Infection during the first year in patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is an effective treatment for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In addition to cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity (ICANS), B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia are common toxicities predisposing these patients to infections. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL treated with FDA-approved CD19 CAR T cells and report the incidence, risk factors, and management of infections during the first year after treatment. A total of 101 infectious events were observed, including 25 mild, 51 moderate, 23 severe, 1 life-threatening, and 1 fatal infection. Bacteria were the most common causative pathogens. The cumulative incidence of overall, bacterial, severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infection at 1 year were 63.3%, 57.2%, 29.6%, 44.7%, and 4%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the use of systemic corticosteroids for the management of CRS or ICANS was associated with an increased risk of infections and prolonged admission. Impaired performance status and history of infections within 30 days before CAR T cell therapy was a risk factor for severe bacterial infection. In conclusion, infections were common within the first 60 days after CAR T cell therapy, however, they were not associated with an increased risk of death.
Project description:T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can induce complete remissions (CRs) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The long-term durability of these remissions is unknown. We administered anti-CD19 CAR T cells preceded by cyclophosphamide and fludarabine conditioning chemotherapy to patients with relapsed DLBCL. Five of the seven evaluable patients obtained CRs. Four of the five CRs had long-term durability with durations of remission of 56, 51, 44, and 38 months; to date, none of these four cases of lymphomas have relapsed. Importantly, CRs continued after recovery of non-malignant polyclonal B cells in three of four patients with long-term complete remissions. In these three patients, recovery of CD19+ polyclonal B cells took place 28, 38, and 28 months prior to the last follow-up, and each of these three patients remained in CR at the last follow-up. Non-malignant CD19+ B cell recovery with continuing CRs demonstrated that remissions of DLBCL can continue after the disappearance of functionally effective anti-CD19 CAR T cell populations. Patients had a low incidence of severe infections despite long periods of B cell depletion and hypogammaglobulinemia. Only one hospitalization for an infection occurred among the four patients with long-term CRs. Anti-CD19 CAR T cells caused long-term remissions of chemotherapy-refractory DLBCL without substantial chronic toxicities.
Project description:Various grading systems are currently used for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-related toxicity, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). We compared the recently proposed American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) grading system to other grading scores in 2 populations of adults: patients (n = 53) with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) treated with 1928z CAR T-cells (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01044069), and patients (n = 49) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with axicabtagene-ciloleucel (axi-cel) or tisagenlecleucel after US Food and Drug Administration approval. According to ASTCT grading, 82% of patients had CRS, 87% in the B-ALL and 77% in the DLBCL groups (axi-cel: 86%, tisagenlecleucel: 54%), whereas 50% of patients experienced ICANS, 55% in the B-ALL and 45% in the DLBCL groups (axi-cel: 55%, tisagenlecleucel: 15%). All grading systems agreed on CRS and ICANS diagnosis in 99% and 91% of cases, respectively. However, when analyzed grade by grade, only 25% and 54% of patients had the same grade in each system for CRS and ICANS, respectively, as different systems score symptoms differently (upgrading or downgrading their severity), leading to inconsistent final grades. Investigation of possible management implications in DLBCL patients showed that different recommendations on tocilizumab and steroids across current guidelines potentially result in either overtreating or delaying treatment. Moreover, because these guidelines are based on single products and different grading systems, they cannot be universally applied. To avoid discrepancies in assessing and managing toxicities of different products, we propose that unified grading be used across clinical trials and in practice and that paired management guidelines with product-specific indications be developed.
Project description:Clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 have produced impressive results in hematological malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, a notable number of patients with DLBCL fail to achieve remission after CD19 CAR T-cell therapy and may therefore require a dual targeted CAR T-cell therapy. A 31-year-old man with refractory DLBCL was assessed in the present case report. The patient was treated with sequential infusion of single CD19 CAR T cells followed by dual CD19/CD22-targeted CAR T cells. The outcome was that the patient achieved partial remission after the first single CD19 CAR T-cell infusion and complete remission after the dual CD19/CD22-targeted CAR T-cell infusion. Grade 1 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was observed after the single CD19 CAR T-cell infusion, while grade 3 CRS and hemophagocytic syndrome were observed after the dual targeted CAR T-cell infusion, but these adverse effects alleviated after the treatments. To the best of our knowledge, the present case report is the first to describe the successful application of dual CD19/CD22-targeted CAR T-cell therapy for the treatment of refractory DLBCL. The report suggests that dual CD19/CD22-targeted CAR T-cell therapy may represent a promising option for the treatment of refractory DLBCL; however, caution should be taken due to potential CRS development.
