Misconceptions on COVID-19 Risk Among Ugandan Men: Results From a Rapid Exploratory Survey, April 2020.
ABSTRACT: Background: Transmission of COVID-19 in developing countries is expected to surpass that in developed countries; however, information on community perceptions of this new disease is scarce. The aim of the study was to identify possible misconceptions among males and females toward COVID-19 in Uganda using a rapid online survey distributed via social media. Methods: A cross-sectional survey carried out in early April 2020 was conducted with 161 Ugandans, who purposively participated in the online questionnaire that assessed understandings of COVID-19 risk and infection. Sixty-four percent of respondents were male and 36% were female. Results: We found significant divergences of opinion on gendered susceptibility to COVID-19. Most female respondents considered infection risk, symptoms, severe signs, and death to be equally distributed between genders. In contrast, male respondents believed they were more at risk of infection, severe symptoms, severe signs, and death (52.7 vs. 30.6%, RR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.14-2.8). Most women did not share this perception and disagreed that males were at higher risk of infection (by a factor of three), symptoms (79% disagree), severe signs (71%, disagree), and death (70.2% disagree). Overall, most respondents considered children less vulnerable (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.55-2.2) to COVID-19 than adults, that children present with less symptoms (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 0.77-3.19), and that there would be less mortality in children (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.41-1.88). Of female respondents, 76.4% considered mortality from COVID-19 to be different between the young and the elderly (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.01-2.92) and 92.7% believed young adults would show fewer signs than the elderly, and 71.4% agreed that elderly COVID-19 patients would show more severe signs than the young (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.8). While respondents considered that all races were susceptible to the signs and symptoms of infection as well as death from COVID-19, they considered mortality would be highest among white people from Europe and the USA. Some respondents (mostly male 33/102, 32.4%) considered COVID-19 to be a "disease of whites" (30.2%). Conclusion: The WHO has identified women and children in rural communities as vulnerable persons who should be given more attention in the COVID-19 national response programs across Africa; however, our study has found that men in Uganda perceive themselves to be at greater risk and that these contradictory perceptions (including the association of COVID-19 with "the white" race) suggest an important discrepancy in the communication of who is most vulnerable and why. Further research is urgently needed to validate and expand the results of this small exploratory study.
Project description:<b>Objectives: </b>To establish, amongst Irish rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) patients, rates of COVID-19 symptoms and positive tests, DMARD adherence and attitudes to virtual clinics.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>An online survey assessing COVID-19 status, RMD diagnoses, adherence and information sources was disseminated via the Arthritis Ireland website and social media channels.<br><br><b>Results: </b>There were 1381 respondents with 74.8% on immunosuppressive medication. Symptoms of COVID-19 were reported by 3.7% of respondents of which 0.46% tested positive, consistent with the general Irish population. The frequency of COVID-19 symptoms was higher for respondents with spondyloarthropathy [odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.70] and lower in those on immunosuppressive medication (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.88), and those compliant with health authority (HSE) guidance (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.89). Adherence to RMD medications was reported in 84.1%, with 57.1% using health authority guidelines for information on medication use. Importantly, adherence rates were higher amongst those who cited guidelines (89.3% vs 79.9%, P <0.001), and conversely lower in those with COVID-19 symptoms (64.0% vs 85.1%, P =0.009). Finally, the use of virtual clinics was supported by 70.4% of respondents.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The rate of COVID-19 positivity in RMD patients was similar to the general population. COVID-19 symptoms were lower amongst respondents on immunosuppressive medication and those adherent to medication guidelines. Respondents were supportive of HSE advice and virtual clinics.
Project description:AIM:To summarize what we know so far about coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children. METHOD:We searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information from 1 January 2020 to 4 May 2020. We selected randomized trials, observational studies, case series or case reports, and research letters of children ages birth to 18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses to calculate the weighted mean prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) or the weighted average means and 95% CI. RESULT:Forty-six articles reporting 551 cases of COVID-19 in children (aged 1 day-17.5 years) were included. Eighty-seven percent (95% CI: 77%-95%) of patients had household exposure to COVID-19. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (53%, 95% CI: 45%-61%), cough (39%, 95% CI: 30%-47%), and sore throat/pharyngeal erythema (14%, 95% CI: 4%-28%); however, 18% (95% CI: 11%-27%) of cases were asymptomatic. The most common radiographic and computed tomography (CT) findings were patchy consolidations (33%, 95% CI: 23%-43%) and ground glass opacities (28%, 95% CI: 18%-39%), but 36% (95% CI: 28%-45%) of patients had normal CT images. Antiviral agents were given to 74% of patients (95% CI: 52%-92%). Six patients, all with major underlying medical conditions, needed invasive mechanical ventilation, and one of them died. CONCLUSION:Previously healthy children with COVID-19 have mild symptoms. The diagnosis is generally suspected from history of household exposure to COVID-19 case. Children with COVID-19 and major underlying condition are more likely to have severe/critical disease and poor prognosis, even death.
