Cannabinoid Signaling Selectively Modulates GABAergic Inhibitory Input to OFF Bipolar Cells in Rat Retina.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:In the mammalian retina, cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) are well-positioned to alter inhibitory synaptic function from amacrine cells and, thus, might influence visual signal processing in the inner retina. However, it is not known if CB1R modulates amacrine cells feedback inhibition at retinal bipolar cell (BC) terminals. Methods:Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we examined the pharmacological effect of CB1R activation and inhibition on spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and glutamate-evoked IPSCs (gIPSCs) from identified OFF BCs in light-adapted rat retinal slices. Results:Activation of CB1R with WIN55212-2 selectively increased the frequency of GABAergic, but not glycinergic sIPSC in types 2, 3a, and 3b OFF BCs, and had no effect on inhibitory activity in type 4 OFF BCs. The increase in GABAergic activity was eliminated in axotomized BCs and can be suppressed by blocking CB1R with AM251 or GABAA and GABA? receptors with SR-95531 and TPMPA, respectively. In all OFF BC types tested, a brief application of glutamate to the outer plexiform layer elicited gIPSCs comprising GABAergic and glycinergic components that were unaffected by CB1R activation. However, blocking CB1R selectively increased GABAergic gIPSCs, supporting a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of glutamate-evoked GABAergic inhibitory feedback to OFF BCs. Conclusions:CB1R activation shape types 2, 3a, and 3b OFF BC responses by selectively regulate GABAergic feedback inhibition at their axon terminals, thus cannabinoid signaling might play an important role in the fine-tuning of visual signal processing in the mammalian inner retina.
Project description:Synaptic inhibition shapes visual signaling in the inner retina, but the physiology of most amacrine cells, the interneurons that mediate this inhibition, is poorly understood. Discerning the function of most individual amacrine cell types is a daunting task, because few molecular or morphological markers specifically distinguish between approximately two dozen different amacrine cell types. Here, we examine a functional subset of amacrine cells by pharmacologically isolating glycinergic inhibition and evoking feedback IPSCs in a single cell type, the rod bipolar cell (RBC), with brief glutamate applications in the inner plexiform layer. We find that glycinergic amacrine cells innervating RBCs receive excitatory inputs from ON and OFF bipolar cells primarily via NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and Ca2+-impermeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Glycine release from amacrine cells is triggered by Ca2+ influx through both voltage-gated Ca2+ (Ca(v)) channels and NMDARs. These intracellular Ca2+signals are amplified by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release via both ryanodine and IP3 receptors, which are activated independently by Ca2+ influx through Ca(v) channels and NMDARs, respectively. Glycinergic feedback signaling depends strongly, although not completely, on voltage-gated Na+ channels, and the spatial extent of feedback inhibition is expanded by gap junction connections between glycinergic amacrine cells. These results indicate that a diversity of mechanisms underlie glycinergic feedback inhibition onto RBCs, yet they highlight several physiological themes that appear to distinguish amacrine cell function.
Project description:Amacrine interneurons that modulate synaptic plasticity between bipolar and ganglion cells constitute the most diverse cell type in the retina. Most are inhibitory neurons using either GABA or glycine as neurotransmitters. Although several transcription factors involved in amacrine cell fate determination have been identified, mechanisms underlying amacrine cell subtype specification remain to be further understood. The Prdm13 histone methyltransferase encoding gene is a target of the transcription factor Ptf1a, an essential regulator of inhibitory neuron cell fate in the retina. Here, we have deepened our knowledge on its interaction with Ptf1a and investigated its role in amacrine cell subtype determination in the developing Xenopus retina.We performed prdm13 gain and loss of function in Xenopus and assessed the impact on retinal cell fate determination using RT-qPCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.We found that prdm13 in the amphibian Xenopus is expressed in few retinal progenitors and in about 40% of mature amacrine cells, predominantly in glycinergic ones. Clonal analysis in the retina reveals that prdm13 overexpression favours amacrine cell fate determination, with a bias towards glycinergic cells. Conversely, knockdown of prdm13 specifically inhibits glycinergic amacrine cell genesis. We also showed that, as in the neural tube, prdm13 is subjected to a negative autoregulation in the retina. Our data suggest that this is likely due to its ability to repress the expression of its inducer, ptf1a.Our results demonstrate that Prdm13, downstream of Ptf1a, acts as an important regulator of glycinergic amacrine subtype specification in the Xenopus retina. We also reveal that Prdm13 regulates ptf1a expression through a negative feedback loop.
Project description:Amacrine interneurons, which are highly diversified in morphological, neurochemical, and physiological features, play crucial roles in visual information processing in the retina. However, the specification mechanisms and functions in vision for each amacrine subtype are not well understood. We found that the Prdm13 transcriptional regulator is specifically expressed in developing and mature amacrine cells in the mouse retina. Most Prdm13-positive amacrine cells are Calbindin- and Calretinin-positive GABAergic or glycinergic neurons. Absence of Prdm13 significantly reduces GABAergic and glycinergic amacrines, resulting in a specific defect of the S2/S3 border neurite bundle in the inner plexiform layer. Forced expression of Prdm13 distinctively induces GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells but not cholinergic amacrine cells, whereas Ptf1a, an upstream transcriptional regulator of Prdm13, induces all of these subtypes. Moreover, Prdm13-deficient mice showed abnormally elevated spatial, temporal, and contrast sensitivities in vision. Together, these results show that Prdm13 regulates development of a subset of amacrine cells, which newly defines an amacrine subtype to negatively modulate visual sensitivities. Our current study provides new insights into mechanisms of the diversification of amacrine cells and their function in vision.
Project description:Cells sensitive to the orientation of edges are ubiquitous in visual systems, and have been described in the vertebrate retina, yet the synaptic mechanisms that generate orientation selectivity in the retina are largely unknown. Here, we analyze the synaptic mechanisms that generate selective responses to vertically and horizontally oriented stimuli in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. The data indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to orientation-selective ganglion cells are rendered orientation selective within the presynaptic circuitry. In accordance with previous extracellular recordings, presynaptic GABAergic inhibition is critical to generate orientation selectivity, and we show that it includes lateral inhibition of glutamatergic bipolar cells and serial inhibitory connections between GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells. Despite very similar spiking properties, vertically and horizontally selective ganglion cells (VS-GCs and HS-GCs, respectively) show marked differences in their underlying synaptic mechanisms. Both cell types receive glutamatergic inputs via non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) and NMDA receptors, while VS-GCs receive additional excitation mediated by glycinergic disinhibition. A striking difference between these cells is that during nonpreferred simulation, excitation is suppressed and direct glycinergic inhibition is increased in HS-GCs, whereas for VS-GCs, both excitatory and inhibitory inputs are suppressed. Thus, orientation selectivity is generated presynaptically both by modulation of bipolar cell output and by serial inhibitory connections between amacrine cells. Minimal circuit models are proposed that account for these observations.
Project description:Most regions of the CNS contain many subtypes of inhibitory interneurons with specialized roles in circuit function. In the mammalian retina, the ?30 subtypes of inhibitory interneurons called amacrine cells (ACs) are generally divided into two groups: wide/medium-field GABAergic ACs and narrow-field glycinergic ACs, which mediate lateral and vertical interactions, respectively, within the inner plexiform layer. We used expression profiling and mouse transgenic lines to identify and characterize two closely related narrow-field AC subtypes. Both arise postnatally and one is neither glycinergic nor GABAergic (nGnG). Two transcription factors selectively expressed by these subtypes, Neurod6 and special AT-rich-sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2), regulate a postmitotic cell fate choice between these subtypes. Satb2 induces Neurod6, which persists in nGnG ACs and promotes their fate but is downregulated in the related glycinergic AC subtype. Our results support the view that cell fate decisions made in progenitors and their progeny act together to diversify ACs.
Project description:Our understanding of nervous system function is limited by our ability to identify and manipulate neuronal subtypes within intact circuits. We show that the Gbx2<sup>CreERT2-IRES-EGFP</sup> mouse line labels two amacrine cell (AC) subtypes in the mouse retina that have distinct morphological, physiological, and molecular properties. Using a combination of RNA-seq, genetic labeling, and patch clamp recordings, we show that one subtype is GABAergic that receives excitatory input from On bipolar cells. The other population is a non-GABAergic, non-glycinergic (nGnG) AC subtype that lacks the expression of standard neurotransmitter markers. Gbx2<sup>+</sup> nGnG ACs have smaller, asymmetric dendritic arbors that receive excitatory input from both On and Off bipolar cells. Gbx2<sup>+</sup> nGnG ACs also exhibit spatially restricted tracer coupling to bipolar cells (BCs) through gap junctions. This study identifies a genetic tool for investigating the two distinct AC subtypes, and it provides a model for studying synaptic communication and visual circuit function.
Project description:All superclasses of retinal neurons, including bipolar cells (BCs), amacrine cells (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs), display gap junctional coupling. However, coupling varies extensively by class. Heterocellular AC coupling is common in many mammalian GC classes. Yet, the topology and functions of coupling networks remains largely undefined. GCs are the least frequent superclass in the inner plexiform layer and the gap junctions mediating GC-to-AC coupling (GC::AC) are sparsely arrayed amidst large cohorts of homocellular AC::AC, BC::BC, GC::GC and heterocellular AC::BC gap junctions. Here, we report quantitative coupling for identified GCs in retinal connectome 1 (RC1), a high resolution (2 nm) transmission electron microscopy-based volume of rabbit retina. These reveal that most GC gap junctions in RC1 are suboptical. GC classes lack direct cross-class homocellular coupling with other GCs, despite opportunities via direct membrane contact, while OFF alpha GCs and transient ON directionally selective (DS) GCs are strongly coupled to distinct AC cohorts. Integrated small molecule immunocytochemistry identifies these as GABAergic ACs (?+ ACs). Multi-hop synaptic queries of RC1 connectome further profile these coupled ?+ ACs. Notably, OFF alpha GCs couple to OFF ?+ ACs and transient ON DS GCs couple to ON ?+ ACs, including a large interstitial amacrine cell, revealing matched ON/OFF photic drive polarities within coupled networks. Furthermore, BC input to these ?+ ACs is tightly matched to the GCs with which they couple. Evaluation of the coupled versus inhibitory targets of the ?+ ACs reveals that in both ON and OFF coupled GC networks these ACs are presynaptic to GC classes that are different than the classes with which they couple. These heterocellular coupling patterns provide a potential mechanism for an excited GC to indirectly inhibit nearby GCs of different classes. Similarly, coupled ?+ ACs engaged in feedback networks can leverage the additional gain of BC synapses in shaping the signaling of downstream targets based on their own selective coupling with GCs. A consequence of coupling is intercellular fluxes of small molecules. GC::AC coupling involves primarily ?+ cells, likely resulting in GABA diffusion into GCs. Surveying GABA signatures in the GC layer across diverse species suggests the majority of vertebrate retinas engage in GC::?+ AC coupling.
Project description:Strong perisomatic inhibition by fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) regulates dentate throughput. Homotypic FS-BC interconnections that support gamma oscillations, and heterotypic inputs from diverse groups of interneurons that receive extensive neurochemical regulation, together, shape FS-BC activity patterns. However, whether seizures precipitate functional changes in inhibitory networks and contribute to abnormal network activity in epilepsy is not known. In the first recordings from dentate interneuronal pairs in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we demonstrate that status epilepticus (SE) selectively compromises GABA release at synapses from dentate accommodating interneurons (AC-INs) to FS-BCs, while efficacy of homotypic FS-BC synapses is unaltered. The functional decrease in heterotypic cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R)-sensitive inhibition of FS-BCs resulted from enhanced baseline GABAB-mediated suppression of synaptic release after SE. The frequency of CB1R-sensitive inhibitory synaptic events in FS-BCs was depressed early after SE induction and remained reduced in epileptic rats. In biologically based simulations of heterogeneous inhibitory networks and excitatory-inhibitory cell networks, experimentally identified decrease in reliability of AC-IN to FS-BCs synaptic release reduced theta power and theta-gamma coupling and enhanced gamma coherence. Thus, the experimentally identified functional reduction in heterotypic inhibition of FS-BCs can contribute to compromised network oscillations in epilepsy and could precipitate memory and cognitive co-morbidities.
Project description:During adaptation from dim to bright environments, changes in retinal signaling are mediated, in part, by dopamine. Dopamine is released with light and can modulate retinal receptive fields, neuronal coupling, inhibitory receptors, and rod pathway inhibition. However, it is unclear how dopamine affects inner retinal inhibition to cone bipolar cells, which relay visual information from photoreceptors to ganglion cells and are important signal processing sites. We tested the hypothesis that dopamine (D)1 receptor activation is sufficient to elicit light-adapted inhibitory changes. Local light-evoked inhibition and spontaneous activity were measured from OFF cone bipolar cells in dark-adapted mouse retinas while stimulating D1 receptors, which are located on bipolar, horizontal, and inhibitory amacrine cells. The D1 agonist SKF38393 reduced local inhibitory light-evoked response magnitude and increased response transience, which mimicked changes measured with light adaptation. D1-mediated reductions in local inhibition were more pronounced for glycinergic than GABAergic inputs, comparable with light adaptation. The effects of D1 receptors on light-evoked input were similar to the effects on spontaneous input. D1 receptor activation primarily decreased glycinergic spontaneous current frequency, similar to light adaptation, suggesting mainly a presynaptic amacrine cell site of action. These results expand the role of dopamine to include signal modulation of cone bipolar cell local inhibition. In this role, D1 receptor activation, acting primarily through glycinergic amacrine cells, may be an important mechanism for the light-adapted reduction in OFF bipolar cell inhibition since the actions are similar and dopamine is released during light adaptation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Retinal adaptation to different luminance conditions requires the adjustment of local circuits for accurate signaling of visual scenes. Understanding mechanisms behind luminance adaptation at different retinal levels is important for understanding how the retina functions in a dynamic environment. In the mouse, we show that dopamine pathways reduce inner retinal inhibition similar to increased background luminance, suggesting the two are linked and highlighting a possible mechanism for light adaptation at an early retinal processing center.