Project description:T cells can be genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We assessed the safety and efficacy of administering autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells to patients with advanced CD19(+) B-cell malignancies.We treated 15 patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. Nine patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), two had indolent lymphomas, and four had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients received a conditioning chemotherapy regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by a single infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells.Of 15 patients, eight achieved complete remissions (CRs), four achieved partial remissions, one had stable lymphoma, and two were not evaluable for response. CRs were obtained by four of seven evaluable patients with chemotherapy-refractory DLBCL; three of these four CRs are ongoing, with durations ranging from 9 to 22 months. Acute toxicities including fever, hypotension, delirium, and other neurologic toxicities occurred in some patients after infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells; these toxicities resolved within 3 weeks after cell infusion. One patient died suddenly as a result of an unknown cause 16 days after cell infusion. CAR T cells were detected in the blood of patients at peak levels, ranging from nine to 777 CAR-positive T cells/μL.This is the first report to our knowledge of successful treatment of DLBCL with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of treating chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. The numerous remissions obtained provide strong support for further development of this approach.
Project description:Background:Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells that target the CD19 antigen present a novel promising therapy for the treatment of relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Although cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity have emerged as predominant noninfectious complications of CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, infections associated with this treatment modality have not been well documented. Methods:We analyzed infectious complications that followed CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in 53 adult patients with relapsed B-ALL enrolled in a phase I clinical trial at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (NCT01044069). Results:Overall, 22 patients (42%) experienced 26 infections (17 bacterial, 4 fungal, and 5 viral) within the first 30 days of CAR T-cell infusion. In 10 of 32 (31%) patients in whom complete remission was achieved, 15 infections developed between days 31 and 180; the majority of these late infections were due to respiratory viruses. In general, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were detected at a median of 18, 23, and 48 days, respectively, after CAR T-cell infusion. CRS grade 3 or higher was independently associated with increased risk of subsequent infection (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.67; P = .05) and in particular with bloodstream infection (adjusted HR, 19.97; P < .001). Three of 53 patients (6%) died of an infection-related cause. Conclusions:Infections in adult patients with relapsed B-ALL are common after CD19 CAR T-cell therapy. Understanding the infectious complications that are temporally coincident with CD19 CAR T-cell therapy is critical for developing effective prophylactic and other supportive care measures to improve clinical outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT01044069.
Project description:Background: The therapeutic efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells targeting CD19 has been illustrated in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, there is a 21-35% relapse rate after anti-CD19 CAR T-cell induced remission. In addition, CAR T-cell therapy has severe adverse reactions, such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and CART-related encephalopathy syndrome (CRES). Because of the potential mortality associated with severe CRES, patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) are usually excluded from clinical trials involving CAR T-cell therapy. Here, we report a case of refractory and relapsed primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL). Case Presentation: The patient is a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with PCNSL in 2011. He achieved complete remission (CR) after receiving 6 cycles of temozolomide and high-dose methotrexate. In December 2016, he experienced his first relapse and was treated with surgery and multicourse chemotherapy. He achieved CR again after the treatment. However, he experienced a second relapse in August 2017. MRI revealed a residual mass of 26 mm*35 mm*30 mm on the right side of the post-operative cavity and stale hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia. After confirming the expression of CD19 and CD70 in his tumor samples, the patient was given lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by infusion of 4th generation CD19-CAR T-cells (4SCART19) and 4th generation CD70-CAR T-cells (4SCART70). One month later, the patient had symptomatic improvement, and brain MRI showed CR. Both CART19 and CART70 cells were detected in the 10th month after CAR T-cell infusion. Notably, neither CRS nor CRES occurred during treatment and follow-up. To date, the patient has maintained disease-free survival with more than 17 months of follow-up. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that combination of CD19- and CD70-specific CAR T-cells may effectively target PCNSL and maintain disease-free survival without inducing CRS or CRES. Therefore, central nervous system lymphoma is not an absolute contraindication for dual-target CAR T-cell therapy.
