Prebiotic Properties of Non-Fructosylated ?-Galactooligosaccharides from PEA (Pisum sativum L.) Using Infant Fecal Slurries.
ABSTRACT: The interest for naturally-occurring oligosaccharides from plant origin having prebiotic properties is growing, with special focus being paid to supplemented products for infants. Currently, non-fructosylated ?-galactooligosaccharides (?-GOS) from peas have peaked interest as a result of their prebiotic activity in adults and their mitigated side-effects on gas production from colonic bacterial fermentation. In this study, commercially available non-fructosylated ?-GOS from peas and ?-galactooligosaccharides (?-GOS) derived from lactose were fermented using fecal slurries from children aged 11 to 24 months old during 6 and 24 h. The modulatory effect of both GOS on different bacterial groups and bifidobacteria species was assessed; non-fructosylated ?-GOS consumption was monitored throughout the fermentation process and the amounts of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) generated were analyzed. Non-fructosylated ?-GOS, composed mainly of manninotriose and verbascotetraose and small amounts of melibiose, were fully metabolized and presented remarkable bifidogenic activity, similar to that obtained with ?-GOS. Furthermore, non-fructosylated ?-GOS selectively caused an increase on the population of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum/pseudo-catenulatum. In conclusion, non-fructosylated ?-GOS could be used as potential ingredient in infant formula supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides.
Project description:Prebiotics are nondigestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbes in the human intestine. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are food ingredients that possess prebiotic properties, in particular, promoting the growth of bifidobacteria in situ. However, precise mechanistic details of GOS consumption by bifidobacteria remain poorly understood. Because GOS are mixtures of polymers of different lengths and linkages, there is interest in determining which specific structures provide prebiotic effects to potentially create better supplements. This paper presents a method comprising porous graphitic carbon separation, isotopic labeling, and mass spectrometry analysis for the structure-specific analysis of GOS isomers and their bacterial consumption rate. Using this strategy, the differential bacterial consumption of GOS by the bifidobacteria species Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis was determined, indicating that the use of specific GOS isomers in infant formula may provide enrichment of distinct species.
Project description:A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium longum in fecal samples, duplex 5' nuclease assays were developed. The assays, targeting rRNA gene intergenic spacer regions, were validated and compared with conventional PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods. The 5' nuclease assays were subsequently used to determine the relative amounts of different Bifidobacterium species in fecal samples from infants receiving a standard formula or a standard formula supplemented with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides (OSF). A breast-fed group was studied in parallel as a reference. The results showed a significant increase in the total amount of fecal bifidobacteria (54.8% +/- 9.8% to 73.4% +/- 4.0%) in infants receiving the prebiotic formula (OSF), with a diversity of Bifidobacterium species similar to breast-fed infants. The intestinal microbiota of infants who received a standard formula seems to resemble a more adult-like distribution of bifidobacteria and contains relatively more B. catenulatum and B. adolescentis (2.71% +/- 1.92% and 8.11% +/- 4.12%, respectively, versus 0.15% +/- 0.11% and 1.38% +/- 0.98% for the OSF group). In conclusion, the specific prebiotic infant formula used induces a fecal microbiota that closely resembles the microbiota of breast-fed infants also at the level of the different Bifidobacterium species.
Project description:Certain non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) are specifically fermented by bifidobacteria along the human gastrointestinal tract, selectively favoring their growth and the production of health-promoting metabolites. In the present study, the ability of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT7210 (herein referred to as B. infantis IM-1®) to utilize a large range of oligosaccharides, or a mixture of oligosaccharides, was investigated. The strain was able to utilize all prebiotics screened. However, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and GOS-containing mixtures, effectively increased its growth to a higher extent than the other prebiotics. The best synbiotic combination was used to examine the antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium difficile in co-culture experiments. C. difficile was inhibited by the synbiotic, but it failed to inhibit E. coli. Moreover, Cr. sakazakii growth decreased during co-culture with B. infantis IM-1®. Furthermore, adhesion experiments using the intestinal cell line HT29 showed that the strain IM-1® was able to displace some pathogens from the enterocyte layer, especially Cr. sakazakii and Salmonella enterica, and prevented the adhesion of Cr. sakazakii and Shigella sonnei. In conclusion, a new synbiotic (probiotic strain B. infantis IM-1® and GOS) appears to be a potential effective supplement for maintaining infant health. However, further studies are needed to go more deeply into the mechanisms that allow B.infantis IM-1® to compete with enteropathogens.
Project description:Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding ?-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant ?-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for ?-galactosides such as 4' and 6'-galactobiose, and four ?-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host.
Project description:In order to gain insight into the effects of human breast milk on the development of the intestinal bifidobacteria and associated health effects, the transcriptome of Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 grown in breast milk and formula milk containing galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides was compared to that obtained in a semisynthetic medium with glucose. Total RNA was isolated from exponentially growing cells and hybridized to a clone library-based microarray. Inserts of clones with significant hybridization signals were sequenced and identified. The B. longum transcriptomes obtained during growth on human and formula milk were more similar to each other than to that obtained from growth in semisynthetic medium with glucose. Remarkably, there were only a few genes implicated in carbohydrate metabolism that were similarly upregulated during growth in both human and formula milk although oligosaccharides were added to the formula. Common highly upregulated genes notably included putative genes for cell surface type 2 glycoprotein-binding fimbriae that are implicated in attachment and colonization in the intestine. Genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism formed the dominant group specifically upregulated in breast milk and included putative genes for N-acetylglucosamine degradation and for metabolism of mucin and human milk oligosaccharides via the galactose/lacto-N-biose gene cluster. This supports the notion that the bifidogenic effect of human milk is to a great extent based on its oligosaccharides. The transcriptional effect of semisynthetic medium containing GOS, which, like human milk, contains a large amount of lactose and galactose, on the B. longum transcriptome was also studied and revealed substantial similarity with carbohydrate-utilization genes upregulated during growth in human milk. This knowledge provides leads to optimizing formula milk to better simulate the observed bifidogenic effects of human breast milk.
Project description:Commensal gut microbiota and probiotics have numerous effects on the host's metabolic and protective systems, which occur primarily through the intestinal epithelial cell interface. Prebiotics, like galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are widely used to modulate their function and abundance. However, important structure-function relations may exist, requiring a detailed structural characterization. Here, we detailed the structural characterization of bovine whey derived oligosaccharide preparations enriched with GOS or not, dubbed GOS-enriched milk oligosaccharides (GMOS) or MOS, respectively. We explore GMOS's and MOS's potential to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function, assessed in a model based on barrier disruptive effects of the Clostridioides difficile toxin A. GMOS and MOS contain mainly GOS species composed of ?1-6- and ?1-3-linked galactoses, and 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose. Both GMOS and MOS, combined with lactobacilli, like Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LPR, NCC4007), gave synergistic epithelial barrier protection, while no such effect was observed with Bifidobacterium longum (BL NCC3001), Escherichia coli (Nissle) or fructo-oligosaccharides. Mechanistically, for barrier protection with MOS, (i) viable LPR was required, (ii) acidification of growth medium was not enough, (iii) LPR did not directly neutralize toxin A, and (iv) physical proximity of LPR with the intestinal epithelial cells was necessary. This is the first study, highlighting the importance of structure-function specificity and the necessity of the simultaneous presence of prebiotic, probiotic and host cell interactions required for a biological effect.
Project description:The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16?g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed. Short-term intake of high-dose prebiotics had adverse effect on glucose metabolism, as in FOS intervention demonstrated by OGTT (P?<?0.001), and in GOS intervention demonstrated by fasting glucose (P?<?0.05). A significant increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed both in FOS and GOS group, while the butyrate-producing bacteria like Phascolarctobacterium in FOS group and Ruminococcus in GOS group were decreased. A random forest model using the initial microbiota was developed to predict OGTT levels after prebiotic intervention with relative success (R?=?0.726). Our study alerted even though FOS and GOS increased Bifidobacterium, they might have adverse effect on glucose metabolism by reducing butyrate-producing microbes. Individualized prebiotics intervention based on gut microbiome needs to be evaluated in future.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37 °C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants.
Project description:One strategy for enhancing the establishment of probiotic bacteria in the human intestinal tract is via the parallel administration of a prebiotic, which is referred to as a synbiotic. Here we present a novel method that allows a rational selection of putative probiotic strains to be used in synbiotic applications: in vivo selection (IVS). This method consists of isolating candidate probiotic strains from fecal samples following enrichment with the respective prebiotic. To test the potential of IVS, we isolated bifidobacteria from human subjects who consumed increasing doses of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 weeks. A retrospective analysis of the fecal microbiota of one subject revealed an 8-fold enrichment in Bifidobacterium adolescentis strain IVS-1 during GOS administration. The functionality of GOS to support the establishment of IVS-1 in the gastrointestinal tract was then evaluated in rats administered the bacterial strain alone, the prebiotic alone, or the synbiotic combination. Strain-specific quantitative real-time PCR showed that the addition of GOS increased B. adolescentis IVS-1 abundance in the distal intestine by nearly 2 logs compared to rats receiving only the probiotic. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing not only confirmed the increased establishment of IVS-1 in the intestine but also revealed that the strain was able to outcompete the resident Bifidobacterium population when provided with GOS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that IVS can be used to successfully formulate a synergistic synbiotic that can substantially enhance the establishment and competitiveness of a putative probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of ?- and ?-linked hexoses, and ?-xylosides. RESULTS: The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and ?-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and ?-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION: This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract.