pacific spiny dogfish uses drag-based turning during volitional swimming. Post-mortem muscle stimulation revealed depression, protraction and supination of the pectoral fin through stimulation of the ventral and cranial pterygoideus muscles. These data confirm functional hypotheses about pectoral fin musculature and suggest that Pacific spiny dogfish actively rotate pectoral fins to facilitate drag-based turning.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:In this study, two parasites on the fins of Homatula variegata were recorded from March to September 2016. A dissection mirror was used to examine the distribution and quantity of the ectoparasitic Gyrodactylus sp. and Paragyrodactylus variegatus on the host Homatula variegata in different seasons. The present study explored possible explanations for the site specificity of gyrodactylid parasites in 442 Homatula variegata infected with 4307 Gyrodactylus sp. (species identification is incomplete, only characterized to the genus level) and 1712 Paragyrodactylus variegatus. These two gyrodactylid parasites were collected from fish fins, and the fish were harvested in China's Qinling Mountains.The results indicated that the highest number of Gyrodactylus sp., which was numerically the dominant species, appeared on the fish fins in April, while the highest number of Paragyrodactylus variegatus was found on the fish fins in March. The two parasite species appeared to be partitioned spatially, with Gyrodactylus sp. occurring more frequently on pectoral and pelvic fins, and P. variegatus occurring more frequently on caudal fins. However, Gyrodactylus sp. appeared to occur on fish of all lengths, while P. variegatus tended to occur more abundantly on shorter fish rather than on longer fish. At lower Gyrodactylus sp. infection levels (<100), the pelvic and pectoral fins were the main locations of attachment, followed by the dorsal fin. For infections of more than 100 parasites, more samples of Gyrodactylus sp. were located on the pectoral fin. For a low number of Paragyrodactylus variegatus infections (<100), the pelvic and pectoral fins were the preferred locations of attachment, followed by the caudal fin. Between April and September, there were many monogenean parasites on fish fins, and the fish size was within the range of 5-10 cm. However, when a fish was longer than 10 cm long, the number of parasites on its fins greatly decreased.
Project description:It is well known that predators can induce morphological changes in some fish: individuals exposed to predation cues increase body depth and the length of spines. We hypothesize that these structures may evolve synergistically, as together, these traits will further enlarge the body dimensions of the fish that gape-limited predators must overcome. We therefore expect that the orientation of the spines will predict which body dimension increases in the presence of predators. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested this prediction on the macroevolutionary scale across 347 teleost families, which display considerable variation in fin spines, body depth and width. Consistent with our predictions, we demonstrate that fin spines on the vertical plane (dorsal and anal fins) are associated with a deeper-bodied optimum. Lineages with spines on the horizontal plane (pectoral fins) are associated with a wider-bodied optimum. Optimal body dimensions across lineages without spines paralleling the body dimension match the allometric expectation. Additionally, lineages with longer spines have deeper and wider body dimensions. This evolutionary relationship between fin spines and body dimensions across teleosts reveals functional synergy between these two traits and a potential macroevolutionary signature of predation on the evolutionary dynamics of body shape.
Project description:The biomechanics of animal limbs has evolved to meet the functional demands for movement associated with different behaviors and environments. Effective movement relies not only on limb mechanics but also on appropriate mechanosensory feedback. By comparing sensory ability and mechanics within a phylogenetic framework, we show that peripheral mechanosensation has evolved with limb biomechanics, evolutionarily tuning the neuromechanical system to its functional demands. We examined sensory physiology and mechanics of the pectoral fins, forelimb homologs, in the fish family Labridae. Labrid fishes exhibit extraordinary morphological and behavioral diversity and use pectoral fin-based propulsion with fins ranging in shape from high aspect ratio (AR) wing-like fins to low AR paddle-like fins. Phylogenetic character analysis demonstrates that high AR fins evolved independently multiple times in this group. Four pairs of species were examined; each included a plesiomorphic low AR and a high AR species. Within each species pair, the high AR species demonstrated significantly stiffer fin rays in comparison with the low AR species. Afferent sensory nerve activity was recorded during fin ray bending. In all cases, afferents of stiffer fins were more sensitive at lower displacement amplitudes, demonstrating mechanosensory tuning to fin mechanics and a consistent pattern of correlated evolution. We suggest that these data provide a clear example of parallel evolution in a complex neuromechanical system, with a strong link between multiple phenotypic characters: pectoral fin shape, swimming behavior, fin ray stiffness, and mechanosensory sensitivity.