Project description:Lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by infusion of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) T cells has produced impressive antitumor responses in patients with refractory CD19+ B-cell malignancies but is often associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Our understanding of CRS continues to evolve, and identification of the kinetics of CRS and predictive clinical and laboratory biomarkers of severity are needed to evaluate strategies to mitigate toxicity. We report the clinical presentation of and identify biomarkers of severe CRS in 133 adult patients who received CD19 CAR T cells. CRS developed in 70% of patients, including 62.5% with grade 1 to 3 CRS (grade 1, 26%; grade 2, 32%; grade 3, 4.5%), 3.8% with grade 4, and 3.8% with grade 5. A majority of cases of grade ?4 CRS occurred during CAR T-cell dose finding. Multivariable analysis of baseline characteristics identified high marrow tumor burden, lymphodepletion using cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, higher CAR T-cell dose, thrombocytopenia before lymphodepletion, and manufacturing of CAR T cells without selection of CD8+ central memory T cells as independent predictors of CRS. Severe CRS was characterized by hemodynamic instability, capillary leak, and consumptive coagulopathy. Angiopoietin-2 and von Willebrand factor, which are biomarkers of endothelial activation, were increased during severe CRS and also before lymphodepletion in patients who subsequently developed CRS. We describe a classification-tree algorithm to guide studies of early intervention after CAR T-cell infusion for patients at high risk of severe CRS. These data provide a framework for early intervention studies to facilitate safer application of effective CD19 CAR T-cell therapy.
Project description:Factors contributing to hematopoietic recovery following chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy have not been well studied. In an analysis of 83 patients with hematologic malignancies treated with CAR T-cell therapy, we describe patterns of hematopoietic recovery and evaluate potentially associated factors. We included patients who received axicabtagene ciloleucel (n = 30) or tisagenlecleucel (n = 10) for B-cell lymphoma, CD19-28z CAR T therapy for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (NCT01044069; n = 37), or B-cell maturation antigen targeting CAR T cells for multiple myeloma (NCT03070327; n = 6). Patients treated with CAR T cells who had not progressed, died, or received additional chemotherapy had "recovered" (per definition in Materials and methods section) hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, and white blood cell counts at rates of 61%, 51%, 33%, and 28% at month 1 postinfusion and 93%, 90%, 80%, and 59% at month 3 postinfusion, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that increasing grade of immune effector cell-associated neurological syndrome (ICANS), baseline cytopenias, CAR construct, and higher peak C-reactive protein or ferritin levels were statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of complete count recovery at 1 month; a similar trend was seen for cytokine release syndrome (CRS). After adjustment for baseline cytopenia and CAR construct, grade ?3 CRS or ICANS remained significantly associated with the absence of complete count recovery at 1 month. Higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and macrophage-derived chemokines, although not statistically significant, were seen patients without complete count recovery at 1 month. This remains to be studied further in larger prospective studies.
Project description:Background:Infectious complications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy in children and young adults have not been well described. Methods:Medical records of patients ?26 years old receiving CD19 CAR T-cell infusion (CTI) at a single institution between 2014 and 2017 were reviewed. The number of infections per 100 days-at-risk (infection density) in the 90 days preceding and 0-28 and 29-90 days after CTI was calculated. Poisson regression and Cox analyses were utilized to identify risk factors for infections. Results:Eighty-three patients received CTI during the study period. Most patients (98%) had refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Infections occurred in 54% of patients in the 90 days before CTI (infection density, 1.23) and in 40% of patients in the first 28 days following CTI (infection density, 2.89). Infection density decreased to 0.55 in the 29-90 days post-CTI. Most infections were bacteremias (39%) or respiratory viral infections (43%). Pre-CTI risk factors associated with infection included prior hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), immunoglobulin G (IgG) level <400 mg/dL, and lymphodepletion other than cyclophosphamide plus fludarabine; post-CTI risk factors included higher-severity CRS and IgG <400 mg/dL. Conclusions:Infection rates in children and young adults receiving CD19 CAR T-cell therapy increase in the first month and then decline. Understanding types and timing of infections and contributing risk factors may help inform prophylactic and monitoring strategies. Specific attention should be given to patients with prior HCT, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, and severe CRS.
Project description:Immunotherapy with T cells expressing the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the CD19 antigen (CD19.CAR-Ts) is a very effective treatment in B cell lymphoid malignancies. However, B cell aplasia and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) secondary to the infusion of CD19.CAR-Ts remain significant drawbacks. The inclusion of safety switches into the vector encoding the CAR is seen as the safest method to terminate the effects of CD19.CAR-Ts in case of severe toxicities or after achieving long-term sustained remissions. By contrast, the complete elimination of CD19.CAR-Ts when CRS occurs may jeopardize clinical responses as CRS and antitumor activity seem to concur. We have demonstrated, in a humanized mouse model, that the inducible caspase-9 (iC9) safety switch can eliminate CD19.CAR-Ts in a dose-dependent manner, allowing either a selective containment of CD19.CAR-T expansion in case of CRS or complete deletion on demand granting normal B cell reconstitution.