Precise Species Identification for Enterobacter: a Genome Sequence-Based Study with Reporting of Two Novel Species, Enterobacter quasiroggenkampii sp. nov. and Enterobacter quasimori sp. nov.
ABSTRACT: The genus Enterobacter comprises common pathogens and has a complicated taxonomy. Precise taxonomic assignation lays a foundation for microbiology. In this study, we updated the Enterobacter taxonomy based on robust genome analyses. We found that all Enterobacter subspecies assignments were incorrect. Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii are species (Enterobacter dissolvens and Enterobacter hoffmannii, respectively) rather than subspecies. Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii are not Enterobacter hormaechei subspecies but belong to the same species (Enterobacter xiangfangensis). Enterobacter timonensis should be removed to Pseudenterobacter, a novel genus. We then reported two novel species, Enterobacter quasiroggenkampii and Enterobacter quasimori, by genome- and phenotype-based characterization. We also applied the updated taxonomy to curate 1,997 Enterobacter genomes in GenBank. Species identification was changed following our updated taxonomy for the majority of publicly available strains (1,542, 77.2%). The most common Enterobacter species was E. xiangfangensis We identified 14 novel tentative Enterobacter genomospecies. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct identification.IMPORTANCE Enterobacter species are major human pathogens. Precise species identification lays a foundation for microbiology, but the taxonomy of Enterobacter is complicated and confusing. In this study, first, we significantly updated the taxonomy of Enterobacter by rigorous genome analyses and found that all subspecies assignments of Enterobacter were incorrect. Second, we characterized and reported two novel Enterobacter species with clinical significance. Third, we curated 1,997 Enterobacter genome sequences deposited in GenBank and found that the species identification of most Enterobacter strains needed to be corrected. Fourth, we found that the most common Enterobacter species seen in clinical samples is Enterobacter xiangfangensis rather than Enterobacter cloacae Fifth, we identified 14 tentative novel Enterobacter and 18 tentative novel non-Enterobacter species. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct species identification. We recommend that future Enterobacter studies need to use the updated taxonomy to avoid misleading information.
Project description:Background: The predominant species in clinical Enterobacter isolates is E. hormaechei. Many articles, clinicians, and GenBank submissions misname these strains as E. cloacae. The lack of sequenced type strains or named species/subspecies for some clades in the E. cloacae complex complicate the issue. Methods: The genomes of the type strains for Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii, and E. xiangfangensis, and two strains from Hoffmann clusters III and IV of the E. cloacae complex were sequenced. These genomes, the E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei type strain, and other available Enterobacter type strains were analysed in conjunction with all extant Enterobacter genomes in NCBI's RefSeq using Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI). Results: There were five recognizable subspecies of E. hormaechei: E. hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii subsp. nov., E. hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis comb. nov., and the three previously known subspecies. One of the strains sequenced from the E. cloacae complex was not a novel E. hormaechei subspecies but rather a member of a clade of a novel species: E. roggenkampii sp. nov.. E. muelleri was determined to be a later heterotypic synonym of E. asburiae which should take precedence. Conclusion: The phylogeny of the Enterobacter genus, particularly the cloacae complex, was re-evaluated based on the type strain genome sequences and all other available Enterobacter genomes in RefSeq.
Project description:Six species and six additional genovars are combined within the so-called Enterobacter cloacae complex, with one of them being the species Enterobacter hormaechei. In a recent population genetic study, two genetic clusters were found in close phylogenetic proximity to the genetic cluster of E. hormaechei. In order to prove the hypothesis that these three genetic clusters belong to the same species, we performed cross-hybridization experiments in microplates with DNAs of representatives of each genetic cluster. The close phylogenetic relationship among the clusters was reflected by their relatively low deltaT(m) values, ranging from 0.3 to 4.8, confirming the hypothesis that the clusters are parts of the same species. These clusters can be distinguished from the other species of the E. cloacae complex, which have deltaT(m) values of 5.6 to 10.3. Forty-eight E. hormaechei strains from the different genetic clusters were phenotypically characterized with 129 biochemical tests. In this way, E. hormaechei could be differentiated from the other species of the E. cloacae complex because it tests negative in the 3-hydroxy-butyrate test. The three genetic clusters of E. hormaechei could also be differentiated from each other by using phenotypic tests. Hence, we propose three new subspecies of E. hormaechei corresponding to genetic clusters VI, VII, and VIII of the E. cloacae complex. E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei comb. nov. corresponds to the original species description, as it gives negative results for the adonitol, d-arabitol, d-sorbitol, and d-melibiose tests and a positive result for the dulcitol test. E. hormaechei subsp. oharae subsp. nov. gives negative results for the dulcitol, adonitol, and d-arabitol tests and positive results for the d-sorbitol and d-melibiose tests. E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii subsp. nov. gives a negative result for the dulcitol test and positive results for the adonitol, d-arabitol, d-sorbitol, and d-melibiose tests. Among the members of the E. cloacae complex, E. hormaechei seems to be the species most frequently recovered from clinical specimens.
