Effects of Trace Irrigation at Different Depths on Transcriptome Expression Pattern in Cotton (G. hirsutum L.) Leaves.
ABSTRACT: Drought is a limiting factor for cotton productivity and quality. Irrigation could increase cotton yield. This study is aimed at formulating a proper irrigation depth for cotton at China' Inner Mongolia and at investigating the molecular mechanism underlying the difference induced by irrigation. Transcriptomic analysis was carried out to reveal the global transcriptome profiles on the leaves of cotton seedlings (G. hirsutum L. cv. "Zhongmian 92") with trace irrigation tapes at 30?cm (D30) and 50?cm (D50) underground. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and clustered by functional enrichment analysis. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the lint percentage. The yields of unpinned and lint cotton were increased by the D30 regime but decreased by the D50 regime. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 4,549 nonoverlapped DEGs were identified by comparative analysis. Transcription factors, including bZIP, WARK, Myb, and NAC, were altered between D50 and D30. The D50 regime induced more DEGs compared with the D30 regime, which was associated with plant tolerance to abiotic stresses and drought. In conclusion, trace irrigation at 30?cm underground was suitable for cotton irrigation at China's Inner Mongolia, while the D50 irrigation regime influenced the cotton yield via drought stress in cotton plants.
Project description:As water for agriculture becomes less available in the semi-arid western United States, alternative irrigation strategies such as deficit irrigation may be necessary for continued crop production. Alternative irrigation practices in cotton (Gossypium spp. [Malvales: Valvaceae]) can result in episodic drought stress that alters temperature profiles within the crop canopy. These altered temperatures may influence populations of important pests such as Lygus hesperus Knight. Field studies often associate lower population densities of L. hesperus with limited irrigation. Recent studies of the thermal ecology of L. hesperus egg and nymphal development have demonstrated only subtle effects of the high, variable temperatures typical of moderate drought stress in cotton. However, influences of these conditions on L. hesperus adult reproductive development have not been studied. The reproductive development of L. hesperus adults was examined under constant (±0.2°C) and variable (±8°C) regimes at a low (15°C), moderate (22°C), and high (29°C) daily mean temperatures. No developmental differences were demonstrated between temperature regimes under moderate or high temperatures. At the low temperature, only the times to the occurrence of eggs, filled medial accessory glands, and filling seminal vesicles were shorter under variable regime, compared with the constant temperature. These results suggest that temporary, episodic increases in crop canopy temperatures caused by moderate drought stress are unlikely to impact L. hesperus population growth, and may only promote short-term displacement of adults into adjacent crops with preferable conditions.
Project description:Tetraploid cotton plants serve as prime natural fiber source for the textile industry. Although various omics studies have revealed molecular basis for fiber development, a better understanding of transcriptional regulation mechanism regulating lint fiber initiation is necessary to meet global natural fiber demand. Here, we aimed to perform transcriptome sequencing to identify DEGs (differentially expressed genes) in ovules of the cotton variety Xu142 and its fibreless mutant Xu142fl during early lint fiber initiation period. Totally, 5516 DEGs including 1840 upregulated and 3676 downregulated were identified. GO enrichment analysis revealed that the downregulated DEGs mainly associated with biological processes such as transcription related biosynthesis and metabolism, organic cyclic compound biosynthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, and plant cell wall organization, with molecular functions involving transcription related binding, organic cyclic compound binding, and dioxygenase activity, while the upregulated DEGs were associated with DNA replication and phospholipid biosynthetic related processes. Among the 490 DEGs annotated as transcription factor genes 86.5% were downregulated in the mutant including the Malvaceae-specific MMLs, expression patterns of which were confirmed during the central period of lint fiber initiation. Investigation of the 20 genes enriched in the cell wall organization revealed that 17 were EXPA coding genes. Overall, we suggest that lint fiber initiation is a complicated process involving cooperation of multiple transcription factor families, which ultimately lead to the reorganization of the cell wall and terminated cell division of the differentiating fiber initials. Overall design: mRNA profiles of mixed ovules at -3 and -1 dpa for wild type (WT) and its fiberless mutant Xuzhou142fl, each contain 3 replicates.
Project description:Improving cotton yield is a major breeding goal for Chinese upland cotton. Lint percentage is an important yield component and a critical economic index for cotton cultivars, and raising the lint percentage has a close relationship to improving cotton lint yield. To investigate the genetic architecture of lint percentage, a diversity panel consisting of 355 upland cotton accessions was grown, and the lint percentage was measured in four different environments. Genotyping was performed with specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lint percentage were detected via a genome-wide association study (GWAS), in which five SNP loci distributed on chromosomes At3 (A02) and At4 (A08) and contained two major-effect QTLs, which were detected in the best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) and in more than three environments simultaneously. Furthermore, favorable haplotypes (FHs) of two major-effect QTLs and 47 putative candidate genes in the two linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks of these associated loci were identified. The expression levels of these putative candidate genes were estimated using RNA-seq data from ten upland cotton tissues. We found that Gh_A02G1268 was very highly expressed during the early fiber development stage, whereas the gene was poorly expressed in the seed. These results implied that Gh_A02G1268 may determine the lint percentage by regulating seed and fiber development. The favorable QTL alleles and candidate genes for lint percentage identified in this study will have high potential for improving lint yield in future Chinese cotton breeding programs.
Project description:Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE) and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA-inducible promoter:GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when coexpressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthesis and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations through reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had 'less-stressed' molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Overexpression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions.
Project description:Water-deficit stress is a major environmental factor that limits agricultural productivity worldwide. Recent episodes of extreme drought have severely affected cotton production in the Southwestern USA. There is a pressing need to develop cotton varieties with improved tolerance to water-deficit stress for sustainable production in water-limited regions. One approach to engineer drought tolerance is by delaying drought-induced senescence via up-regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis. The isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) that encodes a rate limiting enzyme in cytokinin biosynthesis, under the control of a water-deficit responsive and maturation specific promoter P(SARK) was introduced into cotton and the performance of the P(SARK)::IPT transgenic cotton plants was analyzed in the greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. The data indicate that P(SARK)::IPT-transgenic cotton plants displayed delayed senescence under water deficit conditions in the greenhouse. These plants produced more root and shoot biomass, dropped fewer flowers, maintained higher chlorophyll content, and higher photosynthetic rates under reduced irrigation conditions in comparison to wild-type and segregated non-transgenic lines. Furthermore, P(SARK)::IPT-transgenic cotton plants grown in growth chamber condition also displayed greater drought tolerance. These results indicate that water-deficit induced expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene in cotton could significantly improve drought tolerance.
Project description:Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important source of natural fiber in the world. Early-maturity upland cotton varieties are commonly planted in China. Nevertheless, lint yield of early-maturity upland cotton varieties is strikingly lower than that of middle- and late-maturity ones. How to effectively improve lint yield of early maturing cotton, becomes a focus of cotton research. Here, based on 72,792 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms of 160 early-maturing upland cotton accessions, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for lint percentage (LP), one of the most lint-yield component traits, applying one single-locus method and six multi-locus methods. A total of 4 and 45 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were respectively identified to be associated with LP. Interestingly, in two of four planting environments, two of these QTNs (A02_74713290 and A02_75551547) were simultaneously detected via both one single-locus and three or more multi-locus GWAS methods. Among the 42 genes within a genomic region (A02: 74.31-75.95 Mbp) containing the above two peak QTNs, Gh_A02G1269, Gh_A02G1280, and Gh_A02G1295 had the highest expression levels in ovules during seed development from 20 to 25 days post anthesis, whereas Gh_A02G1278 was preferentially expressed in the fibers rather than other organs. These results imply that the four potential candidate genes might be closely related to cotton LP by regulating the proportion of seed weight and fiber yield. The QTNs and potential candidate genes for LP, identified in this study, provide valuable resource for cultivating novel cotton varieties with earliness and high lint yield in the future.
Project description:Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP)-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late), representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.
Project description:Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop, and its lint yield improvement is impeded due to its narrow genetic base and the lack of understanding of the genetic basis of yield. Backcross inbred lines (BILs) or near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the same genetic background differing in lint yield, developed through advanced backcrossing, provide an important genomic resource to study the molecular genetic basis of lint yield. We used a microarray-based comparative transcriptome analysis on developing fibers at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) between a high-yield (HY) group and a low-yield (LY) group each with three BILs were selected from a BIL population between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during this process. Overall design: Fibers were selected at rapidly elongation stages of fiber development for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. A high-yield (HY) group and a low-yield (LY) group each with three BILs were selected from a BIL population between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. We identified a number of yield and yield component QTL- co-localizing DEGs and developed several DEG-based SSCP-SNP markers for the traits, thereby providing a set of candidate genes for molecular breeding and the genetic manipulation of lint yield in cotton. Three BILs (i.e., NMGA-026, NMGA-017 and NMGA-144, designated HY1, HY2, and HY3, respectively) were high-yielding (HY); and three other BILs (i.e., NMGA-066, NMGA-095 and NMGA-023, designated LY1, LY2 and LY3, respectively) were low-yielding (LY).
Project description:The Rh D blood-group antigen forms part of a complex, involving several other polypeptides, that is deficient in the red cells of individuals who lack all the antigens of the Rh blood-group system (Rhnull red cells). These include components recognized by anti-(Rh D) antibodies and the murine monoclonal antibodies R6A and BRIC 125. We have carried out protein-sequence studies on the components immunoprecipitated by these antibodies. Anti-(Rh D) antibodies immunoprecipitate an Mr-30,000-32,000 polypeptide (the D30 polypeptide) and an Mr-45,000-100,000 glycoprotein (D50 polypeptide). Antibody R6A immunoprecipitates two glycoproteins of Mr 31,000-34,000 (R6A32 polypeptide) and Mr 35,000-52,000 (R6A45 polypeptide). The D30 and R6A32 polypeptides were found to have the same N-terminal amino acid sequences, showing that they are closely related proteins. The D50 polypeptide and the R6A45 polypeptide also had indistinguishable N-terminal amino acid sequences that differed from that of the D30 and R6A32 polypeptides. The putative N-terminal membrane-spanning segments of the two groups of proteins showed homology in their amino acid sequence, which may account for the association of each of the pairs of proteins during co-precipitation by the antibodies. Supplementary data related to the protein sequence have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50417 (6 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1988) 249, 5.
Project description:Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that seriously affects cotton growth, development, and production worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism, key pathway, and responsible genes for drought tolerance incotton have not been stated clearly. In this research, high-throughput next generation sequencing technique was utilized to investigate gene expression profiles of three cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium barbadense L.) under drought stress. A total of 6968 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, where 2053, 742, and 4173 genes were tested as statistically significant; 648, 320, and 1998 genes were up-regulated, and 1405, 422, and 2175 were down-regulated in TM-1, Zhongmian-16, and Pima4-S, respectively. Total DEGs were annotated and classified into functional groups under gene ontology analysis. The biological process was present only in tolerant species(TM-1), indicating drought tolerance condition. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes showed the involvement of plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways enrichment under drought stress. Several transcription factors associated with ethylene-responsive genes (ICE1, MYB44, FAMA, etc.) were identified as playing key roles in acclimatizing to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to abscisic acid (ABA) responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C, and SRK2E), reactive oxygen species (ROS) related in small heat shock protein and 18.1 kDa I heat shock protein, YLS3, and ODORANT1 genes. These results will provide deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in cotton.