Project description:Importance:Data from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the US show large differences in hospitalizations and mortality across race and geography. However, there are limited data on health information, beliefs, and behaviors that might indicate different exposure to risk. Objective:To determine the association of sociodemographic characteristics with reported incidence, knowledge, and behavior regarding COVID-19 among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants:A US national survey study was conducted from March 29 to April 13, 2020, to measure differences in knowledge, beliefs, and behavior about COVID-19. The survey oversampled COVID-19 hotspot areas. The survey was conducted electronically. The criteria for inclusion were age 18 years or older and residence in the US. Data analysis was performed in April 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcomes were incidence, knowledge, and behaviors related to COVID-19 as measured by survey response. Results:The survey included 5198 individuals (mean [SD] age, 48  years; 2336 men [45%]; 3759 white [72%], 830 [16%] African American, and 609 [12%] Hispanic). The largest differences in COVID-19-related knowledge and behaviors were associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age, with African American participants, men, and people younger than 55 years showing less knowledge than other groups. African American respondents were 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 1.5 to 5.5 percentage points; P?=?.001) more likely than white respondents to report being infected with COVID-19, as were men compared with women (3.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.0 to 4.4 percentage points; P?<?.001). Knowing someone who tested positive for COVID-19 was more common among African American respondents (7.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.4 to 10.9 percentage points; P?<?.001), people younger than 30 years (11.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 7.5 to 15.7 percentage points; P?<?.001), and people with higher incomes (coefficient on earning ?$100?000,?12.3 percentage points; 95% CI, 8.7 to 15.8 percentage points; P?<?.001). Knowledge of potential fomite spread was lower among African American respondents (-9.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -13.1 to -5.7 percentage points; P?<?.001), Hispanic respondents (-4.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.9 to -0.77 percentage points; P?=?.02), and people younger than 30 years (-10.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -14.1 to -6.5 percentage points; P?<?.001). Similar gaps were found with respect to knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms and preventive behaviors. Conclusions and Relevance:In this survey study of US adults, there were gaps in reported incidence of COVID-19 and knowledge regarding its spread and symptoms and social distancing behavior. More effort is needed to increase accurate information and encourage appropriate behaviors among minority communities, men, and younger people.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding the occurrence of symptoms resembling those of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a large nonhospitalized population at the peak of the epidemic in Italy is of paramount importance; however, data are currently scarce. OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of self-reported symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) test results in nonhospitalized individuals and to estimate the occurrence of symptoms associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a larger nontested population. METHODS:EPICOVID19 is a self-administered cross-sectional voluntary web-based survey of adults throughout Italy who completed an anonymous questionnaire in the period of April 13 to 21, 2020. The associations between symptoms potentially related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and NPS results were calculated as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% CIs by multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, education, smoking habits, and number of comorbidities. Thereafter, for each symptom and for combinations of the symptoms, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and areas under the curve (AUCs) in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to estimate the occurrence of COVID-19-like infection in the nontested population. RESULTS:A total of 171,310 people responded to the survey, of whom 102,543 (59.9%) were women; mean age 47.4 years. Out of the 4785 respondents with known NPS test results, 4392 were not hospitalized. Among the 4392 nonhospitalized respondents, those with positive NPS tests (856, 19.5%) most frequently reported myalgia (527, 61.6%), olfactory and taste disorders (507, 59.2%), cough (466, 54.4%), and fever (444, 51.9%), whereas 7.7% were asymptomatic. Multiple regression analysis showed that olfactory and taste disorders (aOR 10.3, 95% CI 8.4-12.7), fever (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.1), myalgia (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8), and cough (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) were associated with NPS positivity. Having two to four of these symptoms increased the aOR from 7.4 (95% CI 5.6-9.7) to 35.5 (95% CI 24.6-52.2). The combination of the four symptoms showed an AUC of 0.810 (95% CI 0.795-0.825) in classifying positive NPS test results and then was applied to the nonhospitalized and nontested sample (n=165,782). We found that 7739 to 20,103 of these 165,782 respondents (4.4% to 12.1%) had experienced symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that self-reported symptoms are reliable indicators of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pandemic context. A nonnegligible number of symptomatic respondents (up to 12.1%) were undiagnosed and potentially contributed to the spread of the infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04471701; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04471701.