Project description:Background:International data on the molecular epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae with VIM carbapenemases are limited. Methods:We performed short read (Illumina) WGS on a global collection of 89 VIM-producing clinical Enterobacteriaceae (2008-14). Results:VIM-producing (11 varieties within 21 different integrons) isolates were mostly obtained from Europe. Certain integrons with bla VIM were specific to a country in different species and clonal complexes (CCs) (In 87 , In 624 , In 916 and In 1323 ), while others had spread globally among various Enterobacteriaceae species (In 110 and In 1209 ). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common species ( n = 45); CC147 from Greece was the most prevalent clone and contained In 590 -like integrons with four different bla VIM s. Enterobacter cloacae complex was the second most common species and mainly consisted of Enterobacter hormaechei ( Enterobacter xiangfangensis , subsp. steigerwaltii and Hoffmann cluster III). CC200 (from Croatia and Turkey), CC114 (Croatia, Greece, Italy and the USA) and CC78 (from Greece, Italy and Spain) containing bla VIM-1 were the most common clones among the E. cloacae complex. Conclusions:This study highlights the importance of surveillance programmes using the latest molecular techniques in providing insight into the characteristics and global distribution of Enterobacteriaceae with bla VIM s.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex have been increasingly isolated as nosocomial pathogens, but phenotypic identification of the E. cloacae complex is unreliable and irreproducible. Identification of species based on currently available genotyping tools is already superior to phenotypic identification, but the taxonomy of isolates belonging to this complex is cumbersome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study shows that multilocus sequence analysis and comparative genomic hybridization based on a mixed genome array is a powerful method for studying species assignment within the E. cloacae complex. The E. cloacae complex is shown to be evolutionarily divided into two clades that are genetically distinct from each other. The younger first clade is genetically more homogenous, contains the Enterobacter hormaechei species and is the most frequently cultured Enterobacter species in hospitals. The second and older clade consists of several (sub)species that are genetically more heterogeneous. Genetic markers were identified that could discriminate between the two clades and cluster 1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on genomic differences it is concluded that some previously defined (clonal and heterogenic) (sub)species of the E. cloacae complex have to be redefined because of disagreements with known or proposed nomenclature. However, further improved identification of the redefined species will be possible based on novel markers presented here.
Project description:Preparation of dry starters for alcohol production is an age-old traditional technology in the Eastern Himalayan regions of east Nepal, the Darjeeling hills, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh in India, and Bhutan. We studied the bacterial diversity in 35 samples of traditionally prepared dry starters, represented by marcha of Nepal, Sikkim, the Darjeeling hills, and Bhutan, phab of Bhutan, and paa, pee, and phut of Arunachal Pradesh, respectively. Populations of bacteria in these starters were 105 to 108 cfu/g. A total of 201 bacterial strains were isolated from starter samples, phenotypically characterized, and their identities confirmed by the 16S rRNA sanger sequencing method. The dominant phylum was Firmicutes (85%), followed by Proteobacteria (9%), and Actinobacteria (6%). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (59%) formed the most abundant group, followed by non-LAB (32%) and Gram-negative bacteria (9%). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing result, we identified LAB: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. fecalis, E. hirae, E. lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, P. pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lb. pentosus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Weissella cibaria; non-LAB: Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum, B. circulans, B. albus, B. cereus, B. nakamurai, B. nitratireducens, B. pseudomycoides, B. zhangzhouensis, Kocuria rosea, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis, S. warneri, S. gallinarum, S. sciuri, Lysinibacillus boronitolerans, Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, and Micrococcus yunnanensis; Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis, E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We characterized diversity indexes of the bacterial community present in traditionally prepared dry starters. This is the first report on the bacterial diversity of traditionally dry starters of the Eastern Himalayas by sanger sequencing.
