A randomized crossover trial to assess therapeutic efficacy and cost reduction of acid ursodeoxycholic manufactured by the university hospital for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Health care costs are growing faster than the rest of the global economy, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries' health expenditures include paying for general medicine, diagnostic procedures, hospitalizations and surgeries, as well as medications and prescribed treatment. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune liver disease and the first line available treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), however, direct and indirect treatment costs are expensive. Main aim of this trial was to assess if the therapeutic efficacy of UDCA manufactured by the university hospital is equivalent to that of standard UDCA and treatment cost reduction in patients with PBC. METHODS:It is a prospective, interventional, randomized, and crossover study in patients diagnosed with PBC. UDCA 300?mg tablets and capsules were developed and manufactured by the university hospital. Thirty patients under treatment with standard UDCA, in stable doses were randomized in sequence A and B, 15 patients in each arm. The groups were treated for 12?weeks and after, the UDCA formulation was changed, following for another 12?weeks of continuous therapy (tablets and capsules / capsules and tablets). Laboratory tests were performed at time T0 (beginning of treatment), T1 (at the 12?week-therapy, before the crossing-over) and T2 (end of treatment). The evaluation was done by comparing the hepatic parameters ALP, GGT, ALT, AST and total bilirubin, also considering the adverse events. The comparison of costs was based on price of the manufactured UDCA and standard UDCA price of the hospital. RESULTS:Hospital reduced 66.1% the PBC treatment costs using manufactured UDCA. There were no differences in the biochemical parameters between sequence (A and B) and tablets or capsules of UDCA formulations applied in the treatment of PBC. CONCLUSIONS:The study showed that there was no significant difference between manufactured UDCA (capsule and tablet) and standard UDCA. Hospital reduced the PBC treatment costs using the manufactured UDCA by the university hospital. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03489889 retrospectively registered on January 12th, 2018; Ethics Committee approved the study (ID: 1.790.088) on October 25th, 2016.
Project description:Aim:Patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) have at least 60% probability of having an autoimmune extrahepatic condition, with the most common being Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The impacts of SS on the response and outcomes in ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-treated patients with PBC, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to document the biochemical responses and clinical outcomes of UDCA-treated patients with concomitant SS and to compare the findings to those of patients with PBC alone. Methods:Data from consecutive patients with PBC who visited West China Hospital affiliated with Sichuan University between October 2013 and October 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Results:The study populations consisted of 226 patients with PBC alone and 56 with PBC/SS. The median ages, proportions of female patients, Fib-4 scores, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/platelet ratio index (APRI) at baseline in the two cohorts were similar. At presentation, patients with PBC/SS had higher serum IgG levels and positive rates for serum antinuclear antibody (ANA) than patients with PBC alone (all P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the rate of biochemical response to UDCA at 1 year in the PBC/SS and PBC alone groups. The UK-PBC risk scores and GLOBE scores in UDCA-treated patients in the two cohorts were also similar. During the follow-up period, the differences in the liver enzyme levels, Fib-4 scores, APRI, and incidence of liver-related adverse events were not significant. Conclusions:The results of this retrospective, single-center study suggest that the response and clinical outcomes of UDCA-treated patients with PBC are not adversely affected by concomitant SS.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To compare the response between the current recommended dosage 13-15?mg/kg/d and 20?mg/kg/d dose of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients who do not respond completely to a standard dose of UDCA.<h4>Methods</h4>We included 73 patients with poor response and randomized them into two groups to investigate whether increasing the dosage of UDCA was beneficial to nonresponders. Patients assigned to the 13-15?mg/kg/d group continued with standard therapy, and participants in the 18-22?mg/kg/d group switched to the higher dosage (18-22?mg/kg/d), with a follow-up of 12?months for both groups. The primary endpoints were the rate of response at 6 months and drug side effects.<h4>Results</h4>According to the Paris 2 criteria, patients receiving 18-22?mg/kg/d UDCA achieved a response rate of 59.4% compared with 36.1% in the standard dosage group (<i>P</i>=0.046) at 6 months, respectively. At 12 months, the high-UDCA-dosage group achieved a response rate of 59.4% compared with 47.2% in the standard dosage group (<i>P</i>=0.295), respectively. Additionally, the risk score predicted by the UK-PBC model was lower in high-dosage UDCA-treated patients than in the standard dosage group (all <i>P</i> < 0.05). Side effects include diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, rash, and newly developed high blood pressure, which were mild and tolerated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients treated with the high UDCA dosage showed some advantages over those who continued the standard dosage in terms of biochemical remission and disease progression, indicating that standard therapy with UDCA for 6 months and then another 1 year with high UDCA dosage for nonresponders could be a treatment option before second-line therapy is recommended.
Project description:Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic disease associated with autoimmune phenomena and alterations in both biliary bicarbonate excretion and expression of the bicarbonate carrier AE2. The bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) is currently used in treatment of cholestatic liver diseases and is the treatment of choice in PBC; however, a subset of PBC patients respond poorly to UDCA monotherapy. In these patients, a combination of UDCA and glucocorticoid therapy appears to be beneficial. To address the mechanism of this benefit, we analyzed the effects of UDCA and dexamethasone on AE2 gene expression in human liver cells from hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. The combination of UDCA and dexamethasone, but not UDCA or dexamethasone alone, increased the expression of liver-enriched alternative mRNA isoforms AE2b1 and AE2b2 and enhanced AE2 activity. Similar effects were obtained after replacing UDCA with UDCA conjugates. In in vitro and in vivo reporter assays, we found that a UDCA/dexamethasone combination upregulated human AE2 alternate overlapping promoter sequences from which AE2b1 and AE2b2 are expressed. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that combination UCDA/dexamethasone treatment induced p300-related interactions between HNF1 and glucocorticoid receptor on the AE2 alternate promoter. Our data provide a potential molecular explanation for the beneficial effects of the combination of UDCA and glucocorticoids in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA monotherapy.
Project description:Cholestatic liver diseases result from gradual destruction of bile ducts, accumulation of bile acids and self-perpetuation of the inflammatory process leading to damage to cholangiocytes and hepatocytes. If left untreated, cholestasis will lead to fibrosis, biliary cirrhosis, and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are the two most common chronic cholestatic liver diseases affecting adults, and their etiologies remain puzzling. While treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has significantly improved outcomes and prolonged transplant-free survival for patients with PBC, treatment options for UDCA nonresponders remain limited. Furthermore, there is no available medical therapy for PSC. With recent advances in molecular biochemistry specifically related to bile acid regulation and understanding of immunologic pathways, novel pharmacologic treatments have emerged. In this review, we discuss the standard of care and emphasize the various emerging treatments for PBC and PSC.
Project description:Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestasis liver disease. Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the predominant bile salt efflux system of hepatocytes. BSEP gene has been attached great importance in the susceptibility of PBC and the response rate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment of PBC patients.In this study, TaqMan assay was used to genotype four variants of BSEP, and the Barcelona criteria were used for evaluating the response rate of UDCA treatment.Variant A allele of BSEP rs473351 (dominant model, OR = 2.063; 95% CI, 1.254-3.393; P = 0.004) was highly associated with PBC susceptibility. On the contrary, variant A allele of BSEP rs2287618 (dominant model, OR = 0.617; 95% CI, 0.411-0.928; P = 0.020) provided a protective role and Barcelona evaluation criterion indicated that the frequency of variant allele at BSEP rs2287618 was significantly decreased in UDCA-responsive PBC patients (P = 0.021).These results suggested that BSEP rs473351 was closely associated with the susceptibility of PBC and if people with BSEP rs2287618 were diagnosed as PBC, the UDCA treatment was not satisfactory. Larger studies with mixed ethnicity subjects and stratified by clinical and subclinical characteristics are needed to validate our findings.
Project description:Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is variable. We have previously reported that augmented expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) was correlated with the severity of PBC. This study aimed to determine whether serum LAMP-2 could serve as a predictor of biochemical response to UDCA. The efficiency of serum LAMP-2 to predict biochemical response was assessed after 1 year of UDCA treatment in PBC patients by a retrospective analysis. We found that the basal serum LAMP-2 level was increased in PBC, especially in patients with stage III-IV (p = 0.010) or TBIL > 1 mg/dL (p = 0.014). Baseline serum LAMP-2 was higher in non-responders than that in responders, but the difference was statistically insignificant. However, after UDCA treatment, serum LAMP-2 level decreased prominently in the first 3 months, which was more obvious in responders. Further studies showed that the 35% decline of LAMP-2 after treatment for 3 months could be stated as an indicator of UDCA response with the sensitivity of 62.9% and specificity of 75.0% by Paris criteria. Meanwhile the specificity and sensitivity were identified as 63.5% and 64.1% by Barcelona criteria. Together, a decline in LAMP-2 might help to predict the response to UDCA.
Project description:Getting children to swallow tablets and capsules is a challenge, and factors that influence their ability to swallow include taste, smell and texture. The aim of this study was to explore how well paediatric patients tolerated and accepted the MedCoat(®) in situ coating for tablets and capsules.A nonrandomised intervention study was performed at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. We identified 78 paediatric patients, 43 females and 35 males, who had problems swallowing tablets and capsules and evaluated their abilities with questionnaires. The median age of the patients was nine years old, and the range was two to 17 years old.Swallowing ability and palatability was improved by in situ coating. The results showed that 66 of 77 paediatric patients (86%, 95% confidence interval: 76-93%) were able to take the drugs they had been prescribed after in situ coating. Swallowing improved in 87% of cases, and palatability improved in 85% of cases.A study of 77 paediatric patients with a median age of nine years, and a range of two to 17 years, found that 86% were able to take the tablets and capsules they had been prescribed after they were coated with the MedCoat.
Project description:Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease mostly seen in middle-aged women characterized by progressive nonsuppurative destruction of small bile ducts resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, parenchymal injury and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Despite major breakthroughs in our understanding of PBC, there remains only one FDA-approved agent for treatment: ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to which one-third of patients are unresponsive.Biochemical response to treatment with UDCA is associated with excellent survival rates in PBC patients. However, there is a need for alternative treatments for nonresponders. Results from human epidemiological and genetic studies as well as preclinical studies in PBC animal models have provided a strong impetus for the development of new therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in translational research in PBC focusing on promising therapeutic approaches, namely immune-based targeted therapies and agents targeting the synthesis and circulation of bile acids.We are in a new era for the development of novel therapies for PBC. Data on fibrates, budesonide and obeticholic acid offer encouragement for nonresponders to UDCA.
Project description:In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), biochemical criteria at 1 year are considered surrogates of response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). However, due to the slow natural history of PBC, evaluation at 1 year may be suboptimal to assess the therapeutic response, particularly in early disease.To determine whether evaluation of biochemical criteria at 1 year is a reliable surrogate of UDCA response in early PBC.We analysed the prospectively collected data of 215 patients (untreated = 129; UDCA-treated = 86) with early PBC (normal baseline bilirubin/albumin) and a median follow-up of 8 years (range: 1-29.1). The 1-year attainment rates of the Barcelona, Paris-I, Paris-II and Toronto definitions, and their predictive relevance for a poor outcome (death, transplantation, complications of cirrhosis), were assessed either as a result of UDCA or no treatment. Independent associations with attaining each UDCA response definition were identified by multivariate analysis.Untreated patients displayed 1-year biochemical features compatible with 'treatment response' at rates (Barcelona: 36.4%, Paris-I: 66.7%, Toronto: 59.7%, Paris-II: 40.3%) similar to those obtained under UDCA. Depending on the definition, baseline ALP?3xULN (OR: 4.80-35.90), AST?2xULN (OR: 5.63-9.34) and early histological stage (OR: 3.67-3.87) were the stronger predictors for attaining the criteria. UDCA treatment was associated with attaining Barcelona (OR = 2.16) and Paris-II (OR = 2.84), but not Paris-I, and not Toronto definition when excluding late histological cases. Paris-I criteria were significantly predictive of long-term outcomes (HR = 2.83) in untreated patients.In early PBC, biochemical criteria at 1 year reflect severity of the disease rather than the therapeutic response to UDCA.
Project description:Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune inflammatory liver disease of the interlobular bile ducts that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. Until recently, the only effective treatment was ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). However, up to 40% of PBC patients have an inadequate response to UDCA and may continue to have disease progression. Several models have been developed, including the UK-PBC and GLOBE scores, to assist in identifying patients who may benefit from second-line therapies, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA). The addition of OCA can significantly improve serum alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, which are strong surrogate markers of clinical outcomes in PBC. Other alternatives, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists fenofibrate and bezafibrate, may also improve liver biochemistries in PBC patients with an inadequate response to UDCA, but further study is needed to demonstrate their safety and long-term efficacy. Other novel agents, including those targeting the FXR pathway and PPAR-? agonists, have shown promising results and may alter the therapeutic landscape of PBC in the near future. For now, OCA remains the only approved second-line agent for PBC patients with an inadequate response to UDCA while results of long-term studies of its safety and clinical benefit are awaited.