Project description:Background: Diabetes mellitus is considered a common comorbidity of COVID-19, which has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory symptoms and even death. However, the impact of COVID-19 on blood glucose has not been fully understood. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize available data on the association between glycemic parameters and severity of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from December 1, 2019 to May 15, 2020. Observational studies investigating blood glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the severity of COVID-19 were considered for inclusion. Two independent researchers extracted data from eligible studies using a standardized data extraction sheet and then proceeded to cross check the results. Data were pooled using a fixed- or random-effects model to calculate the weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Three studies reported blood glucose and HbA1c according to the severity of COVID-19 and were included in this meta-analysis. The combined results showed that severe COVID-19 was associated with higher blood glucose (WMD 2.21, 95% CI: 1.30-3.13, P < 0.001). In addition, HbA1c was slightly higher in patients with severe COVID-19 than those with mild COVID-19, yet this difference did not reach significance (WMD 0.29, 95% CI: -0.59 to 1.16, P = 0.52). Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides evidence that severe COVID-19 is associated with increased blood glucose. This highlights the need to effectively monitor blood glucose to improve prognosis in patients infected with COVID-19.
Project description:Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease that has caused a global pandemic. The presenting symptoms are mainly respiratory symptom, yet studies have reported nervous system involvement in the disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies are required to understanding the neurologic characteristic of the disease and help physicians with early diagnosis and management. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the neurologic characteristics in patients with COVID-19. Evidence Review: Authors conducted a literature search through PubMed from January 1st, 2020 to April 8th, 2020. Furthermore, the authors added additional sources by reviewing related references. Studies presenting the neurologic features of COVID-19 patients in their data were included. Case reports and case series were also included in this review. The quality of the studies was assessed based on the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Selected studies were included in the meta-analysis of proportion and the heterogeneity test. Finding: From 280 identified studies, 33 were eligible, with 7,559 participants included. Most of the included studies were from China (29 [88%]). Muscle injury or myalgia was the most common (19.2%, 95%CI 15.4-23.2%) neurologic symptom of COVID-19, followed by headache (10.9%, 95%CI 8.62-13.51%); dizziness (8.7%, 95%CI 5.02-13.43%); nausea with or without vomiting (4.6%, 95%CI 3.17-6.27%); concurrent cerebrovascular disease (4.4%, 95%CI 1.92-7.91%); and impaired consciousness (3.8%, 95%CI 0.16-12.04%). Underlying cerebrovascular disease was found in 8.5% (95%CI 4.5-13.5%) of the studies. Conclusion: Neurologic findings vary from non-specific to specific symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Some severe symptoms or diseases can present in the later stage of the disease. Physicians should be aware of the presence of neurologic signs and symptoms as a chief complaint of COVID-19, in order to improve management and prevent a worsening outcome of the patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has been declared a global pandemic. Identifying individuals whose infection can potentially become severe is critical to control the case fatality rate of COVID-19. However, knowledge of symptoms that are prognostic of COVID-19 severity is lacking. OBJECTIVE:The objective of our study was to identify symptoms prognostic of COVID-19 infection severity. METHODS:We analyzed documented symptoms, including fever, cough, fatigue, expectoration, sore throat, chest distress, headache, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, stuffed nose, nausea, vomiting, muscle or joint ache, shortness of breath, and their associations with disease severity using a case series, including 655 confirmed cases from January 23 to February 5, 2020 in Henan Province, China. We also analyzed the influence of individual characteristics, including age, gender, and comorbidities, on symptoms with prognostic value. RESULTS:Fatigue (95% CI 0.141 to 0.334, P<.001), expectoration (95% CI 0.107 to 0.305, P<.001) and stuffed nose (95% CI -0.499 to -0.082, P=.006) were identified as the prognostic symptoms of COVID-19 patients from the multivariate analysis. Fever occurred in 603/655 (92.1%) of the patients but was not associated with disease severity. Fatigue accounted for 184/655 (28.1%) of the patients and was linearly associated with infection severity with statistical significance. Expectoration occurred in 169/655 (25.8%) patients in the cohort and was the sole prognostic factor for patients with cardiovascular complications, including hypertension. Shortness of breath, chest distress, muscle or joint ache, and dry cough, which occurred in 33 (5%), 83 (12.7%), 78 (11.9%), and 276 (42.1%) of the 655 patients, respectively, were significantly enriched among patients classified as severe. Stuffed nose and nausea were associated with favorable disease severity, especially among male patients. More female than male patients were documented as having muscle or joint ache. Headache was most enriched in patents aged 15 to 39 years, followed by those aged 40 to 64 years, with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:Fatigue and expectoration are signs of severe COVID-19 infection. Shortness of breath, chest distress, muscle or joint ache, and dry cough are prevalent in severe patients. Expectoration is commonly present in older individuals and patients with cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension. Shortness of breath is prognostic of severe infection in male patients. Stuffed nose and nausea are favorable prognostic factors of severe infection, especially among male patients.
Project description:The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increases in psychiatric morbidity, including depression. It is unclear if people with depressive symptoms understand or apply COVID-19 information differently to the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine associations between depression, health beliefs, and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Hong Kong. This study gathered data from 11,072 Hong Kong adults via an online survey. Respondents self-reported their demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), face mask use, and health beliefs about COVID-19. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent variables associated with depression. The point-prevalence of probable depression was 46.5% (n = 5,150). Respondents reporting higher mask reuse (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.17-1.34), wearing masks for self-protection (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.06), perceived high susceptibility (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.23), and high severity (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.28-1.37) were more likely to report depression. Depression was less likely in those with higher scores for cues to action (OR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.80-0.84), knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), and self-efficacy to wear mask properly (OR = 0.90 95%CI 0.83-0.98). We identified a high point-prevalence of probable major depression and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, but this should be viewed with caution due to the convenience sampling method employed. Future studies should recruit a representative probability sample in order to draw more reliable conclusions. The findings highlight that COVID-19 health information may be a protective factor of probable depression and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Accurate and up-to-date health information should be disseminated to distressed and vulnerable subpopulations, perhaps using digital health technology, and social media platforms to prompt professional help-seeking behavior.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with significant occupational stressors and challenges for front-line healthcare workers (HCWs), including COVID-19 exposure risk. Our study sought to assess factors contributing to HCW infection and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA.<h4>Design</h4>We conducted a cross sectional survey of HCWs (physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), non-clinical staff) during May 2020. Participants completed a 42-item survey assessing disease transmission risk (clinical role, work environment, availability of personal protective equipment) and mental health (anxiety, depression and burn-out).<h4>Setting</h4>The questionnaire was disseminated over various social media platforms. 3083 respondents from 48 states, the District of Columbia and US territories accessed the survey.<h4>Participants</h4>Using a convenience sample of HCWs who worked during the pandemic, 3083 respondents accessed the survey and 2040 participants completed at least 80% of the survey.<h4>Primary outcome</h4>Prevalence of self-reported COVID-19 infection, in addition to burn-out, depression and anxiety symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>Participants were largely from the Northeast and Southern USA, with attending physicians (31.12%), nurses (26.80%), EMTs (13.04%) with emergency medicine department (38.30%) being the most common department and specialty represented. Twenty-nine per cent of respondents met the criteria for being a probable case due to reported COVID-19 symptoms or a positive test. HCWs in the emergency department (31.64%) were more likely to contract COVID-19 compared with HCWs in the ICU (23.17%) and inpatient settings (25.53%). HCWs that contracted COVID-19 also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms (mean diff.=0.31; 95%?CI 0.16 to 0.47), anxiety symptoms (mean diff.=0.34; 95%?CI 0.17 to 0.52) and burn-out (mean diff.=0.54; 95%?CI 0.36 to 0.71).<h4>Conclusion</h4>HCWs have experienced significant physical and psychological risk while working during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the urgent need for increased support for provider physical and mental health well-being.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:COVID-19 has a varied clinical presentation. Elderly patients with comorbidities are more vulnerable to severe disease. This study identifies specific symptoms and comorbidities predicting severe COVID-19 and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS:A literature search identified studies indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health before 5th March 2020. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and extracted data. Quality appraisal was performed using STROBE criteria. Random effects meta-analysis identified symptoms and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 or ICU admission. RESULTS:Seven studies (including 1813 COVID-19 patients) were included. ICU patients were older (62.4 years) than non-ICU (46 years), with a greater proportion of males. Dyspnoea was the only symptom predictive for severe disease (pOR 3.70, 95% CI 1.83-7.46) and ICU admission (pOR 6.55, 95% CI 4.28-10.0). COPD was the strongest predictive comorbidity for severe disease (pOR 6.42, 95% CI 2.44-16.9) and ICU admission (pOR 17.8, 95% CI 6.56-48.2), followed by cardiovascular disease and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:Dyspnoea was the only symptom predictive for severe COVID-19 and ICU admission. Patients with COPD, cardiovascular disease and hypertension were at higher risk of severe illness and ICU admission.