Project description:Hopliancistrus is an Ancistrini genus diagnosed by having few and very strong cheek odontodes on interopercular area, and a patch of strong and stiff odontodes on the antero-lateral border of the snout. The type species is herein redescribed based on types and recently collected specimens. In addition, four new congeneric species are described based on specimens collected in other parts of the Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins. Hopliancistrus tricornis is distributed in the lower Rio Tapajós and is diagnosed by the possession of four branched anal-fin rays and relatively large white to yellow spots on trunk and pectoral and pelvic fins, and dark brown spots on dorsal, caudal and anal fins. Hopliancistrus munduruku is described based on specimens from Rio Jamanxim (Rio Tapajós basin) and Rio Curuá (Rio Xingu basin) and is diagnosed by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays and large yellow blotches on trunk and dark brown to black spots over the fins. Hopliancistrus wolverine is distributed in the rapids of the lower and middle Rio Xingu and is diagnosed by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays and conspicuous small yellow dots on head, trunk and fins. Hopliancistrus xikrin is distributed in medium- to small-sized tributaries of the lower portion of Rio Xingu basin, and is diagnosed by absence of contact between the transverse process of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore and the transverse process of the second pterygiophore. Hopliancistrus xavante is distributed in the tributaries of upper Rio Xingu basin, and is diagnosed by having a thick skin covering the nuchal plate; by having large white spots on trunk and fins; and by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays. An osteological description and a key for species identification are also provided.
Project description:The model organism Dario rerio (zebrafish) is widely used in evo-devo and comparative studies. Nevertheless, little is known about the development and differentiation of the appendicular musculature in this fish. In this study, we examined the development of the muscles of all five zebrafish fin types (pectoral, pelvic, anal, dorsal and caudal). We describe the development of the muscles of these fins, including some muscles that were never mentioned in the literature, such as the interhypurales of the caudal fin. Interestingly, these caudal muscles are present in early stages but absent in adult zebrafishes. We also compare various stages of zebrafish fin muscle development with the configuration found in other extant fishes, including non-teleostean actinopterygians as well as cartilaginous fishes. The present work thus provides a basis for future developmental, comparative, evolutionary and evo-devo studies and emphasizes the importance of developmental works on muscles for a more comprehensive understanding of the origin, development and evolution of the appendicular appendages of vertebrate animals.
Project description:Full limb regeneration is a property that seems to be restricted to urodele amphibians. Here we found that Polypterus, the most basal living ray-finned fish, regenerates its pectoral lobed fins with a remarkable accuracy. Pectoral Polypterus fins are complex, formed by a well-organized endoskeleton to which the exoskeleton rays are connected. Regeneration initiates with the formation of a blastema similar to that observed in regenerating amphibian limbs. Retinoic acid induces dose-dependent phenotypes ranging from inhibition of regeneration to apparent anterior-posterior duplications. As in all developing tetrapod limbs and regenerating amphibian blastema, Sonic hedgehog is expressed in the posterior mesenchyme during fin regeneration. Hedgehog signaling plays a role in the regeneration and patterning processes: an increase or reduction of fin bony elements results when this signaling is activated or disrupted, respectively. The tail fin also regenerates but, in contrast with pectoral fins, regeneration can resume after release from the arrest caused by hedgehog inhibition. A comparative analysis of fin phenotypes obtained after retinoic acid treatment or altering the hedgehog signaling levels during regeneration allowed us to assign a limb tetrapod equivalent segment to Polypterus fin skeletal structures, thus providing clues to the origin of the autopod. We propose that appendage regeneration was a common property of vertebrates during the fin to limb transition.
Project description:Traits involved in reproduction evolve rapidly and show great diversity among closely related species. However, the genetic mechanisms that underlie the diversification of courtship traits are mostly unknown. Japanese medaka fishes (Oryzias latipes) use anal fins to attract females and to grasp females during courtship; the males have longer anal fins with male-specific ossified papillary processes on the fin rays. However, anal fin morphology varies between populations: the southern populations tend to have longer anal fins and more processes than the northern populations. In the present study, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture underlying the variation in the number of papillary processes of Japanese medaka fish and compared the QTL with previously identified QTL controlling anal fin length. First, we found that only a few QTL were shared between anal fin length and papillary process number. Second, we found that the numbers of papillary processes on different fin rays often were controlled by different QTL. Finally, we produced another independent cross and found that some QTL were repeatable between the two crosses, whereas others were specific to only one cross. These results suggest that variation in the number of papillary processes is polygenic and controlled by QTL that are distinct from those controlling anal fin length. Thus, different courtship traits in Japanese medaka share a small number of QTL and have the potential for independent evolution.
Project description:The traditional terminology of 'scythe' or 'sickle' shaped is observed to be flawed as an effective descriptor for pectoral fin shape in pachycormids. The diversity of pachycormid pectoral fin shapes is assessed across the 14 recognised genera that preserve complete pectoral fins, and improved terms are defined to more effectively describe their form, supported by anatomical observation and aspect ratio analysis of individual fins, and corroborated by landmark analysis. Three clear and distinct pectoral fin structural morphotypes emerge (falceform, gladiform, falcataform), reflecting a diversity of pachycormid lifestyles throughout the Mesozoic, from agile pursuit predator to slow-cruising suspension feeder.