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the occurrence and genetic characteristics of the bla IMP-26-positive plasmid from a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate, Enterobacter hormaechei L51. Methods:Species identification was determined by MALDI-TOF MS and Sanger sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the agar dilution and broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000-PE150 and PacBio Sequel platforms, and the genome was annotated by the RAST annotation server. The ANI analysis of genomes was performed using OAT. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analyses were performed using the Harvest suite based on the core-genome SNPs of 61 publicly available E. hormaechei genomes. Results:The E. hormaechei L51 genome consists of a 5,018,729 bp circular chromosome and a 343,918 bp conjugative IncHI2/2A plasmid pEHZJ1 encoding bla IMP-26 which surrounding genetic context was intI1-bla IMP-26-ltrA-qacE?1-sul1. A new sequence type (ST1103) was assigned for the isolate L51 which was resistant to cephalosporins, carbapenems, but sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, tigecycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and colistin. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that E. hormaechei L51 belonged to the same subspecies as the reference strain E. hormaechei SCEH020042, however 18,248 divergent SNP were identified. Resistance genes in pEHZJ1 including aac(3)-IIc, aac(6') -IIc, bla SHV-178, bla DHA-1, bla TEM-1, bla IMP-26, ereA2, catII, fosA5, qnrB4, tet(D), sul1 and dfrA19. Conclusion:In our study, we identified a conjugative IncHI2/2A plasmid carrying bla IMP-26 and bla SHV-178 in E. hormaechei ST1103, a novel multidrug-resistant strain isolated from China, and describe the underlying resistance mechanisms of the strain and detailed genetic context of mega plasmid pEHZJ1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enterobacter hormaechei is commonly considered a causative pathogen for nosocomial infections and it does not usually cause diseases in animals. However, researchers have recently dissociated the pathogenic Enterobacter hormaechei from foxes and piglets. Here, the Enterobacter hormaechei was first found to be associated with respiratory disease in unweaned calves in China. CASE PRESENTATION:A 2-month-old calf was severely sick and diagnosed with respiratory infection by a rural veterinarian, and it died 5 days after treatment with penicillin G. The lung sample was then run through histopathological analysis and pathogen isolation. The sequence analysis and biochemical tests results showed the isolated bacterium strain to be Enterobacter hormaechei, and drug sensitivity tests showed resistance to all ?-lactam antimicrobials and sensitivity to quinolones. Thickened alveoli septum, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythrocyte diapedesis around the pulmonary alveoli septum were visible in lung histopathological sections. One week later, at the same farm, another calf showed similar clinical signs, and the Enterobacter hormaechei strain was isolated from its nasal discharge; after a week of treatment with enrofloxacin, as suggested by the results of drug sensitivity tests, this calf fully recovered. CONCLUSIONS:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of calves with respiratory disease that was associated with E. hormaechei, and multi-drug resistance was observed in isolates.
Project description:Surveillance of 10 hospitals and a regional public health laboratory in Myanmar identified 31 isolates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex harboring bla NDM-type Of these isolates, 19 were highly resistant to aminoglycosides and harbored one or more genes encoding 16S rRNA methylases, including armA, rmtB, rmtC, and/or rmtE Of the 19 isolates, 16 were Enterobacter xiangfangensis ST200, with armA on the chromosome and a plasmid harboring bla NDM-1 and rmtC, indicating that these isolates were clonally disseminated nationwide in Myanmar.IMPORTANCE The emergence of multidrug-resistant E. cloacae complex has become a public health threat worldwide. E. xiangfangensis is a recently classified species belonging to E. cloacae complex. Here, we report a clonal dissemination of multidrug-resistant E. xiangfangensis ST200 producing two types of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-type MBL), NDM-1 and -4, and three types of 16S rRNA methylases, ArmA, RmtC, and RmtE, in hospitals in Myanmar. The observation of these multidrug-resistant E. xiangfangensis ST200 isolates stresses the urgency to continue molecular epidemiological surveillance of these pathogens in Myanmar and in South Asian countries.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Acinetobacter sp. strain EKM10A, Enterobacter hormaechei EKM10E, and Enterobacter hormaechei EKM11E, containing 3,978,352, 4,760,222, and 4,758,163?bp, respectively. These seed biogel-associated endophytes were previously isolated from the seed wash of Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) and tested in vitro for antagonism against soilborne fungal/oomycete pathogens.
Project description:Enterobacter hormaechei and Klebsiella pneumoniae are pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae that have been associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we report draft genome assemblies of an Enterobacter hormaechei clinical isolate and a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae.